North Bergen, New Jersey
North Bergen is a township in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township had a total population of 60,773, reflecting an increase of 2,681 from the 58,092 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 9,678 from the 48,414 counted in the 1990 Census; the town was founded in 1843. It was much diminished in territory by a series of secessions. Situated on the Hudson Palisades, it is one of the "hilliest" municipalities in the United States. Like neighboring North Hudson communities, North Bergen is among those places in the nation with the highest population density and a majority Hispanic population. At the time of European colonization the area was the territory of Hackensack tribe of the Lenape Native Americans, who maintained a settlement, Espatingh, on the west side of the hills, and where a Dutch trading post was established after the Peach Tree War. In 1658, Peter Stuyvesant Director-General of New Netherland, repurchased from them the area now encompassed by the municipalities of Hudson County east of the Hackensack River.
In 1660 he granted permission to establish the semi-autonomous colony of Bergen, with the main village located at today's Bergen Square, considered to be the first chartered municipality in what would become the state of New Jersey. At the time, the area of North Bergen was forested, traversed by paths used by the indigenous and colonizing population and became known as Bergen Woods, a name recalled in today's neighborhood of Bergenwood. After the 1664 surrender of Fort Amsterdam the entire New Netherland colony came into the possession of the British, who established the Province of New Jersey. In 1682, the East Jersey legislature formed the state's first four counties, including Bergen County, which consisted of all the land in the peninsula between the Hackensack and Hudson Rivers. In 1693, Bergen County was divided into two townships: Hackensack Township in the north, Bergen Township, encompassing the Bergen Neck peninsula, in the south; the border between the two townships is the current Hudson-Bergen county line.
While settlement was sparse, communities developed along the Bergen Turnpike at the Three Pigeons and Maisland New Durham. French botanist André Michaux developed his gardens nearby. On the Hudson River, Bulls Ferry became an important landing for crossings to Manhattan. While ostensibly under British control during the American Revolutionary War, the area was patrolled by the Americans on foraging and raiding expeditions. On February 22, 1838, Jersey City was incorporated as a separate municipality, in 1840 Hudson County, comprising the city and Bergen Township, was created from the southern portion of Bergen County. North Bergen was incorporated as a township on April 10, 1843, by an act of the New Jersey Legislature, from the northern portion of Bergen Township. At the time, the town included everything east of the Hackensack River and north of and including what is now Jersey City Heights; the entire region, now known as North Hudson experienced massive immigration and urbanization during the latter half of the 19th century, led to the creation of various new towns.
Portions of the North Bergen were taken to form Hoboken Township, Hudson Town, Hudson City, Weehawken, Union Township and West Hoboken Township, Union Hill town and Secaucus. During this era many of Hudson County's cemeteries were developed along the town's western slope of the Hudson Palisades. At their foot in the Meadowlands, the Erie, the New York and Western and the West Shore railroads ran right-of-ways to their terminals on the Hudson, the last building its tunnel through Bergen Hill at North Bergen; the area was important destination during peak German immigration to the United States and is recalled today in Schuetzen Park, founded in 1874. Further north, Nungesser's Guttenberg Racetrack became a notable and notorious destination which, after its closing, became a proving ground for new technologies: the automobile and the airplane; the development of Hudson County Boulevard, which skirts around the west and east of North Bergen, was completed in the early 20th century. By 1913 it was considered to be fine for "motoring".
