Albert Schweitzer was an Alsatian polymath. He was a theologian, writer, humanitarian and physician. A Lutheran, Schweitzer challenged both the secular view of Jesus as depicted by the historical-critical method current at this time, as well as the traditional Christian view, his contributions to the interpretation of Pauline Christianity concern the role of Paul's mysticism of "being in Christ" as primary and the doctrine of Justification by Faith as secondary. He received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize for his philosophy of "Reverence for Life", becoming the eighth Frenchman to be awarded that prize, his philosophy was expressed in many ways, but most famously in founding and sustaining the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, in the part of French Equatorial Africa, now Gabon. As a music scholar and organist, he studied the music of German composer Johann Sebastian Bach and influenced the Organ Reform Movement. Schweitzer was born a citizen of the German Empire in the province of Alsace, he became a citizen of France after World War I, since Alsace had become French territory by then.
Schweitzer was born in the son of Louis Schweitzer and Adèle Schillinger. He spent his childhood in the Alsatian village of Gunsbach, where his father, the local Lutheran-Evangelical pastor of the EPCAAL, taught him how to play music; the tiny village became home to the Association Internationale Albert Schweitzer. The medieval parish church of Gunsbach was shared by the Protestant and Catholic congregations, which held their prayers in different areas at different times on Sundays; this compromise arose after the Thirty Years' War. Schweitzer, the pastor's son, grew up in this exceptional environment of religious tolerance, developed the belief that true Christianity should always work towards a unity of faith and purpose. Schweitzer's first language was the Alsatian dialect of German language. At the Mulhouse gymnasium he received his "Abitur" in 1893, he studied organ in Mulhouse from 1885 to 1893 with Eugène Munch, organist at the Protestant cathedral, who inspired Schweitzer with his profound enthusiasm for the music of German composer Richard Wagner.
In 1893, he played for the French organist Charles-Marie Widor, for whom Johann Sebastian Bach's organ music contained a mystic sense of the eternal. Widor impressed, agreed to teach Schweitzer without fee, a great and influential friendship thus began. From 1893 Schweitzer studied Protestant theology at the Kaiser Wilhelm University in Strasbourg. There he received instruction in piano and counterpoint from professor Gustav Jacobsthal, associated with Ernest Munch, the brother of his former teacher, organist of St William church, a passionate admirer of J. S. Bach's music. Schweitzer served his one-year compulsory military service in 1894. Schweitzer saw many operas of Richard Wagner in Strasbourg and in 1896 he managed to afford a visit to the Bayreuth Festival to see Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen and Parsifal, which impressed him. In 1898, he went back to Paris to write a PhD dissertation on The Religious Philosophy of Kant at the Sorbonne, to study in earnest with Widor. Here he met with the elderly Aristide Cavaillé-Coll.
He studied piano at that time with Marie Jaëll. In 1899, Schweitzer spent the summer semester at the University of Berlin and obtained his theology degree in University of Strasbourg, he published his PhD thesis at the University of Tübingen in 1899. In 1905, Schweitzer began his study of medicine at the University of Strasbourg, culminating in the degree of M. D. in 1913. Schweitzer gained prominence as a musical scholar and organist, dedicated to the rescue and study of historic pipe organs. With theological insight, he interpreted the use of pictorial and symbolical representation in J. S. Bach's religious music. In 1899, he astonished Widor by explaining figures and motifs in Bach's Chorale Preludes as painter-like tonal and rhythmic imagery illustrating themes from the words of the hymns on which they were based, they were works of devotional contemplation in which the musical design corresponded to literary ideas, conceived visually. Widor had not grown up with knowledge of the old Lutheran hymns.
The exposition of these ideas, encouraged by Widor and Munch, became Schweitzer's last task, appeared in the masterly study J. S. Bach: Le Musicien-Poète, written in French and published in 1905. There was great demand for a German edition, instead of translating it, he decided to rewrite it; the result was two volumes, which were published in 1908 and translated into English by Ernest Newman in 1911. Ernst Cassirer, a contemporaneous German philosopher, called it "one of the best interpretations" of Bach. During its preparation Schweitzer became a friend of Cosima Wagner resident in Strasbourg, with whom he had many theological and musical conversations, exploring his view of Bach's descriptive music, playing the major Chorale Preludes for her at the Temple Neuf. Schweitzer's interpretative approach influenced the modern understanding of Bach's music, he became a welcome guest at Wahnfried. He corresponded with composer Clara Faisst, who became a good friend, his pamphlet "The Art of Organ Building and Organ Playing in Germany and France" launched the 20th-century Orgelbewegung, which turned away from romantic extremes and rediscovered baroque principles—although this sweeping reform movement in organ building eventua
Schizo Deluxe is the eleventh studio album by Canadian heavy metal band Annihilator, released on November 8, 2005 by AFM Records. All tracks are written except "Pride" by Waters and Dave Padden. Jeff Waters - Guitars, Lead Vocals on "Too Far Gone" Dave Padden - Vocals Tony Chappelle - Drums Sean Brophy, Tony Chappelle and Dan Beehler - Backing vocals on "Maximum Satan", "Warbird", "Like Father, Like Gun" and "Clare" Dan Beehler - Screaming at the end of "Pride" Verena Baumgardt and Kathy Waters - Voices on "Invite It" Altan Zia - Ending voices on "Something Witchy"
The Daytona Beach Road Course was a race track, instrumental in the formation of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, or NASCAR. It became famous as the location where fifteen world land speed records were set; the course started on the pavement of highway A1A. A restaurant named "Racing's North Turn" now stands at that location, it went south 2 miles parallel to the ocean on A1A to the end of the road, where the drivers accessed the beach at the south turn at the Beach Street approach 29.084705°N 80.925566°W / 29.084705. The lap length in early events was 3.2 miles, it was lengthened to 4.2 miles in the late 1940s. In the video game NASCAR Thunder 2004 by EA Sports, the course is shortened to about half its distance, but still shows how the basic course was set up. March 29, 1927 Major Henry Segrave and his Sunbeam 1000 hp Mystery set a world land speed record on the Daytona Beach Road Course, at 203.79 mph, peaking at a top speed of 211 mph. Washington, D. C. resident William France, Sr. was familiar with the history of Daytona.
