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An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..

With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.

In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.

These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 10-inch and 12-inch LP record, or ​33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.

The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. An album may contain as many or as few tracks. In the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as


Post-punk is a broad genre of rock music which emerged in the late 1970s as artists departed from the raw simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock, instead adopting a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and non-rock influences. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with sources including electronic music, dub and dance music; these communities produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines. The early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups including Siouxsie and the Banshees, Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group, Cabaret Voltaire, Pere Ubu, Joy Division, Talking Heads, Gang of Four, the Slits, the Cure, the Fall; the movement was related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock, neo-psychedelia, no wave, industrial music. By the mid-1980s, post-punk had dissipated while providing the impetus for the New Pop movement as well much subsequent alternative and independent music.

Post-punk is a diverse genre. Called "new musick", the terms were first used by various writers in the late 1970s to describe groups moving beyond punk's garage rock template and into disparate areas. Sounds writer Jon Savage used "post-punk" in early 1978. NME writer Paul Morley stated that he had "possibly" invented the term himself. At the time, there was a feeling of renewed excitement regarding what the word would entail, with Sounds publishing numerous preemptive editorials on new musick. Towards the end of the decade, some journalists used "art punk" as a pejorative for garage rock-derived acts deemed too sophisticated and out of step with punk's dogma. Before the early 1980s, many groups now categorized as "post-punk" were subsumed under the broad umbrella of "new wave", with the terms being deployed interchangeably. "Post-punk" became differentiated from "new wave". Nicholas Lezard described the term "post-punk" as "so multifarious that only the broadest use... is possible". Subsequent discourse has failed to clarify whether contemporary music journals and fanzines conventionally understood "post-punk" the way that it was discussed in years.

Music historian Clinton Heylin places the "true starting-point for English post-punk" somewhere between August 1977 and May 1978, with the arrival of guitarist John McKay in Siouxsie and the Banshees in July 1977, Magazine's first album, Wire's new musical direction in 1978 and the formation of Public Image Ltd. Music historian Simon Goddard wrote that the debut albums of those bands layered the foundations of post-punk. Simon Reynolds' 2005 book Rip It Up and Start Again is referenced as post-punk doctrine, although he has stated that the book only covers aspects of post-punk that he had a personal inclination toward. Wilkinson characterized Reynolds' readings as "apparent revisionism and'rebranding'". Author/musician Alex Ogg criticized: "The problem is not with what Reynolds left out of Rip It Up... but, that too much was left in". Ogg suggested that post-punk pertains to a set of artistic sensibilities and approaches rather than any unifying style, disputed the accuracy of the term's chronological prefix "post", as various groups labeled "post-punk" predate the punk rock movement.

Reynolds defined the post-punk era as occurring between 1978 and 1984. He advocated that post-punk be conceived as "less a genre of music than a space of possibility", suggesting that "what unites all this activity is a set of open-ended imperatives: innovation. AllMusic employs "post-punk" to denote "a more adventurous and arty form of punk". Many post-punk artists were inspired by punk's DIY ethic and energy, but became disillusioned with the style and movement, feeling that it had fallen into a commercial formula, rock convention, self-parody, they repudiated its populist claims to accessibility and raw simplicity, instead of seeing an opportunity to break with musical tradition, subvert commonplaces and challenge audiences. Artists moved beyond punk's focus on the concerns of a white, working-class population and abandoned its continued reliance on established rock and roll tropes, such as three-chord progressions and Chuck Berry-based guitar riffs; the use of bass is prominent on many post-punk records either as a lead instrument by artists like Gang of Four or PiL or in a more funkier aspect as done by Talking Heads, Pylon etc.

In many post-punk records the bass is the lead instrument while the guitar weaves a pattern around the bass parts. These artists instead defined punk as "an imperative to constant change", believing that "radical content demands radical form". Though the music varied between regions and artists, the post-punk movement has been characterized by its "conceptual assault" on rock conventions and rejection of aesthetics perceived of as traditionalist, hegemonic or rockist in favor of experimentation with production techniques and non-rock musical styles such as dub, electronic music, noise, world music, the avant-garde; some previous musical styles served as touchstones for the movement, including particular brands of krautrock, art rock, art pop and other music from the 1960s. Artists once again approached the studio as an instrument, using new recording methods and pursuing novel sonic territories. Author Matthew Bannister wrote that post-punk artists rejected the high cultural ref

Marius Bilașco

Marius Ioan Bilașco is a Romanian retired footballer. In October 2009, he scored his first UEFA Champions League goal in a 4–1 away win against Rangers FC. On 31 August 2010, he signed a contract with Steaua Bucureşti alongside team mates from Unirea Urziceni: Galamaz, Marinescu, Onofraş and Brandán. Unirea UrziceniRomanian League: 2008–09Steaua BucureştiRomanian Cup: 2010–11 Marius Bilașco at and Marius Bilașco at ESPN FC Marius Bilașco at Marius Bilașco at Soccerway

William Newbigging

Sir William Newbigging FRSE FRCSEd FRGS was a Scottish surgeon who served as President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh from 1814 to 1816. He was a keen amateur geographer, he was born in Lanark in 1773 to Jean Brownlee. He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and was apprenticed to Dr Forrest Dewar at Hunters Square, just off the Royal Mile, around 1790, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1799 and served as their President in 1814. He became a member of the Harveian Society in 1815 and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1824, his proposer was Robert Jameson, he was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1838. He lived with his wife and family at 29 Heriot Row, in a large Georgian townhouse in the Edinburgh's New Town, he died on aged 79 on 2 October 1852 at 29 Heriot Row, is buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard in central Edinburgh in the western extension close to the grave of his colleague Dr John Gordon. He married Lilias Stewart on 8 August 1801 at Corstorphine, Scotland, She died on 26 August 1832 in Edinburgh.

Their many children included Patrick Newbigging, John Steuart Newbigging and Dr George Stewart Newbigging. He was painted by Sir John Watson Gordon in 1838; the painting hangs in the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. The painting was engraved by George Baird Shaw for multiple reproduction

List of Citrus Bowl broadcasters

The following is a list of the television networks and announcers who have broadcast college football's Citrus Bowl throughout the years. ABC televised the game from 1987 to 2010, with NBC airing it in 1984–85 and the syndicated Mizlou Television Network doing so prior to 1984. In March 2010, ESPN announced extensions to their television contracts with the Capital One Bowl and the Outback Bowl, along with a new contract with the Gator Bowl; the contract for the now Citrus Bowl is through 2018. Under these new agreements, ESPN will broadcast all three games on either ABC, ESPN, or ESPN2. Radio broadcast rights for the game are held by ESPN Radio. Sports USA Radio held the rights from 2003–2010

I'll Always Love You (The Spinners song)

"I'll Always Love You" is a song co-written by William "Mickey" Stevenson and Ivy Jo Hunter and produced by Stevenson and Hunter as a single for The Spinners on the Motown Records label. The single became the Detroit-reared group's first charting single on the Motown Records company since they had signed with the company in 1964; the song was a top 40 pop single on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States, on which it peaked at number 35. On the Billboard R&B singles chart, "I'll Always Love You" peaked at number 8; the song featured lead vocals by Bobby Smith. Lead vocals by Bobby Smith Background vocals by Bobby Smith, Chico Edwards, Pervis Jackson, Henry Fambrough and Billy Henderson Additional Background vocals by The Andantes Instrumentation by The Funk Brothers