Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century.
The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark.
However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Qaasuitsup and it retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it Grœnland
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Grabow is a town in the Ludwigslust-Parchim district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated on the river Elde,7 km southeast of Ludwigslust and it is twinned with Whitstable, in Kent. The name Grabow is of Slavic Polabian origin, grab means hornbeam, names with this root occur often in Mecklenburg. It was only changed as Grabowe and Grabow. Mentions castle Grabow for the first time in a letter from February 23,1186, the city received city law in 1252 from the Count of Dannenberg. On 3 June 1725 the city was destroyed by a great fire, at least since the 18th century there were Jews in the city, who left behind a synagogue and a cemetery. Both of them were damaged during the Kristallnacht, the historical center of Grabow is distinguished by its close core of timber-framed houses of the 18th century. From 1815 to 1918, Grabow was part of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, otto Plath, the father of Sylvia Plath, emigrated from Grabow to America. On 1 January 2016, the former municipality Steesow became part of Grabow
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Sisimiut, formerly Holsteinsborg, is the capital and largest city of the Qeqqata municipality, and the second-largest city in Greenland. It is located in central-western Greenland, on the coast of Davis Strait, although now a place-name, Sisimiut literally means the people at the fox burrows. The population of modern Greenlanders in Sisimiut is a mix of the Inuit and Danish peoples, Sisimiut is the largest business center north of the national capital of Nuuk and is one of the fastest growing cities in Greenland. Fishing is the industry in Sisimiut, although the town has a growing industrial base. KNI and its subsidiary Pilersuisoq, a chain of all-purpose general stores in Greenland, have their base in Sisimiut. Architecturally, Sisimiut is a mix of traditional, single-family houses, Sisimiut is still expanding, with the area north of the port, on the shore of the small Kangerluarsunnguaq Bay reserved for a modern suburb-style housing slated for construction in the 2010s. Several professional and general schools are based in Sisimiut, providing education to the inhabitants of the city, the new Taseralik Culture Center is the second cultural center to be established in Greenland, after Katuaq in Nuuk.
The city has its own bus line, and is the northernmost year-round ice-free port in the country, supply ships head from the commercial port towards smaller settlements in more remote regions of Uummannaq Fjord, Upernavik Archipelago, and as far as Qaanaaq in northern Greenland. The town airport is served by Air Greenland, providing connections to towns on the western coast of Greenland. At that time, the shoreline was up to several meters above the present line. The Saqqaq remained in western Greenland for nearly two millennia, has uncovered the changing settlement pattern, exhibiting transition from the single-family dwellings to tiny villages of several families. The types of dwelling varied from tent rings made of the hides of hunted mammals, to stone hearths, despite recent advances in DNA research based on hair samples from the ancient Saqqaq migrants, the reason for the decline and subsequent disappearance of the culture are not yet known. After several hundred years of no permanent habitation, the wave of migration arrived from Canada.
The first wave of immigrants, known as Dorset I, arrived around 500 BCE, the Inuit of the Thule culture—whose descendants form the majority of the current population—arrived nearly a thousand years ago, with the first arrivals dated to approximately 13th and 14th century. The shoreline was still at a higher altitude than today, with the Sisimiut valley east of the Kangerluarsunnguaq Bay, many artifacts and graves from the several centuries of permanent settlement remain scattered in the region. There are no signs of Norse settlement in the region, at the time of its founding, the Kalaallisut name of the place was Amerlok, after its fjord. The colonists formally established several villages in the region, of only two remain to this day and Sarfannguit. Under the Royal Greenland Trading Department, Holsteinsborg was a center of the trade in reindeer skins, several 18th-century buildings still stand in Sisimiut, among them the 1725 Gammelhuset and the 1775 Bethel-kirken or Blå Kirke, the oldest surviving church in Greenland
Zealand is the largest and most populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,267,659. It is the 96th-largest island in the world by area and the 35th most populous and it is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by five bridges, Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located partly on the shore of Zealand. Other cities on Zealand include Roskilde, Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør, the island is not connected historically to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, which is named after the Dutch province of Zeeland. In Norse mythology as told in the story of Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi and she removed a piece of land and transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area was filled with water and became Mälaren, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun.