The roadway is now known by its two sections: Boulevard East. Residential districts along and between the two boulevards were developed. Bergenline Avenue, a broad street which accommodated the North Hudson County Railway streetcars to Nungesser's became an important commercial and transit corridor; the two boulevard sections met at Bergenline Avenue, at the northwest corner of North Hudson/Braddock Park. Soon after the opening of the Lincoln Tunnel Approach, the Susquehanna Transfer was opened in August 1939 to accommodate passengers who wished to transfer to buses through the tunnel, it closed in 1966. At the time of its construction in 1949, the 760-foot WOR TV Tower, in the midst the residential Woodcliff Section, was the tenth-tallest man-made structure in the world; the tower was dismantled in 1956 but in 1967, about half a mile to the east, the 34-story, 369-feet Stonehenge apartment building was constructed on the tip of the Palisades. In the early 1960s two notable paleontological finds of fossils from the Newark Basin were made near the foot of the cliffs at one of several former quarries, the
Brian P. Stack
Brian P. Stack is an American Democratic Party politician who serves in the New Jersey Senate, where he represents the 33rd Legislative District and has served as the Mayor of Union City, New Jersey since 2000. Prior to his election to the Senate, he served in the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature, the General Assembly from 2004 to 2008, he is considered by PolitickerNJ to be one of the most powerful elected officials in Hudson County, New Jersey. In 2012 The Hudson Reporter named him #2 in its list of Hudson County's 50 most influential people, behind North Bergen mayor Nicholas Sacco. In 2013, he and Sacco were tied at #3, in 2015 he was ranked #7. Brian P. Stack was born May 16, 1966, in Jersey City, New Jersey to Edward J. Stack, a PATH train conductor, Margaret Stack, a building superintendent, he and his brother, Edward V. Stack, are of Irish descent. At a young age the Stack family moved to Union City, living in an apartment building at 518 9th Street, on the city's east side, they subsequently moved to 713 Palisade Avenue, where for over twenty years Margaret worked as the superintendent of that building and the other adjoining buildings.
They moved to 1104 Palisade Avenue, which remained their residence until Edward and Margaret's deaths in 2003 and 2015, respectively. Stack credits his involvement in politics to his parents, who took him to political rallies in Union City; the Stacks were active in their community, as their apartment was a hospitable place, likened to "a stop for tenants and neighborhood people seeking assistance or advice." It was with his parents that Stack first began to participate in the practice of providing turkeys and holiday gifts to the needy, a practice that Stack would institute as Mayor As Stack explained to a reporter when he was 19, "I remember when I was about 6 or 7 years old being at the Doric Temple polling place on election day just sitting and listening to the local politicians. I would say I dedicated my high school years to politics when I guess I should have been more into school activities. My classmates would call me'mayor', but I always believed. We are the future."Stack graduated from Emerson High School.
He attended Jersey City State College, graduating with an M. A. in criminal justice. Stack began volunteering on campaigns for William Musto as a young boy, was present at age 16 at Musto's sentencing for racketeering and fraud. Musto's conviction shocked many in the community, and Stack and his family corresponded with Musto. Stack would honor Musto by naming the William V. Musto Cultural Center on 15th Street after his former mentor. Stack continued his involvement in politics through his criticism of the administration of Mayor Arthur Wichert. Stack served as an aide in the 33rd Legislative District office from 1983 to 1984 and from 1986 to 1988, he became a tenant advocate in 1985. In Union City, he served as an administrative assistant to the Commissioner of Parks and Public Property from 1986 to 1990, as Deputy Director of Public Affairs from 1995 to 1996. In 1996 Stack and his wife, established the Brian P. Stack Civic Association, through which they aided residents with issues such as housing and immigration.
Stack became leader of a civic organization called Union City First, for his public criticism of the administration of Mayor Rudy Garcia. Stack served as a Commissioner from 1997 to 1998, was appointed to replace Garcia as mayor in October 2000, after Garcia resigned in the face of Stack's call for a recall election. Stack was elected unopposed to the Board of Commissioners in a special election in November 2001 and in May 2002 he and his ticket for the city's Board of Commissioners all ran unopposed. Stack won the 7th District seat on the Hudson County Board of Chosen Freeholders, where he served from 2000 until his swearing into the Assembly in 2004. Stack relinquished his Freeholder position when he was sworn into the New Jersey State Assembly on January 13, 2004. Stack was reelected in 2005 and served in the Assembly until 2007. Stack was reelected Mayor on May 9, 2006, winning 9,058 votes, 85% of the vote, compared to the 1,647 votes won by his opponent, Little Ferry Superintendent of Schools Frank Scarafile.
In 2007, Stack ran for the New Jersey Senate in the primary election for the Senate seat held by retiring State Senator Bernard Kenny, with a team of eight other 33rd District Assembly candidates vying for nine legislative seats, under the banner Democrats for Hudson County. Their main opposition was the Hudson County Democratic Organization, headed by West New York Mayor and then-33rd Legislative District Assembly member Silverio Vega. On June 5, 2007, Stack won the primary, beating his opponents by a wide margin of 18,213 votes to Vega's 5,582, though only three of the candidates in Stack's column, including himself, were victorious. Stack and running mates Ruben Ramos and Caridad Rodriguez subsequently swept the state Senate and state Assembly in the November 6, 2007 general election, he has served in the Senate since January 8, 2008. Stack was reelected on November 8, 2011, garnering 18,244 votes over opponent Beth Hamburger's 2,815 votes. Stack represents the 33rd District, one of the 40 districts in the New Jersey Legislature, each of which has one representative in the New Jersey Senate and two members in the New Jersey General Assembly.
