Nowra, New South Wales
Nowra is a town in the South Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 160 kilometres south-southwest of the state capital of Sydney With its twin-town of Bomaderry, as at the 2016 census, Nowra had an estimated population of 35,795, it is the seat and commercial centre of the City of Shoalhaven. Geologically, the city is situated in the southern reaches of the Sydney basin; the region around Nowra is a farming community, sustaining a thriving dairy industry and a number of State forests, but is increasingly a retirement and leisure area for Canberra and Sydney. The naval air station HMAS Albatross is located about 10 kilometres south-west of Nowra; the name Nowra written by Europeans as'nou-woo-ro', is an Aboriginal word for black cockatoo. The Nowra region, south of Bomaderry Creek was inhabited by the Wodi-Wodi tribe of the Yuin nation while north of Bomaderry Creek was inhabited by the Dharawal Aboriginal people prior to European arrival. Around 1824, ex-convict Mary Reibey applied for a land grant in the Burrier area, on the southern side of the Shoalhaven River.
The Nowra township was recognised in 1852. Less than ten years in 1861, a postal service was established. In that year, the racehorse'Archer', trained in Nowra by Etienne de Mestre, won the first Melbourne Cup. By 1885, Nowra was declared a town. A major landmark in the area is the house Bundanon, which began as a single-storey weatherboard structure built about 1840. In 1866, a two-storey sandstone house, made of locally quarried stone, was built in front of the weatherboard house; the sandstone house features timber verandahs and is now listed on the Register of the National Estate. Nowra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Pleasant Way: Graham Lodge 35 West Street: Meroogal Nowra is on the Shoalhaven River, which hosted the Australian National wakeboarding championships, it is a popular fishing location; the river divides Nowra from Bomaderry and North Nowra, is bridged by the historic Nowra Bridge. The Shoalhaven River is a salt water river; the Shoalhaven River meets the sea through the canal that joins the Shoalhaven and Crookhaven Rivers, dug by convicts under direction of local entrepreneur and pioneer Alexander Berry.
It is located near Berry, Jervis Bay, Kangaroo Valley, Culburra Beach, Greenwell Point, Shoalhaven Heads and Cambewarra. With the warmest month's mean being just 22 °C, Nowra has a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification, making it the southernmost city on the coastal strip to be within this climate zone, albeit an isolated one — Nearby coastal cities to the north, such as Wollongong and Kiama, have an oceanic climate as their warmest month's mean doesn't reach the 22 °C threshold; the population of Nowra - Bomaderry was 35,795 as at the 2016 census. According to the 2006 census, 87.9% of the population of Nowra was born in Australia, with North-West Europe being the most common birthplace of immigrants at 7.5% of the population. 6.1% of the total population are Indigenous Australians. There are 11,386 households in Nowra. There are a total of 8,248 families, with 2,838 containing two Adults with children under 15 and/or dependent students, 1,163 being one parent families with children under 15 and/or dependent students.
The suburb of Nowra had a population of 9,193 at the 2016 census. The town has a modern primary school, a town hall, a large retirement village and a tourist industry. In the summer months, when visitors flock to the beaches, to enjoy swimming, surfing and relaxing in the restaurants and cafés plus hunting for treasures in the shops and boutiques. There are two vineyards producing one with cellar-door sales. Nowra has three public high schools, Nowra High School, Shoalhaven High School and Bomaderry High School. There are several non-government schools, which are all denominational; the Catholic high school is linked to St Michael's Catholic Primary School located in Nowra. There are seven public primary schools in the Nowra area as well: East Nowra Public School, Nowra Public School, Bomaderry Public School, Illaroo Road Public School, North Nowra Public School, Nowra Hill Public School and Terara Public School; the University of Wollongong has a campus in Nowra, there is a campus of TAFE NSW Illawarra Institute located in Bomaderry.
