1984 Summer Olympics boycott
The boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles followed four years after the U. S.-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. The boycott involved 14 Eastern Bloc countries and allies, led by the Soviet Union, which initiated the boycott on May 8, 1984. Boycotting countries organized another major event, called the Friendship Games, in July and August 1984. Although the boycott led by the Soviet Union affected a number of Olympic events that were dominated by the absent countries, 140 nations still took part in the games, a record at the time; the USSR announced its intentions to boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics on May 8, 1984, citing security concerns and "chauvinistic sentiments and an anti-Soviet hysteria being whipped up in the United States." A US official said the country had ignored suggestive comments by the Soviets in the weeks building up to the announcement and that, in spite of all the indications, the United States was "absolutely dumbfounded" when the official announcement arrived.
After the announcement, six more nations joined the boycott, including Bulgaria, East Germany and Vietnam, Laos and Czechoslovakia. China formally confirmed that it would be present at the games in Los Angeles, while the Laotians and Czechoslovaks announced their decision to boycott the event. Afghanistan decided to boycott the event, becoming the eighth country to boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics. Hungary and Poland became the ninth and tenth communist countries to join the boycott. Hungary claimed the lives of its athletes would be put in danger if they were to spend time in Los Angeles. On the other hand, Poland said that the United States was engaging in a "campaign aimed at disturbing the Games". On May 24, Cuba became the eleventh country to announce its participation in the boycott, making front-page news in the United States because it was a "serious blow to boxing and baseball". South Yemen was the twelfth country to remove itself from the event. North Korea was the thirteenth nation to boycott the 1984 Olympics.
Ethiopia became the first African state to participate in the boycott, followed by Angola. Iran had earlier decided to boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics because of "United States interference in the Middle East, its support for the regime occupying Jerusalem, the crimes being committed by the U. S. A. in Latin America in El Salvador". Iran and Albania were the only countries to not attend both the 1980 Moscow and the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. Libya boycotted the Olympics after Libyan journalists were refused entry into the United States in July, along with the 1983 ban upon US exports to Libya and a renewal of bans upon travel to Libya by holders of US passports. Libya and Ethiopia were the only nations to boycott both the 1976 Montreal and 1984 Los Angeles Games. In addition, Albania did not attend any games from 1976 to 1988, although there was no official explanation for their absence at the 1976 Montreal Olympics and 1988 Seoul Olympics. Politically, Albania allied with China after the Sino-Soviet split, remaining antagonistic towards the Soviet Union.
A similar antagonism towards both superpowers existed in Iran since 1979. This resulted in Iran and Albania boycotting both the 1980 and 1984 Olympics independently without endorsing the boycott on the opposing side. Jimmy Carter declared that the United States would boycott the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow, with 65 other countries joining the boycott; this was the largest Olympic games boycott ever. In 1984, three months before the start of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, the Soviet Union declared it would "not participate" in the Games; the Soviets cited a number of reasons, namely the commercialization of the games which, in their opinion, went against the principles of the Olympic movement and a claimed lack of security for their athletes. The issue of commercialization did gather some criticism from foreign delegations, who were unfamiliar with this trend in the Olympic movement. However, the IOC declared the Games "a model for future Olympics" due to a surplus of USD 223 million for the hosts and relying on existing venues.
The majority still viewed the boycott as more of a retaliatory move by the Soviets. Most of the world's media interpreted the Soviet boycott as retaliation for the US boycott of the 1980 Moscow Games, in response to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, whereas the Soviet media repeated the government line that the boycott was a safety measure to protect their own athletes. However, no threat to Eastern Bloc athletes was discovered, the athletes from the Eastern Bloc country that did attend the 1984 games in Los Angeles—Romania—encountered no problems, in fact were cheered above all other visiting nations at the Opening Ceremonies when they marched into the Coliseum. Romania ended up finishing third in overall medal count at the Games. Among those subscribing to the "revenge hypothesis" was Peter Ueberroth, the chief organizer of the 1984 L. A. Games, who expressed his views in a press conference after the boycott was announced, on the same day that the Olympic torch relay in the United States began in New York City.