The other representatives serving in the legislature alongside Stack from the 33rd District for the 2012-2013 Legislative Session are Assemblyman Ruben J. Ramos and Assemblyman Sean Connors. Stack holds a seat in the New Jersey Senate and as Mayor; this dual position
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
Middlebury College is a private liberal arts college in Middlebury, Vermont. It was founded in 1800 by Congregationalists, making it the first operating college or university in Vermont; the college enrolls 2,526 undergraduates from all 50 states and 74 countries and offers 44 majors in the arts, literature, foreign languages, social sciences, natural sciences. The college is the first American institution of higher education to have granted a bachelor's degree to an African-American, graduating Alexander Twilight in the class of 1823. Middlebury was one of the first all-male liberal arts colleges in New England to become a coeducational institution, following the trustees' decision in 1883 to accept women. In 1886, May Belle Chellis was the first woman to graduate, she was the valedictorian. Middlebury was listed as tied for the fifth-best liberal arts college in the U. S. in the 2019 U. S. News & World Report rankings. Middlebury's 31 varsity teams are known as the Middlebury Panthers and compete in the NCAA Division III's NESCAC conference.
The school is known for its graduate programs that focus on literature, political science, entrepreneurship. Middlebury received its founding charter on November 1, 1800, as an outgrowth of the Addison County Grammar School, founded three years earlier in 1797; the College's first president—Jeremiah Atwater—began classes a few days making Middlebury the first operating college or university in Vermont. One student named Aaron Petty graduated at the first commencement held in August 1802; the College's founding religious affiliation was loosely Congregationalist. Yet the idea for a college was that of town fathers rather than clergymen, Middlebury was "the Town's College" rather than the Church's. Chief among its founders were Seth Storrs and Gamaliel Painter, the former credited with the idea for a college and the latter as its greatest early benefactor. In addition to receiving a diploma upon graduation, Middlebury graduates receive a replica of Gamaliel Painter's cane. Painter bequeathed his original cane to the College and it is carried by the College President at official occasions including first-year convocation and graduation.
Alexander Twilight, class of 1823, was the first black graduate of any college or university in the United States. At its second commencement in 1804, Middlebury granted Lemuel Haynes an honorary master's degree, the first advanced degree bestowed upon an African American. In 1883, the trustees voted to accept women as students in the college, making Middlebury one of the first all-male liberal arts colleges in New England to become a coeducational institution; the first female graduate—May Belle Chellis—received her degree in 1886. As valedictorian of the class of 1899, Mary Annette Anderson became the first African-American woman elected to Phi Beta Kappa; the College's centennial in 1900 began a century of physical expansion beyond the three buildings of Old Stone Row. York and Sawyer designed the Egbert Starr Library, a Beaux-Arts edifice expanded and renamed the Axinn Center, Warner Hall. Growth in enrollment and the endowment led to continued expansion westward. McCullough Hall and Voter Hall featured gymnasium and laboratories adopting Georgian Revival styling while confirming the campus standard of grey Vermont limestone and marble.
The national fraternity Kappa Delta Rho was founded in Painter Hall on May 17, 1905. Middlebury College abolished fraternities in the early 1990s, but the organization continued on campus in the less ritualized form of a social house. Due to a policy at the school against single-sex organizations, the house was forced to coeducate during the same period as well; the German Language School, founded in 1915 under the supervision of then-President John Martin Thomas, began the tradition of the Middlebury College Language Schools. These Schools, which take place on the Middlebury campus during the summer, enroll about 1,350 students in the Arabic, French, Hebrew, Japanese, Portuguese and Spanish Language Schools. Middlebury President Paul Dwight Moody began the American tradition of a National Christmas Tree in 1923 when the College donated a 48-foot balsam fir for use at the White House; the tree was illuminated when Calvin Coolidge, a Vermont native in the first year of his presidency, flipped an electric switch.