There are two hospitals in Nowra, the Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital, a hub for Oncology services, Nowra Private Hospital. The four major codes of football in Australia are all popular in the Nowra area. Rugby union is represented by the Shoalhaven Rugby Club, the team plays out of Rugby Park in South Nowra; the club won the 2008 premiership in the Illawarra district competition, has produced international and provincial players such as Andrew Walker and Alex Kanaar. Australian rules football is played by three clubs from the Shoalhaven area, with the Nowra Albatross Vikings playing at West Street Oval, the Bomaderry Tigers at Artie Smith Oval. Further south, the Bay and Basin Bombers play at the Leisure Centre at Vincentia; these four clubs are all members of the South Coast AFL, fielding senior teams. Rugby league has traditionally bee
Tamworth, New South Wales
Tamworth is a city and the major regional centre in the New England region of northern New South Wales, Australia. Situated on the Peel River within the local government area of Tamworth Regional Council, about 318 km from the Queensland border, it is located midway between Brisbane and Sydney. According to the 2016 Census, the city had a population around 60,000; the Kamilaroi people are the traditional custodians of Tamworth. The city is known as the "First Town of Lights", being the first place in Australia to use electric street lights in 1888. Tamworth is famous as the "Country Music Capital of Australia", annually hosting the Tamworth Country Music Festival in late January; the city is recognised as the National Equine Capital of Australia because of the high number of equine events held in the city and the construction of the world-class Australian Equine and Livestock Events Centre, the biggest of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. The Kamilaroi people, from whose language comes the word "budgerigar", inhabited the area before European contact.
In 1818, John Oxley passed through the Peel Valley and commented, "it would be impossible to find a finer or more luxuriant country than its waters... No place in this world can afford more advantages to the industrious settler than this extensive vale". In 1831, the first sheep stations and cattle stations were formed, in the same year, the Australian Agricultural Company was granted a lease of 127,000 hectares of land at Goonoo Goonoo, south of the present location of Tamworth, extending to present-day Calala. In the 1830s, a company town began to develop on the Peel's southwest bank, the present site of West Tamworth. In 1850, a public town was gazetted on the opposite side of the river from the existing settlement; this town became the main town, called "Tamworth" after Tamworth, represented at the time in parliament by Robert Peel. The town prospered, was reached by the railway in 1878; the first streetlights used in Australia were commercially owned in Waratah Tasmania in 1886, but on 9 November 1888, Tamworth became the first location in Australia to have electric street lighting powered by a municipally owned power station, giving the town the title of "First Town of Light".
1818 – Explorer John Oxley passes through the area on his exploration mission. Names the river that now runs through the town: Peel River, after British Prime Minister Robert Peel. 1831 – First sheep and cattle stations, namely Joseph Brown's'Wallamoul' and William Dangar's'Waldoo'. The exploring expedition led by Major Mitchell visited'Wallamoul' in December 1831 on its way to the north-west. 1834 – 6000 sheep of the Australian Agriculture Company were the first to be brought to the Tamworth region. 1851 – The white population of the village of Tamworth was 254. 1852 – John Barnes built the Royal Oak Hotel. 1861 – Population 654. 1866 – Tamworth Mechanics' Institute opened. 1882 - Tamworth railway station opened. 1883 - Tamworth base hospital opened. 1888 – Power station opened and enables beginning of electric street lighting. The first electric streetlights in Australia. 1918 – An anchor is unveiled as a memorial to the discovery of Tamworth district. 1946 – Proclaimed a town. 1947 – East-West Airlines was established in Tamworth, flying Tamworth to Sydney.
1947 – Institution for Boys home for criminal youth opened. 1973 – The first Australasian Country Music Festival was hosted in Tamworth by radio station 2TM, which has led to the extraordinary success of the Tamworth Country Music Festival, held every year in Summer, at the end of January, a celebration that runs continuously for 11 days. 1988 – A country music icon, the 12 m tall Golden Guitar is erected as a symbol of the town's country music roots. 1990s – The Local Council embarks on a successful campaign of urban and streetscape renewal, including the greening of Peel Street. 1999 – Tamworth Regional Entertainment Centre is opened. 2004 – A new local government area, Tamworth Regional Council, is formed from Tamworth town, Manilla Shire and parts of Parry and Barraba Shires. 2006 – In December the Tamworth Regional Council voted 6 to 3 against an offer from the Federal Government to take part in a one-year trial rural refugee resettlement programme. Mayor of Tamworth, Cr James Treloar, argued that the refugees being resettled were tuberculous and criminal.