U. S. President Ronald Reagan stated his belief that the Soviets feared some of their athletes might defect; as well, President Reagan and his administration agreed to meet all of the demands of the Soviet Union in turn for the So
Ryszard Ostrowski is a retired Polish middle distance runner who specialized in the 800 metres. He was born in Poznań, represented the club Olimpia Poznań, he won the 800 metres at the 1985 Summer Universiade. In 1984 he tied for the victory, together with Alberto Juantorena, at the Friendship Games, he finished fifth at the 1986 European Championships, fourth at the 1986 Goodwill Games, the 1987 World Championships. At the 1988 Summer Olympics he reached the quarter-finals of the 800 metres, he competed at the 1990 European Championships without reaching the final. He became Polish champion in 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1987, became Polish indoor champion in 1991 and 1994, his personal best time was 1:44.38 minutes, achieved in September 1985 in Kobe. His son, Artur, is a middle distance runner
1972 Summer Olympics
The 1972 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972. The sporting nature of the event was overshadowed by the Munich massacre in the second week, in which eleven Israeli athletes and coaches and a West German police officer at Olympic village were killed by Black September terrorists; the 1972 Summer Olympics were the second Summer Olympics to be held in Germany, after the 1936 Games in Berlin, which had taken place under the Nazi regime. The West German Government had been eager to have the Munich Olympics present a democratic and optimistic Germany to the world, as shown by the Games' official motto, "Die Heiteren Spiele", or "the cheerful Games"; the logo of the Games was a blue solar logo by Otl Aicher, the designer and director of the visual conception commission. The Olympic mascot, the dachshund "Waldi", was the first named Olympic mascot; the Olympic Fanfare was composed by Herbert Rehbein.
The Olympic Park is based on Frei Otto's plans. The competition sites, designed by architect Günther Behnisch, included the Olympic swimming hall, the Olympics Hall and the Olympic Stadium, an Olympic village close to the park; the design of the stadium was considered revolutionary, with sweeping canopies of acrylic glass stabilized by metal ropes, used on such a large scale for the first time. Munich won its Olympic bid on April 26, 1966, at the 64th IOC Session at Rome, over bids presented by Detroit and Montréal. Montréal would host the following Olympic games in 1976; the Games were overshadowed by what has come to be known as the "Munich massacre". Just before dawn on September 5, a group of eight members of the Black September terrorist organization broke into the Olympic Village and took eleven Israeli athletes and officials hostage in their apartments. Two of the hostages who resisted were killed in the first moments of the break-in. Late in the evening of September 5 that same day, the terrorists and their nine remaining hostages were transferred by helicopter to the military airport of Fürstenfeldbruck, ostensibly to board a plane bound for an undetermined Arab country.
The German authorities planned to ambush them there, but underestimated the numbers of their opposition and were thus undermanned. During a botched rescue attempt, all of the Israeli hostages were killed. Four of them were shot incinerated when one of the terrorists detonated a grenade inside the helicopter in which the hostages were sitting; the 5 remaining hostages were machine-gunned to death. All but three of the terrorists were killed as well. Although arrested and imprisoned pending trial, they were released by the West German government on October 29, 1972, in exchange for a hijacked Lufthansa jet. Two of those three were hunted down and assassinated by the Mossad. Jamal Al-Gashey, believed to be the sole survivor, is still living today in hiding in an unspecified African country with his wife and two children; the Olympic events were suspended several hours after the initial attack, but once the incident was concluded, Avery Brundage, the International Olympic Committee president, declared that "the Games must go on".
A memorial ceremony was held in the Olympic stadium, the competitions resumed after a stoppage of 24 hours. The attack prompted heightened security at subsequent Olympics beginning with the 1976 Winter Olympics. Security at Olympics was heightened further beginning with the 2002 Winter Olympics, as they were the first to take place after the 2001 September 11 attacks; the massacre led the German federal government to re-examine its anti-terrorism policies, which at the time were dominated by a pacifist approach adopted after World War II. This led to the creation of the elite counter-terrorist unit GSG 9, similar to the British SAS, it led Israel to launch a campaign known as Operation Wrath of God, in which those suspected of involvement were systematically tracked down and assassinated. The events of the Munich massacre were chronicled in the Oscar-winning documentary, One Day in September. An account of the aftermath is dramatized in three films: the 1976 made-for-TV movie 21 Hours at Munich, the 1986 made-for-TV movie Sword of Gideon and Steven Spielberg's 2005 film Munich.