The Bread Loaf School of English, Middlebury's graduate school of English, was established at the College's Bread Loaf Mountain campus in 1920. The Bread Loaf Writers' Conference was established in 1926. In 1978, the Bread Loaf School of English expanded to include a campus at Lincoln College, Oxford University. In 1991, the School expanded to include a campus at St. John's College in New Mexico, to the University of North Carolina, Asheville, in 2006; the C. V. Starr-Middlebury Schools Abroad began in 1949 with the school in Paris; the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies was founded as an educational charity in 1975 by Drs John and Sandy Feneley in Oxford, establishing a facility at St. Michael's Hall in 1978, including the Feneley Library, close links with Keble College, Oxford. S. undergraduates Middlebury Museum Studies in Oxford. In
Memorial High School (West New York, New Jersey)
Memorial High School is a four-year comprehensive public high school located in West New York, in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States, serving students in ninth through twelfth grades. The school is the lone secondary school of the West New York School District, an Abbott district that serves all of West New York; the school has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools since 1970. As of the 2015-16 school year, the school had an enrollment of 1,923 students and 143.5 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 13.4:1. There were 1,360 students eligible for 147 eligible for reduced-cost lunch. In 2005, the New Jersey Schools Development Authority determined that the Memorial High School building was equipped to hold 918 students, making the school 882 students over capacity. In January 2012, the NJSDA forwarded the West New York Board of Education's application for the purchase of St. Joseph of the Palisades Elementary School to Vatican City, with which West New York hopes to turn into a "freshman/sophomore academy" to house between 700 and 800 of the high school's students.
Upon the anticipated papal approval of the purchase of the school, which belongs to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark, the SDA will make a final decision on development plans. In March 2012, the portion of 56th Street in front of the school was dedicated as Rebeka Verea Way, in tribute to Rebeka Verea, who died in a car accident in North Bergen the night of her graduation in 2005. Though she graduated from Cliffside Park High School, her father runs a medical practice based in West New York, is the chief medical officer at North Hudson Community Action Corporation, based in West New York. In 2011, the College Board recognized Memorial High School as the 2011 winner of its "AP District of the Year Award" in the small schools category, in recognition of the district's efforts to expand the scope of Advanced Placement courses offered in the school and the improved results of those taking AP exams, with the school offering about 10 different AP courses after it started its first AP class in the 1980s.
The school was the 280th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 339 schools statewide in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2014 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", using a new ranking methodology. The school had been ranked 307th in the state of 328 schools in 2012, after being ranked 273rd in 2010 out of 322 schools listed; the magazine ranked the school 282nd in 2008 out of 316 schools. The school was ranked 261st in the magazine's September 2006 issue, which surveyed 316 schools across the state. Schooldigger.com ranked the school 204th out of 376 public high schools statewide in its 2010 rankings which were based on the combined percentage of students classified as proficient or above proficient on the language arts literacy and mathematics components of the High School Proficiency Assessment. The Memorial High School Tigers compete in the Hudson County Interscholastic League, which includes private and parochial high schools in Hudson County, following a reorganization of sports leagues in Northern New Jersey by the New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association.
With 1,478 students in grades 10-12, the school was classified by the NJSIAA for the 2015-16 school year as North I, Group IV for most athletic competition purposes, which included schools with an enrollment of 1,090 to 2,568 students in that grade range. The boys' basketball team won the Group IV state championship in 1939 and 1942, won the Group III title in 1966. In 2002, the team won the North I Group IV state title, defeating Hackensack High School 65-62; the boys' track team won the Group III indoor relay state championship in 1974. The boys' baseball team won the Group IV state title in 1988 against Madison Central High School in the title game. In 2001, the team made it to the finals of the North I Group IV state tournament, falling to rival North Bergen High School 4-3 in the final game. Clubs and extracurricular program include: Drama Club National Honors Society M. O. M. S. School Band School Chorus Student Council Together In Greatness Scott Wohlrab – Principal Warren Boroson, financial journalist and playwright.