The decision resulted in international media attention on the town. The public outrage unleashed by his comments and the summary decision to reject the refugees forced a reversal of the bill one month and Tamworth will now take part in the resettling program. 2008 – The Australian Equine and Livestock Events Centre is opened in September. 2016 – Tamworth hosts the annual town vs Country Origin match. It was held at Scully Park Regional Sporting Precinct Tamworth is located on the western side of the Great Dividing Range, on the banks of the Peel River, about 420 km north of Sydney on the New England Highway, 280 km inland from Port Macquarie on the Oxley Highway; the town is situated at a narrow point on the Peel River floodplain, nestled at the base of the Wentworth Mounds, a spur of the Moonbi Range, where the Northwest Slopes rise to the Northern Tablelands. The elevation is around 400 m AHD; the Peel River runs southeast to northwest through Tamworth. The main town centre is on the northeast bank, between the river and the Wentworth Mounds, which rise to heights of 800 m, towering over the town.
The southwest bank is much flatter, the town's suburbs sprawl to the south. Water for residents and the town's industry is supplied by Chaffey Dam, 44 km south
Melton is an urban area within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia located 35 km west from the capital's central business district. It is the administrative centre of the City of Melton local government area and its most populous centre. At June 2016 Melton had an estimated urban population of 62,117, it is considered part of the Greater Melbourne metropolitan area and is included in the capital's population statistical division. Melton began as a small town before being declared a satellite city in 1974, separated from Melbourne's urban area by a green wedge. Since the 1990s it has experienced rapid suburban growth into surrounding greenfield land and has become a commuter town in the Melbourne-Ballarat growth corridor. Changes to Melbourne's urban growth boundary passed by the state government in 2010 relinquish its satellite city status as it is planned to become part of Melbourne's future conurbation, it is named after Melton Mowbray in the United Kingdom. Melton was first settled by squatters establishing sheep runs in the area in the 1830s and a small settlement benefited from traffic passing through it on the way to the Ballarat gold fields during the Victorian Gold Rush.
The post office opened on 1 March 1856. The area was declared a satellite city in 1974 and a green belt existed between it and the urban area of Melbourne until the late 1990s. Melton is located on flat featureless, former volcanic plains. To the south-east of Melton Township is Mount Cottrell, a blast-shield volcano, to the north-east of the township is Mount Kororoit; these two volcanoes are some of the easternmost volcanoes on the Victorian Volcanic Plain which extends to the South Australian border. Melton consists of six suburban areas forming a single urban area with the locality of Melton at its centre. In the south of Melton are the suburbs of Melton South and Brookfield. In the north are Kurunjang and Toolern Vale while in the west is the suburb of Melton West. High Street is the main activity centre, but the urban area lacks a true central business district, with retail and civic facilities decentralised across the urban area. Additional shopping centres can be found in Melton South at the railway station, in Melton West.
Woodgrove Shopping Centre expanded in 2013 and now is the area's largest shopping venue, consisting of a Coles, Big W, Reading Cinemas and 160 specialty stores. Many live performances are held at the Melton Civic Centre, on High Street, at the Tabcorp Park racing complex, on Ferris Road, Melton South; each year the Djerriwarrh Festival is held in the city in November. The festival includes a street parade down High Street, two-day market stalls, the Lions Club Carnival, held in the Police Paddock on High Street. Melton is the home of the harness racing complex Tabcorp Park, is the base for Harness Racing Victoria; the 2009 Australasian Breeders Crown was the first major race meeting held at the venue in August 2009. Melton is home to the Victorian Blokart Association at McPherson Park, about 7 km north of the CBD; the Melton Basketball Association is the city's largest sporting club, with over 1,000 members. Along with local junior and senior competitions, The'Thoroughbreds' have representative teams competing statewide.