Zealand is the most populous Danish island and it is irregularly shaped, and is north of the islands of Lolland, and Møn. The small island of Amager lies immediately east, Copenhagen is mostly on Zealand but extends across northern Amager. A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, and Funen is connected by bridges to the countrys mainland, Jutland. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10, 000+ inhabitants, North Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
East Renfrewshire is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. Until 1975 it formed part of the county of Renfrewshire for local government purposes along with the council areas of Renfrewshire. Although no longer a local authority area, Renfrewshire still remains the registration county, the East Renfrewshire local authority was formed in 1996, as a successor to the Eastwood district, along with Barrhead, which came from Renfrew district. It borders onto the City of Glasgow, East Ayrshire, North Ayrshire, the leader of East Renfrewshire Council is Cllr Jim Fletcher and the Civic Leader is Provost Alastair Carmichael. In January 2008 East Renfrewshire became the first Scottish local authority to create a Facebook page to publicise its services, East Renfrewshire is home to many small to medium businesses. The earliest evidence of activity in the area is traces of an iron-age fort in the Busby area. The villagers however, were predominantly Irish and worked at the mill on the nearby river cart.1700.
Also in the 15th century began the building of Cathcart Castle and it was at this castle Mary Queen of Scots supposedly spent the night before her defeat at the Battle of Langside in May 1568. The Castle was Demolished in 1980 for safety reasons, the area’s around his house were named ‘Williamwood’ after the mansion itself and the lower parts of the lands of ‘Lee’ were adequately renamed ‘Netherlee’. Clarkston, although the busiest of the districts, was the last village to be built. It expanded rapidly when many of the workers of the Giffnock Quarries moved there due to the linking of the two sites by rail in 1866. Around this time the lands towards Glasgow, remained farmlands, dominated by the massive ‘Bogton’s Farm & Dairy’ building owned by John M. Hamilton, dairy farmer and horse enthusiast. The cinema was closed on 21 October 2001 to make way for 30 new 2 bedroom flats, the building of the cinema was in response to the need for entertainment in the area, which had since grown to a population of around 4,000.
The botched landing led to his capture and arrest, the blast killed 20, and injured more than 100, as the blast caught a passing bus and forced the upper-level car park to collapse. A plaque mourning the event can be found at the entrance to the station, together with an anniversary plaque. East Renfrewshire has a legacy in education and in 2007. Marks RC Primary in Barrhead received an outstanding HMIe report with 11 excellents, marks the highest ranked school in Scotland. The second highest ranked school in Scotland is in East Renfrewshire and this was a hugely unpopular local decision and the consultation met with strong local objection
Socialist People's Party (Denmark)
The Socialist Peoples Party is a green and popular socialist political party in Denmark. The SF was founded on 15 February 1959 by Aksel Larsen, Larsen was removed from the ranks of the DKP for his criticism over the Soviet intervention in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Larsen and the new SF sought to form a way between Denmarks United States-oriented social democracy and Soviet Union–oriented communism, which sought to combine democracy with socialism. He was joined by a share of the members of the DKP. They all supported the idea of independence from the Soviet Union, in the 1960 elections the party entered the Folketing with eleven seats. The DKP lost all of its six seats, in the 1964 elections the party lost one seat. During the 1960s the SF became involved in the peace movement and it sought to walk on two legs, by combining its parliamentary work with involvement in grass roots movements. In the 1966 elections the Social Democrats and the SF won a majority in parliament. A Social Democrat minority government was formed, which was supported by the SF, the cooperation lasted only one year, but lead to considerable conflict within the SF, in 1967 the Left Socialists broke away from the SF.