Vincent J. Dellay, represented New Jersey's 14th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1957 to 1959. John Mahnken, former professional basketball player. April Jeanette Mendez, retired professional wrestler who worked for WWE under the ring name AJ Lee. Gene Prebola, football player. Albio Sires, Member of the United States House of Representatives from New Jersey's 13th congressional district. Silverio Vega, former Mayor of West New York, who earlier served in the New Jersey General Assembly and on the Hudson County Board of Chosen Freeholders. Armando Vilaseca, Commissioner of the Vermont Department of Education. Jacqueline Walker, politician who served in the New Jersey General Assembly from 1984 to 1986. Memorial High School West New York School District West New York School District's 2015–16 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education School Data for the West New York School District, National Center for Education Statistics
A dual mandate is the practice in which elected officials serve in more than one elected or other public position simultaneously. This practice is sometimes known as cumul des mandats in France. Thus, if someone, mayor of a town or city councillor becomes elected as MP or senator at the national or state legislature and retains both positions, this is a dual mandate. Dual mandates are sometimes prohibited by law. For example, in federal states, federal office holders are not permitted to hold state office. In states with a presidential system of government, membership of the executive, the legislature, or the judiciary disqualifies a person from holding office in either of the other two bodies. In states with bicameral legislatures, one cannot be a member of both houses; the holder of one office who wins election or appointment to another where a dual mandate is prohibited must either resign the former office or refuse the new one. A member of the European Parliament may not be a member of the legislature of a member state.
This dates from a 2002 European Union decision, which came into effect at the 2004 European elections in most member states, at the 2007 national election in the Republic of Ireland, at the 2009 European elections in the United Kingdom. MEPs were nominated by national parliamentarians from among their own membership. Prior to the first direct elections in 1979, the dual mandate was discussed; some advocated banning it, arguing that MEPs who were national MPs were absent from one assembly in order to attend the other. Others claimed that members with a dual mandate enhanced communication between national and European assemblies. There was a particular interest in the dual mandate question in Denmark: Eurosceptic Danish Social Democrats supported a compulsory dual mandate, to ensure that the state's MEPs expressed the same views as the national legislature, the government of Denmark supported a compulsory dual mandate when the other eight member states supported an optional dual mandate. However, a 1976 European Parliament law preparing for the 1979 elections expressly permitted a dual mandate.
In 1978 the German politician Willy Brandt suggested. Dual mandates are rare in Australia, it is illegal to be a member of the Australian parliament simultaneously. A member of a state parliament seeking federal office must resign before seeking election to the Federal Parliament, it is unusual to be a member of a local government and another parliament. In 2004 Clover Moore became the independent member for Sydney in the NSW Parliament without resigning as Lord Mayor of Sydney; the issue of Moore holding both positions had brought the issue to the forefront in Australia and led the premier of New South Wales in 2012 to propose a new law, dubbed in the media as the "Get Clover bill", which banned this dual mandate. The proposed law was adopted and in September 2012 Moore resigned her NSW seat soon after she was reelected as mayor; as in neighboring France, the culture of dual mandates is strong in Belgium and that country has one of the highest percentage of dual mandate holders in the world. During the 2003–2009 period, 87.3% of members of the Walloon Parliament held dual mandates, followed by 86,5% in the Flemish Parliament, 82,0% in the Chamber of Representatives and 68.9% in the Senate.
During that same period, 76.5% of all European Parliament MPs from Belgium held dual mandates. More than one fifth of all Belgian MPs were mayor at the same time with, by far, by the highest proportion to be found in the Walloon Parliament. In Canada dual mandates are rare and are barred by legislation at the federal, provincial, or territorial level. At the federal level, section 39 of the Constitution Act, 1867 prevents a Senator from being elected as a Member of Parliament. At the provincial level, the situation varies from one province to another. In other circumstances, an elected official always resigns their first post when elected to another. Dual representation has occurred when the member was elected to a second office shortly before their other term of office was due to expire anyway and whereby the short time frame would not merit the cost of a special by-election. In 1996, for example, Jenny Kwan continued to be a Vancouver city councillor after being elected to the provincial legislature.