The City of Melton boasts two Hockey Victoria Hockey Clubs. Formed in 2016 Caroline Springs Hockey Club are a new community sporting club catering for the growth areas of the City of Melton's Eastern corridor training at The Bridge Road Sports Precinct. Achieving its first on field success in the HV Sixers competition, both the CSHC men's and women's teams won the inaugural tournaments; these successes are in addition to the award of the Hockey Victoria Coach of the Year 2016 nomination for women's coach Ron Shadbolt. Caroline Springs Hockey Club enter teams into the Juniors and Seniors pennant and Metro competitions; the Melton Mustangs Hockey Club enters Seniors and Juniors in the Victorian state leagues. The Masters team have achieved most recent success in 2013/14 when gaining back to back Pennants, whilst the Women's section have just finished in their highest league position in their 40-year history; the club is based at The Bridge Road Sports Precinct. The Club celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2016.
In 2015, Melton became home to the area's first American Gridiron Club, one of 12 clubs competing in the Gridiron Victoria League. Melton Wolves Gridiron Club was formed as Victoria's first stand-alone Women's Gridiron club, but expanded and now boasts a Senior Men's Team. Melton Shire Council operates the Melton Waves Leisure Centre, the only Leisure Centre in Melbourne’s west with extensive aquatic facilities with a total of seven pools, including a hot tub, wave pool and pools suitable for toddlers and pools dedicated for lap swimming and hydrotherapy, in addition to a gym and fitness classes for all. Melton is the administrative centre for the City of Melton; the City of Melton's Coburn Ward covers the central Melton area. Its state government electorate is the electoral district of Melton and the Federal government electorate is the Division of Lalor; the seat of Joanne Ryan both considered safe Australian Labor Party seats. All areas of Melton receive digital television stations as Melbourne.
It is within the broadcast range of all commercial radio stations from Melbourne, is an end point for digital radio broadcasts in metropolitan Melbourne. Digital radio is available in most of the city but signal diminishes towards the west. Melton has The Melton Star; the city is home to a radio station, 979fm. Road transport and in particular the motor vehicle are the main form of transport. Melton has been identified b
Cessnock, New South Wales
Cessnock is a city in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, about 52 km by road west of Newcastle. It is the administrative centre of the City of Cessnock LGA and was named after an 1826 grant of land called Cessnock Estate, owned by John Campbell; the local area was once known as "The Coalfields", it is the gateway city to the vineyards of the Hunter Valley, which includes Pokolbin, Mount View, Broke and Branxton. The transition to wine service centre from a once prosperous mining town has been a long and at times difficult process. Cessnock lies between Australia’s earliest European settlements – Sydney, the Hawkesbury River and Newcastle. Lying on the land route between these important settlements it provided early European contact with indigenous people who have inhabited the Cessnock area for more than 3,000 years; the Wonnarua people were the major inhabitants at the time of European contact, which subsequently proved to be disastrous for the Wonnarua tribe. Many were died as a result of European diseases.
Others were killed. The city of Cessnock abounds in indigenous place names and names with indigenous association, indicative of this settlement and include Congewai, Kurri Kurri, Laguna and Wollombi. Pastoralists commenced settling the land in the 1820s. Cessnock was named by Scottish settler John Campbell, after his grandfather's baronial Cessnock Castle in Galston, East Ayrshire, to reflect the aristocratic heritage and ambitions for this estate; the township of Cessnock developed from 1850, as a service centre at the junction of the Great North Road from Sydney to the Hunter Valley, with branches to Maitland and Singleton. The establishment of the South Maitland coalfields generated extensive land settlement between 1903 and 1923; the current pattern of urban development, transport routes and industrial landscape was laid at this time. The surveying of the Greta coal seam by Professor Edgeworth David around 1888 became the impetus for considerable social and economic change in the area with the development of the coal mining industry.
According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 21,725 people in the Cessnock urban centre. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 8.2% of the population. 86.8% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 1.6%, New Zealand 0.9% and Scotland 0.5%. 88.3% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were Anglican 27.5%, No Religion 24.6% and Catholic 18.9%. The decline of mining on the South Maitland Coalfields has been paralleled by growth in the wine industry and better access to other employment centres; the Hunter Valley wine-growing area near Cessnock is Australia's oldest wine region and one of the most famous, with around 1,800 hectares under vine. The vineyards of Pokolbin, Mount View and Allandale, with their rich volcanic soils tended by entrepreneurial vignerons, are the focus of a thriving and growing tourism industry; the extension and eventual completion of the F3 Freeway, created a property and tourism boom during the 1990s.