In her film 1972, Artist Sarah Morris interviews Dr. Georg Sieber, a former police psychiatrist who advised the Olympics' security team, about the events and aftermath of Black September; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Avery Brundage. Mark Spitz set a world record when he won seven gold medals in a single Olympics, bringing his lifetime total to nine. Being Jewish, Spitz was asked to leave Munich before the closing ceremonies for his own protection, after fears arose that he would be an additional target of those responsible for the Munich massacre. Spitz's record stood until 2008, when it was beaten by Michael Phelps who won eight gold medals in the pool. Olga Korbut, a Soviet gymnast, became a media star after winning a gold medal in the team competition event, failing to win in the individual all-around after a fall, winning two gold medals in the Balance Beam and the floor exercise events. In the final of the men's basketball, the United States lost to the Soviet Union in what is widely
Osmany Juantorena Portuondo is a Cuban-born Italian volleyball player, a member of Cuba national volleyball team in 2003–2006 and current member of Italy national volleyball team and Italian club Cucine Lube Civitanova. Juantorena was bronze medalist of the 2005 World League and silver medalist 2016 Summer Olympics, he is a multiple winner of the CEV Champions League and FIVB Club World Championship with the Italian club Trentino Volley. Juantorena is the record owner of the highest number of Most Valuable Player awards at FIVB Club World Championship, with 4 times. Juantorena was born in Santiago de Cuba, he is a nephew of a Cuban former track runner and politician. Osmany Juantorena and his wife Glenda became first time parents on May 3, 2013 with the arrival of their first baby daughter named Victoria. On September 23,2018 with arrival second baby daughter named Angelica, he started his junior career as 12 years old in the Orientales de Santiago. After several years, he moved to his first professional club in the Russian league – Ural Ufa, in the following season he went to the Itas Diatec Trentino.
During his time playing in Italy, he won the gold medal at the CEV Champions League three times with his club and the bronze medal in 2012. He won four gold medals in the FIVB Volleyball Men's Club World Championship. With the club from Trentino, he won two silver and one gold medal of the Italian Championship and two Italian Cups. In May 2010 he played for a short loan in Qatar, he returned to Itas Diatec Trentino in September 2010. In 2012/2013 won Italian Cup and title of Italian Champion. After moving to Halkbank Ankara in 2013, he achieved the Turkish SuperCup 2013 and the title of Turkish champion. In 2014 Halkbank Ankara, including Juantorena, gained again Turkish SuperCup. In April 2015 he announced. Juantorena first stormed the international stage back in 2003 up to 2006 with Cuba. With Cuba he won bronze medals at 2005 FIVB World League. Juantorena joined italy national team 2015 year, but it is with Italy where he is reaping the most success, claiming a European championship bronze and FIVB World Cup silver medalist in 2015.
Juantorena has had a hugely positive impact on Italy’s attacking prowess in 2016 Summer Olympics. Juantorena played in an Olympic game as a member of the powerful Italian team and won silver medal. 2009/2010 – with Itas Diatec Trentino 2010/2011 – with Itas Diatec Trentino 2011/2012 – with Itas Diatec Trentino 2013/2014 – with Halkbank Ankara 2015/2016 – with Cucine Lube Civitanova 2016/2017 – with Cucine Lube Civitanova 2017/2018 – with Cucine Lube Civitanova Qatar 2009 – with Itas Diatec Trentino Qatar 2010 – with Itas Diatec Trentino Qatar 2011 – with Itas Diatec Trentino Qatar 2012 – with Itas Diatec Trentino Poland 2017 – with Cucine Lube Civitanova Poland 2018 – with Cucine Lube Civitanova 2009/2010 Italian Cup Serie A, with Itas Diatec Trentino 2009/2010 Italian Championship, with Itas Diatec Trentino 2010/2011 Italian Championship, with Itas Diatec Trentino 2011/2012 Italian Cup Serie A, with Itas Diatec Trentino 2011/2012 Italian Championship, with Itas Diatec Trentino 2012/2013 Italian Cup Serie A, with Itas DiatescTrentino 2012/2013 Italian Championship, with Itas Diatec Trentino 2013/2014 Turkish SuperCup2013, with Halkbank Ankara 2013/2014 Turkish Championship, with Halkbank Ankara 2014/2015 Turkish SuperCup2014, with Halkbank Ankara 2014/2015 Turkish Cup, with Halkbank Ankara 2014/2015 Turkish Championship, with Halkbank Ankara 2016/2017 Italian Cup, with Cucine Lube Civitanova 2016/2017 Italian Championship, with Cucine Lube Civitanova 2003 Pan American Games 2005 FIVB World League 2015 FIVB World Cup 2015 CEV European Championship 2016 Olympic Games 2005 Russian League – Most Valuable Player 2005 FIVB World League – Best Receiver 2009 FIVB Club World Championship – Best Server 2010 CEV Champions League – Most Valuable Player 2010 FIVB Club World Championship – Best Spiker 2010 FIVB Club World Championship – Most Valuable Player 2011 CEV Champions League – Most Valuable Player 2011 FIVB Club World Championship – Best Spiker 2011 FIVB Club World Championship – Most Valuable Player 2011 Seri A – Best Server 2012 Italian Cup – Most Valuable Player 2012 Emir of Qatar Cup - Most Valuable Player 2012 FIVB Club World Championship – Most Valuable Player 2014 Italian Cup – Most Valuable Player 2014 Turkey League – Most Valuable Player 2015 Emir of Qatar Cup - Most Valuable Player 2015 FIVB World Cup – Best Outside Spiker 2017 FIVB Club World Championship – Most Valuable Player 2018 CEV Champions League – Best Outside Spiker LegaVolley Serie A player profile