The British Columbia legislature had debated a "Dual Office Prohibition Act" which failed to pass second reading. In the first few years after Confederation in 1867, double mandates were common. In the first House of Commons, there were fifteen Members of Parliament from Quebec who held seats in the National Assembly of Quebec, including the Premier Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau. There were four members of Parliament from Ontario who held seats in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, including the first two Premiers, John Sandfield Macdonald and Edward Blake. Other prominent federal politicians with double mandates included George-Étienne Cartier, Christopher Dunkin, Hector Langevin, the second Premier of British Columbia Amor de Cosmos, two members from
Richard James Codey is an American Democratic Party politician who served as the 53rd Governor of New Jersey from 2004 to 2006. He has served in the New Jersey Senate since 1982 and served as the President of the Senate from 2002 to 2010, he represents the 27th Legislative District, which covers the western portions of Essex County and the southeastern portion of Morris County. Codey is the longest-serving state legislator in New Jersey history, having served in the New Jersey Legislature continuously since January 8, 1974. Codey grew up in his family's funeral home in Orange, he attended Our Lady of the Valley High School and transferred to Orange High School, neither of them before switching to Oratory Preparatory School in Summit, from which he graduated. He went on to take over his father's job as a licensed funeral director; when his father, became the county coroner, Richard was drafted to help with death scene pickups. Codey remembered, "I was 14. You grow up quick." Codey has described himself as "100% Irish".
Codey left the funeral trade to try his hand in politics in 1973 when he was first elected to the State Assembly, with Eldridge Hawkins as his running mate. He served in the Assembly from 1974 to 1982. In 1981 he earned a bachelor's degree in education from Fairleigh Dickinson University. Codey was elected to the State Senate that same year and has since risen through the ranks to become Senate President, he first ascended to that post in 2002 to 2010. He serves in the Senate on the Legislative Services Commission, he has a hockey arena named in his honor known as South Mountain Arena in West Orange, New Jersey. Following Governor Christine Todd Whitman's resignation in 2001 to become head of the EPA, Codey was one of three different senate presidents to serve as acting governor for the one-year period between Whitman's resignation and Jim McGreevey's inauguration in January 2002. DiFrancesco served as acting governor for all but the last week of this period, until his term as senate president ended.
As attorney general, Farmer served as acting governor for ninety minutes, until the election of Bennett and Codey as co-presidents of the senate. The latter two divided the last week of the term between them, with Codey serving for three days, from January 12, 2002, to January 15, 2002, leading to a situation in which the state had five different people serving as governor during a period of eight days. Codey became acting governor again with the resignation of Jim McGreevey on November 15, 2004. According to the New Jersey State Constitution at the time, in the event of a vacancy in the governor's office, the President of the State Senate takes on the additional position of acting governor until the next gubernatorial election. After taking over in 2004 Codey became popular with many New Jersey residents and considered a run for a full four-year term. However, U. S. Senator Jon Corzine's large number of endorsements as well as his large campaign war chest, funded by his great personal wealth, convinced Codey to announce on January 31, 2005 that he would step aside.
Codey served as governor until Corzine was sworn in on January 17, 2006 following Corzine's victory in the November 8, 2005 elections. Some had speculated that Codey could be a possible candidate for Corzine's vacant seat in the United States Senate, with Corzine appointing his own successor once he was sworn in as governor. However, Codey announced on November 2005 that he was not interested in the Senate seat. With the passage on November 8, 2005, of a constitutional amendment creating the position of lieutenant governor, Codey became the last person to serve as governor and senate president. On January 9, 2006, Codey became governor as a result of his signing legislation that provided that a person who serves as acting governor for a continuous period of at least 180 days will be "Governor of the State of New Jersey" for official and historical purposes; this law was made retroactive to 2001, covering both Codey's service after McGreevey's resignation and the service of Donald DiFrancesco following the resignation of Governor Christine Todd Whitman in 2001.
This made Codey the 53rd. Codey is an advocate of mental health awareness and favors including mental health funding in employee medical benefit packages and Medicare. Both Codey and his wife, Mary Jo, have spoken candidly about her past struggles with postpartum depression. In early 2005, Codey responded in person to New Jersey 101.5 talk radio host Craig Carton, who jokingly criticized Mary Jo and her mental health on the air. Some argue; the Governor himself admits to telling Carton during the altercation that he wished he could "take outside", while in the presence of the six New Jersey State Policemen who were serving as his personal bodyguards. There was some speculation that this incident helped Codey decide not to run for a full term as governor. In July 2005, Codey defended actress Brooke Shields after she faced criticism for discussing her postpartum depression. In December 2005, Codey appeared on Carton's radio program to help put the incident behind both of them. Codey appointed Mary Jane Cooper to be New Jersey's first-ever Inspector General, a position created to root out waste and mismanagement in government.
Codey added $7 million in new funding to agencies devoted to public accountability, per the recommendations that resulted from an audit of state ethics codes that he commissioned. In March 2005, Codey cracked down on pay to play wh