Cessnock has begun to develop other tourist ventures beyond the wine industry such as championship golf courses, hot air ballooning, sky-diving, guest house accommodation. The city council has pursued a policy of urban renewal in the city centre since 2001; the local council was one of the first to introduce a recycling program for waste disposal in the state. Most employment comes from the local port city of Newcastle, the nearby major centres of Maitland and Singleton and in service industries in the local council area, which comprises many small towns, such as Kurri Kurri, Neath, Abernethy and Pokolbin; the town is located in volcanic soils of the Hunter Valley. Rich coal seams underlie much of the area; the Brokenback Range rises to the west of the city. The Hunter River flows down the Hunter Valley 20 km to the north. Cessnock lies within the Hunter Valley Important Bird Area. Cessnock has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters, similar to Penrith, a suburb in Greater Western Sydney to the south.
Summers may be dry due to their inland location. Winters are dry with cold nights, which may be frosty. Cessnock is serviced by a number of radio stations and television stations; the Cessnock Advertiser. With a circulation of 17,000, The Cessnock Advertiser is delivered to most residents within the City of Cessnock; the Maitland Mercury The Newcastle Herald Radio stations include: 2HD 1233 ABC Newcastle 2HRN 2KY Racing Radio KOFM 102.9FM hit106.9 Newcastle 106.9FM New FM 105.3FM 2NUR 103.7FM 2CHR 96.5 FM – Rhema FM Newcastle 99.7FM Australian Broadcasting Corporation 1233 ABC Newcastle ABC Radio National ABC News Radio Triple J ABC Classic FM SBS Radio Cessnock is part of the Newcastle-Hunter Region television market, served by 5 television networks, three commercial and two national services.. These networks are listed as follows: NBN Television, GEM and GO!. WIN Television and Eleven (Network Ten affiliate, (formerly known as Southern Cross Ten, TEN North
Queanbeyan is a city in south-eastern region of the Australian state of New South Wales, located adjacent to the Australian Capital Territory in the Southern Tablelands region. Located on the Queanbeyan River, the city is the council seat of the Queanbeyan-Palerang Regional Council. At the 2016 census, the Queanbeyan part of the Canberra–Queanbeyan built-up area had a population of 36,348. Queanbeyan's economy is based on light construction, service and agriculture. Canberra, Australia's capital, is located just 15 kilometres to the west, Queanbeyan has to some extent become a commuter town; the word Queanbeyan is the anglicised form of Quinbean, an Aboriginal word meaning "clear waters". The town grew from a squattage held by ex-convict and inn keeper, Timothy Beard, on the banks of the Molonglo River in what is now Oaks Estate; the town centre of Queanbeyan is located on the Queanbeyan River, a tributary of the Molonglo River and 1.4kms south-southeast of Oaks Estate. Queanbeyan was proclaimed a township in 1838 when the population was about 50.
The local parish was known by that name and still the member for the electorate of Queanbeyan held a seat in the legislative assembly of the colony of NSW. On 28 November 1837 the Colonial Secretary announced the appointment of Captain Alured Tasker Faunce as resident police magistrate at Queanbeyan, his homestead, called Dodsworth, was situated on the banks of the Queanbeyan river opposite the town. Traces of gold were discovered in 1851 and lead and silver mines flourished briefly. Settlers were harassed by bushrangers, of which James Shaw, William Millet, John Rueben, John Tennant, Jacky Jacky, Frank Gardiner and Ben Hall were some of the more notorious. In 1836, a Post Office was established; the Commercial Banking Company of Sydney Limited opened in Queanbeyan on 19 September 1859. The Bank of New South Wales began service in Queanbeyan in 1878; the Golden Age was Queanbeyan's first newspaper and was founded in 1860 by John Gale. In 1880 the residence of John James Wright, the first mayor of Queanbeyan, was constructed along the edge of the Queanbeyan River.