He moved there in 1935 to escape the Great Depression and he set up a car repair shop. Daytona Beach officials asked local racer Sig Haugdahl to organize and promote an automobile race along the 3.2-mile course in 1936. Haugdahl is credited for designing the track; the city posted a $5,000 purse. The ticket-takers arrived at the event on March 8 to find thousands of fans at the track; the sandy turns became impassable, which caused numerous scoring disputes and technical protests. The event was stopped after 75 of 78 laps. Milt Marion was declared the winner by the AAA. Second place finisher Ben Shaw and third-place finisher Tommy Elmore protested the results, but their appeal was overturned. France finished fifth in the event; the city lost a reported $22,000, has not promoted an event since. Haugdahl talked with France, they talked the Daytona Beach Elks Club into hosting another event in 1937; the event still lost money. Haugdahl didn't promote any more events. France took over the job of running the course in 1938.
There were two events that year. Danny Murphy beat France in the July event, which made $200. France beat Lloyd Moody and Pig Ridings to win the Labor Day weekend event, this time making $20,000. There were three races in 1939 and three races in 1940. France finished fourth in March, first in July, sixth in September. Lloyd Seay finished fourth in the July 1941 event after rolling twice, he returned on August 24 that year to win the event. He was killed by a family member in a dispute over the family moonshine business. Roy Hall won on the course several times. France was busy planning the 1942 event, until the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. France spent World War II working at the Daytona Boat Works. Most racing stopped until after the war. Car racing returned to the track in 1946. France knew. Drivers were victimized by unscrupulous promoters who would leave events with all the money before drivers were paid. On December 14, 1947 France began talks at the Ebony Bar at the Streamline Hotel at Daytona Beach, Florida that ended with the formation of NASCAR on February 21, 1948.
The Daytona Beach Road Course hosted the premiere event of the fledgling series until Darlington Speedway was completed in 1950. NASCAR held a Modified division race at the track on February 15, 1948. Red Byron beat Marshall Teague. NASCAR had several divisions in its early years. 1949 The first NASCAR Strictly Stock Series race was held in 1949 at the Charlotte Speedway. The second race on the series schedule was held at Daytona Beach in July. 28 cars raced, including Curtis Turner, Buck Baker, Bob Flock, Fonty Flock, Marshall Teague, Herb Thomas, second-place finisher Tim Flock. Red Byron won for his fourth win at the track in the decade. Byron went on to win the series’ first championship in his 1949 Oldsmobile. 1950 The Strictly Stock series was renamed the Grand National Series. The race is moved to February, which becomes a tradition still held to this day with the modern Daytona 500. Harold Kite won the race in a 1949 Lincoln, he took the lead on lap 25. Kite led the rest of the way. Byron surged from seventh to finish second.
A second race is added to the 100-mile Modified Stock race, the day before. Gober Sosebee wins. 1951 Marshall Teague glided his 1951 Fabulous Hudson Hornet into victory lane for his first career victory. He beat Tim Flock by 14 seconds. Gober Sosebee wins the Modified Stock race for the second year in a row. 1952 Marshall Teague made it two in a row in his 1952 Hudson. Teague gained the lead on lap two; the race was shortened by two laps because of an incoming tide. Teague won by 21 seconds over Herb Thomas. A day earlier, Tim Flock wins the Modified/Sportsmen race. 1953 Polesitter Bob Pronger and second place starter Fonty Flock had a bet as to who would lead the first lap. They both raced wildly into the north corner. Pronger went too fast into corner, wrecked his car. Flock had over a one-minute lead in the race, but ran out of gas taking the white flag at the start of the final lap. Flock’s teammate pushed his car into the pits. Bill Blair passed to win the race in a 1953 Oldsmobile. Flock finished second by 26 seconds.
136 cars started the 100-mile Modified/Sportsman race that year, making it the largest field in any NASCAR sanctioned event. Cotto