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
1976 Summer Olympics
The 1976 Summer Olympics called the Games of the XXI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, the first Olympic Games held in Canada. Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games on May 12, 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, over the bids of Moscow and Los Angeles, it was the first and, so far, only Summer Olympic Games. Calgary and Vancouver hosted the Winter Olympic Games in 1988 and 2010, respectively. Twenty-nine countries African, boycotted the Montreal Games when the International Olympic Committee refused to ban New Zealand, after the New Zealand national rugby union team had toured South Africa earlier in 1976 in defiance of the United Nations' calls for a sporting embargo; the vote occurred on May 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, Netherlands. While Los Angeles and Moscow were viewed as the favourites given that they represented the world's two main powers, many of the smaller countries supported Montreal as an underdog and as a neutral site for the games.
Los Angeles was eliminated after the first round and Montreal won in the second round. Moscow would go on to host Los Angeles the 1984 Summer Olympics. One blank vote was cast in the final round. Toronto had made its third attempt for the Olympics but failed to get the support of the Canadian Olympic Committee, which selected Montreal instead. Robert Bourassa the Premier of Quebec, first asked Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to advise Canada's monarch, Elizabeth II, to attend the opening of the games. However, Bourassa became unsettled about how unpopular the move might be with sovereigntists in the province, annoying Trudeau, who had made arrangements; the leader of the Parti Québécois at the time, René Lévesque, sent his own letter to Buckingham Palace, asking the Queen to refuse her prime minister's request, though she did not oblige Lévesque as he was out of his jurisdiction in offering advice to the Sovereign. In 1976, succumbing to pressure from the Communist Chinese, issued an order barring Taiwan from participating as China in the 1976 Montreal Olympics, although technically it was a matter for the IOC.
His action strained relations with the United States – from President Ford, future President Carter and the press. The Oxford Olympics Study estimates the outturn cost of the Montreal 1976 Summer Olympics at USD 6.1 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 720% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games; the cost overrun for Montreal 1976 is the highest cost overrun on record for any Olympics.
The cost and cost overrun for Montreal 1976 compares with costs of USD 4.6 billion and a cost overrun of 51% for Rio 2016 and USD 15 billion and 76% for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games from 1960 to 2016 is 5.2 billion 2015 US dollars, average cost overrun is 176%. Much of the cost overruns were caused by the Conseil des métiers de la construction union whose leader was André "Dede" Desjardins, who kept the construction site in "anarchic disorder" as part of a shakedown; the French architect Roger Taillibert who designed the Olympic stadium recounted in his 2000 book Notre Cher Stade Olympique that he and Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau tried hard to buy off Desjardins taking him to a lunch at the exclusive Ritz-Carlton hotel in a vain attempt to end the "delays". Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa made some sort of secret deal to buy off Desjardins, which allowed work to proceed. Taillibert wrote in Notre Cher Stade Olympique "If the Olympic Games took place, it was thanks to Dede Desjardins.
What irony!" The opening ceremony of the 1976 Summer Olympic Games was held on Saturday, July 17, 1976, at the Olympic Stadium in Montreal, Quebec in front of an audience of some 73,000 in the stadium, an estimated half billion watching on television. Following an air show by the Canadian Forces Air Command's Snowbirds aerobatic flight demonstration squadron in the sunny skies above the stadium, the ceremony began at 3:00 pm with a trumpet fanfare and the arrival of Elizabeth II, as Queen of Canada; the Queen was accompanied by Michael Morris, Lord Killanin, President of the International Olympic Committee, was greeted to an orchestral rendition of'O Canada', an arrangement that for many years would be used in schools across the country as well as in the daily sign off of TV broadcasts in the country. The queen entered the Royal Box with her consort, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, her son, Prince Andrew, she joined a number of Canadian and Olympic dignitaries, including: Jules Léger, Governor General of Canada, his wife, Gabrielle.
The parade o
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original