In 1982 that building became the Queanbeyan Art Centre. The Salvation Army claimed an outpost in Queanbeyan in 1884. Queanbeyan, an successful primary producing district, was proclaimed a Municipality in February 1885 incorporating an area of 5,700 acres; the railway reached Queanbeyan railway station in 1887 and it became the junction for the lines going to Canberra and Bombala. The town is served by the thrice-daily NSW TrainLink Xplorer service between Sydney. William James Farrer, the wheat experimentalist, established Queanbeyan's reputation as an agricultural district with his famous "Federation" rust-free strain, developed on his property "Lambrigg" at Tharwa. Farrer's work was only recognised elsewhere in Australia, but local farmers supported him in his development of "Blount's Lambrigg", another strain which in 1889 gave hope to farmers after the disastrous season of 1887 when crops had failed after heavy Christmas rains. At the height of its rural prosperity Queanbeyan boasted sixteen public houses and six flourmills powered by wind, water and steam.
The Royal Hotel on Monaro Street opened in 1926. In Canberra alcohol was prohibited from 1911, at the time of the territory's foundation, until 1928, when Federal Parliament had relocated from Melbourne. In that period many of the capital's residents crossed the border to drink at one of Queanbeyan's hotels. Queanbeyan was granted city status on 7 July 1972. On 21 July 1975 the Queen's Bridge was opened; this bridge took pressure off the existing bridge in linking Monaro Street directly to the east. From 1982 to 1989, the Canberra Raiders rugby league team played their home games in Queanbeyan, at Seiffert Oval. Since December 2008, the Australian Defence Forces's HQ Joint Operations Command has been based adjacent to the Kowen district of the Australian Capital Territory, just south of the Kings Highway, about 15 km east of Queanbeyan, 15 km south of Bungendore, New South Wales. Queanbeyan has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Antill Street: Rusten House 69 Collett Street: Hibernia Lodge 19–41 Farrer Place: Queanbeyan Showground Goulburn-Bombala railway: Queanbeyan railway bridge Henderson Road: Queanbeyan railway station Morrisett Street: Byrnes Mill and Millhouse Rutledge Street: Christ Church 3 Tharwa Road: Kawaree Queanbeyan has two government high schools: Queanbeyan High and Karabar High.
Queanbeyan primary schools include Queanbeyan South Public School, Queanbeyan West Public School, Queanbeyan East Public School, Queanbeyan Public School, Jerrabomberra Public School and St Gregory's Primary School. The Queanbeyan District Hospital is a small but modern facility providing Maternity and some Community Health services. Queanbeyan has an ambulance station and outdoor swimming pool, community centre, performing arts centre, a public library and several parks; the city's local bus service is Qcity Transit, which operates routes into Canberra. At the 2016 census, the Queanbeyan part of the Canberra–Queanbeyan built-up area had a population of 36,348. At the 2011 census, the former city of Queanbeyan had a population of 37,991; the suburb of Queanbeyan had a population of 6,237 in 2016. Queanbeyan has two light manufacturing/industrial precincts centred on Yass Road; the Queanbeyan Solar Farm with 720 solar panels has a generating capacity of 50 kW, is located in the Yass Road area. Queanbeyan has a large and significant retail market in roses, which are sourced from the local district.
Queanbeyan is se
Coffs Harbour is a city on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales, Australia, 540 km north of Sydney, 390 km south of Brisbane. It is one of the largest urban centres on the North Coast, with an estimated population of 70,000 in 2017. Coffs Harbour's economy was once based on bananas, now being superseded by blueberries as well as tourism and fishing; the wider region is known as the Bananacoast. The city has a campus of Southern Cross University, a public and a private hospital, several radio stations, three major shopping centres. Coffs Harbour is including a marine national park. There are regular passenger flights each day to Sydney and Melbourne departing from Coffs Harbour Airport. Coffs Harbour is accessible by road, by NSW TrainLink, by regular bus services. Coffs Harbour is a regional city along the Pacific Highway between The Gold Coast, it has become a major service centre for those living between South West Rocks in the south and Grafton to the north. Sawtell, 10 km south along Hogbin Drive from the city has become a satellite suburb of Coffs Harbour.