In the subsequent 1968 elections the SF lost nine seats and the VS entered parliament with four, in 1969 the party chairperson Larsen stood down, he was replaced by Sigurd Ømann. In the 1971 elections the party regained ground on the VS, gaining six seats, in 1972 the party led the referendum campaign against Denmarks entry into the European Economic Community. The Danish voters voted in favour of the European by a narrow margin, because of its opposition to the EEC however boosted the SFs membership and support. In the subsequent 1973 landslide elections, the SF lost six seats, in 1974 Ømann stood down as party chairperson in favour of Gert Petersen. In the 1975 elections the SF lost two seats and the VS re-entered the Folketing as well, in 1977 the party reached an all-time low with only seven seats. During the 1970s the SF began to change its program and electoral appeal, where it had been a male-domined workers party it became broader left-wing political party that was oriented towards new voters and new social movements.
It became more focused on the environment and gender politics, in 1979 the party won four seats as the DKP lost its six seats. In the 1981 elections the party almost doubled from eleven to twenty-one, in the 1984 elections it remained stable. In the 1986 referendum on the Single European Act the SF campaigned together with the Social Democrats, the SEA was adopted by a narrow margin
FDB is a cooperative based in Denmark. In 2011, the coop had over 1.6 million members out of a Danish population of 5.5 million,1.1 million of whom used active accounts and 3,400 of whom were involved in the decision making. In 1897, it began forming its own factories and brands, in 1918, it helped form the NAF which became Coop Norden AB. In 1952, it opened the first viable supermarket in the Faroes at Thorshavn, FDB originally focused on manufacturing and wholesaling, branding its retail operations simply Brugsen. In 1961, it opened the Kvickly chain in Aalborg, which sold clothes and it merged with the large HB supermarket chain in 1971 and opened the discount OBS. chain in 1972 at Høje Tåstrup. By the 1980s, the company began shuttering its factories and focusing more on retail operations and it purchased Irma in 1982 and Fakta in 1987. Between 1991 and 1995, it rebranded its own stores as the SuperBrugsen supermarkets, the DagliBrugsen local markets, and the LokalBrugsen convenience stores.
All of these outlets were placed under Coop Denmark in 2001 in preparation for the 2002 union of its operations with those of Norways NKL, FDB held a 38% stake in the new unitary company, but its poor performance caused the parent companies to redivide its operations by 2008. FDB continued to organize its retailers under the Coop Denmark heading, FDB wholly owns Severin Kursuscenter A/S, a training center, and FDB Ejendomme A/S, its real estate management company. Through two separate holding companies, it wholly owns Republica A/S and Coop Danmark A/S, Coop Danmark A/S is Denmarks largest supermarket conglomerate, with DKK39.6 billion in revenue and DKK520 million in profit during fiscal 2011. Its operating divisions are SuperBrugsen and DagliBrugsen and LokalBrugsen, the company is beginning to open convenience stores under the brand C. Its wholly owned subsidiaries are Fakta A/S and Irma A/S and it has a one-third stake in Coop Trading A/S. Republica A/S is a company focused on retail sales.
It has been affected by the economy, but posted a before-tax profit of DKK5.4 million in 2011 owing to relocation of production to Bangladesh. Severin Kursuscenter A/S is a training center first built in 1932 and it posted pre-tax earnings of DKK2.2 million in 2011. FDB Ejendomme A/S was established as a company in 2011. Its earnings were DKK32.6 million in 2011, list of cooperatives FDB, official website
Danish People's Party
The Danish Peoples Party is a political party in Denmark which is generally described as right-wing populist by academics and far-right by international media. It has described in academia and the media as a nativist. The party was founded in 1995 by Pia Kjærsgaard, who led the party until 2012, the DPP lent its support to the Liberal-Conservative government from the general election of 2001 until the 2011 election defeat. In comparison to its predecessor, the Progress Party, the DPP focus more on immigration, while overall considered part of the radical right, its policies on most economic issues would rather place the party in the centre to centre-left. The partys current leader, Kristian Thulesen Dahl, once declared DPP an anti-Muslim party, in 2014 the party won the European Parliament election in Denmark by a wide margin, securing 27% of the vote. After the election, it joined the European Conservatives and Reformists group alongside parties such as the United Kingdoms Conservative Party and Polands Law and Justice.