The surrounding region is dominated by coastal resorts and apartments with hinterland hills and mountains covered by forests, banana plantations, other farms. It is the only place in New South Wales; the Bananacoast Community Credit Union is headquartered in Coffs Harbour. The greater Coffs Harbour city is broken up into several suburb and precinct areas including: The city is surrounded by outlying towns which are referred to by locals as suburbs of the Coffs Coast Region: By the early 1900s, the Coffs Harbour area had become an important timber production centre. Before the opening of the North Coast Railway Line, the only way to transport large items of heavy but low value, such as timber, was by coastal shipping; this meant sawmillers on the North Coast were dependent on jetties either in rivers or off beaches for exporting their timber. Timber tramways were constructed to connect the timber-getting areas, the sawmills and jetties built into the ocean at Coffs Harbour. Coffs Harbour owes its name to John Korff, who named the area Korff's Harbour when he was forced to take shelter from a storm in the area in 1847.
The name was accidentally changed by the surveyor for the crown when he reserved land in the area during 1861. Coffs Harbour has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 1 Breakwater Road: Ferguson's Cottage According to the 2016 Census the population of the suburb of Coffs Harbour is 25,752; this is an increase from 24,581 in 2011. 52.5% of the population is female in contrast to the national average of 50.7%. The average age is 43, higher than the national average of 38. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.6% of the population. 75.5% of residents reported being born in Australia. Other than Australia the most common countries of birth are England, New Zealand, Myanmar and Germany. 62.2% of residents reported both their parents being born in Australia higher than the national average of 47.3%. 82.1% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Punjabi 0.9%, Chin Haka 0.5%, Arabic 0.4%, Spanish 0.4% and Dari 0.4%. The top religious response in Coffs Harbour are Catholic 20.0%, Anglican 17.9% and Presbyterian and Reformed 3.9%.
29.3 % declared 11.1 % did not submit a response. Coffs Harbour has a humid subtropical climate with marked seasonality of rainfall; the city is sunny, receiving 122.1 clear days annually, higher than Brisbane and Cairns. Summers are warm and humid. Winters are mild and drier. Coffs Harbour was the hub for a thriving banana industry. One of the biggest attractions is the Big Banana, one of the first of Australia's Big Things, with the World's Largest Banana celebrating the region's best known export. There is a popular underwater diving spot on a small natural reef; the Coffs Harbour Jetty is an important timber wharf where coastal shipping once moved the timber from the hinterland. The jetty area is the subject of current planning by Council and consultants to develop a cultural precinct and rejuvenated residential area. Nearby, the Solitary Islands Marine Park preserves a diverse underwater ecosystem that mirrors the terrestrial biodiversity, covering the southern limit of northern tropical species and the northern limits of the southern temperate species.
Muttonbird Island is accessible by walking along the breakwater from the harbour, with the nature reserve protecting a significant wedge-tailed shearwater breeding site. The Muttonbird Island footpath leads to a viewing platform where whales are spotted between June and November. There are many national parks and marine parks surrounding the city, including: Bellinger River National Park Bindarri National Park Bongil Bongil National Park Cascade National Park Coffs Coast Regional Park Dorrigo National Park Hayden Dent Nature Reserve Junuy Juluum National Park Moonee Beach Nature Reserve Nymboi-Binderay National Park Solitary Islands Marine Park South Solita
Benalla is a small city located on the Broken River in the High Country north-eastern region of Victoria, about 212 kilometres north east of the state capital Melbourne. At the 2016 census the population was 9,298, it is the administrative centre for the Rural City of Benalla local government area. Prior to the European settlement of Australia, the Benalla region was populated by the Taungurong people, an Indigenous Australian people, it was first sighted by Europeans during an expedition of Hamilton Hume and William Hovell in 1824, when the area, first named "Swampy" was noted as agricultural settlement. The expedition was followed by that of Major Thomas Mitchell in 1834. Reverend Joseph Docker settled in 1838 creating a pastoral run called Benalta Run, said to be from an Aboriginal word for musk duck. An attack by indigenous people on the camp of sheep herders George and William Faithful became known as the Faithful massacre. Following the massacre, in 1839 a police station was established and the name of the settlement became Broken River.