The Danish Peoples Party was founded on 6 October 1995, after Pia Kjærsgaard, Kristian Thulesen Dahl, Poul Nødgaard and its first national convention was held in Vissenbjerg on 1 June 1996, where Pia Kjærsgaard was unanimously elected as the partys chairman. The party was established in protest over the conditions of the Progress Party. It was initially seen by many as a clone of the Progress Party, the party saw a highly centralized party leadership as necessary, as it would not tolerate internal conflicts and disagreements with the official strategy. In 1997, the party won about 7% in the municipal elections, by 1998, the party had 2,500 registered members. The party made its debut in the 1998 Danish parliamentary election. The party was, left no influence in the formation of a government. In the 2001 election, the party won 12% of the vote and 22 seats in parliament and it became the third largest party in the parliament, giving them a key position, as they would have a parliamentary majority together with the Conservative Peoples Party and Venstre.
DPP was favoured by these parties, as it had supported the Venstre candidate for Prime Minister, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, during the election campaign. The party had a key role in writing the rules and conditions for immigration in the law that was established by the government in May 2002. In the 2005 election the party increased their vote. By young first-time voters the party showed even more popular, receiving one fifth of their votes, the party continued to support the government, and developed a broader policy base, as it made welfare policies its core issue, together with immigration policies. In 2006, the popularity rose dramatically in opinion polls following the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy
Whitstable is a seaside town on the north coast of Kent in south-east England,8 kilometres north of Canterbury and 3 kilometres west of Herne Bay. It has a population of about 32,000, Whitstable was famous for its Native Oysters which were collected from beds beyond the low water mark from Roman times until the mid-20th century. This is celebrated at the annual Whitstable Oyster Festival, in 1830, one of the earliest passenger railway services was opened by the Canterbury and Whitstable Railway Company. In 1832, the built an harbour and extended the line to handle coal. The railway has since closed but the harbour still plays an important role in the towns economy, archaeological finds indicate that the Whitstable area was inhabited during the Palaeolithic era, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Oysters were harvested in the area in Roman times, the remains of a Roman building have been found in the centre of the town. Charters indicate that there were Saxon settlements where salt production and coastal trade occurred, the town was first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, under the name Witenestaple, meaning the meeting place of the white post, which referred to a local landmark.
At that time, Witenestaple was the center of the hundred of Witenestaple which stretched from the coast to the village of Blean,3 kilometres north of Canterbury. In addition to Witenestaple, the hundred contained three manors at Seasalter and Swalecliffe, the Seasalter and Swalecliffe manors were owned by the church, and the manor at Northwood was run by a noble family on behalf of the king. Fisheries were located at the Seasalter manor, saltworks were at the Northwood manor, by 1226, the name of the area had evolved into Whitstaple. Saltworks were opened at the Seasalter manor around the turn of the 14th century, by 1413, the three manors had combined to form the Whitstaple manor, and had been sold to a religious foundation in Essex. The manor was seized by King Henry VIII during the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century, and was given to the Minter family. A Royal Patent was granted in 1574 to the owner for the fishing of its oyster beds, and in the same year. A copperas works was established at Tankerton in 1588, which operated until about 1830, by 1610, the name Whitstaple had become Whitstable.
Around the mid-18th century and passengers began to be transported by ship between London and Whitstable, and a road was built to the cathedral city of Canterbury. These improvements in transport led to the development as a seaside resort. Whelks suspended in net bags in the well could live for a due to circulating fresh water. On 3 May 1830, the worlds first steam-hauled passenger and freight service was opened by the Canterbury