The post office opened on 1 December 1844 named Broken River. A bridge was built over the following year the town was surveyed. In 1861 it was proclaimed a town, it was proclaimed a city in 1965. According to the 2016 census of Population, were 9,298 people in Benalla. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 1.7% of the population. 83.0% of people were born in Australia. The next most common country of birth was England at 2.0%. 88.9% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 31.1%, Catholic 22.7% and Anglican 14.9%. Benalla is situated on a flat floodplain of the Broken River catchment situated directly to the north and west of the Great Dividing Range. Lake Benalla is an artificial lake created in 1973 from the Broken River as an ornamental feature for the centre of the city. Broken river forms a green belt along the north-south spine of the city. There are three major crossings of the river at Benalla; the main street in the Central Business District is Bridge Street East.
Another large artificial lake, Lake Mokoan, 7 kilometres to the north east, was decommissioned beginning in 2009, with a wetlands area being developed for visitors. To the south of the freeway is the forested Reef Hills State Park. Benalla is the seat of local government and administrative headquarters for the Rural City of Benalla. In the Victorian Legislative Assembly, it is represented by the Electoral district of Euroa. In the Parliament of Australia, it is represented by the Division of Indi in the Australian House of Representatives. Industries include agricultural support services, tourism, a medium density fibreboard factory, Thales Australia ammunition factory and aviation; as a service economy for the region, Benalla has many large retailers, including a Coles, Target Country, Aldi and a Mitre 10 Home & Trade. Benalla has two secondary schools, Benalla P-12 College, FCJ College and three primary schools: Benalla P–12, St. Joseph's Primary School and Australian Christian College - Hume.
McCristal's College was a private grammar school. The Benalla Flexible Learning Centre offers an alternative education model for students up to 22 years old also; the Goulburn Ovens Institute of TAFE has a campus in Benalla which includes the Benalla Performing Arts and Convention Centre opened in 2004 by Lynne Kosky MP, the Minister of Education and Training. The campus included GRADA, a regional academy of dramatic art offering courses in Acting and Production and now specializes in Nursing and Engineering courses with direct links to local businesses for work placements, The other GoTafe campuses in the region include at Shepparton and Seymour; the Centre for Continuing Education offers pre-employment programs in Benalla plus Aged Care programs with practical work experience at Cooinda Village. Benalla's cultural facilities include the Benalla Performing Arts and Convention Centre which includes a cinema and theatre; the city has a major art gallery which forms a landmark perched over Lake Benalla on the site of the original police station.
Benalla is fast becoming known as the street art capital of regional Australia with more than 50 major contemporary murals on the CBD Benalla Street Art trail, beyond including local villages such as Goorambat and Winton Wetlands. The annual Wall to Wall Street Art Festival has been held since 2015, curated by Juddy Roller Studios the week before Easter. Over one long-weekend dozens of world class artists create one giant outdoor gallery in the town; the Wall to Wall Festival includes workshops, artist talks, live music, street art tours and more. Www.benallastreetart.com.au The Rose Festival is another annual local garden festival dating from 1967. Now called "The Benalla Festival" it is held over the first two weekends in November with dozens of free and low cost events including the community Street Parade, Music by the Lake and fireworks, A Day in the Gardens Market held in the Benalla Botanical Gardens; the town has an Australian rules football team competing in the Goulburn Valley Football League and a team competing in the Ovens & King Football League.
Benalla has a horse racing club, the Benalla Racing Club, which schedules around eleven race meetings a year including the Benalla Cup meeting in early October. Golfers play at the Benalla Golf Club on Mansfield Road, which celebrated its centenary in 2003 or at the course of the Golden Vale Golf Club on Golden Vale Road, Benalla. Benalla is the closest major centre to Winton Motor Ra