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Alcalde

Alcalde is the traditional Spanish municipal magistrate, who had both judicial and administrative functions. An alcalde was, in the absence of a corregidor, the presiding officer of the Castilian cabildo and judge of first instance of a town. Alcaldes were elected annually, without the right to reelection for two or three years, by the regidores of the municipal council; the office of the alcalde was signified by a staff of office, which they were to take with them when doing their business. A woman who holds the office is termed an Alcaldesa. In New Spain, alcaldes mayores were chief administrators in colonial-era administrative territories termed alcaldías mayores. Alcalde was a title given to Indian officials inside the Spanish missions, who performed a large variety of duties for the Franciscan missionaries; the office of the alcalde evolved during the Reconquista as new lands were settled by the expanding kingdoms of León and Castile. As fortified settlements in the area between the Douro and Tagus rivers became true urban centers, they gained, from their feudal lords or the kings of Leon and Castile, the right to have councils.

Among the rights that these councils had was to elect a municipal judge. These judges were assisted in their duties by various assistant judges, called alcaldes, whose number depended on the number of parishes the town had; the title alcalde was borrowed from the Arabic al-qaḍi, meaning "the judge."The word alcalde was used for simple judges, as in Andalusian Arabic. Only was it applied to the presiding municipal magistrate; this early use continued to be reflected in its other uses, such as alcaldes del crimen, the judges in the audiencias. Because of this, the municipal alcalde was referred to as an alcalde ordinario. By the end of the fourteenth century the definite form of the Castilian municipal council, the ayuntamiento or cabildo, had been established; the council was limited to a maximum of twenty-four members, who may be appointed for life by the crown, hold the office as an inherited possession or be elected by the citizens of the municipality. The number of magistrates, now called alcaldes, was limited to one or two, depending on the size of the city and who were elected annually by the regidores.

To ensure control over cabildos, the Castilian monarchs appointed a corregidor, who took over the role of the presiding officer of the council. The cabildo was taken to the Philippines by the Spanish conquistadors. Towns and villages in the Americas with the right to a council had one alcalde. Cities had two, the maximum number anywhere. Early in the conquest, adelantados had the right to appoint the alcaldes in the districts they settled, if they could attract the specified number of settlers to the area; this right could be inherited for one generation, after which the right of election returned to the municipal council. In modern Spanish, the term alcalde is equivalent to a mayor, is used to mean the local executive officer in municipalities throughout Spain and Latin America. For example, the title alcalde continued to be used in the Spanish-speaking American Commonwealth of Puerto Rico after the occupation of the island during the Spanish–American War in 1898. In the autonomous Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the alcaldes-presidentes have greater powers than their peninsular colleagues.

Because the United States incorporated parts of the former Viceroyalty of New Spain, the office had some influence in the local political and legal developments of those areas and is mentioned in judicial cases. This title continued to be in use in the Southwest United States after the Mexican–American War until a permanent political and judicial system could be established. Alcaldes were notorious for their support for rule of opposition to vigilantes. In nineteenth-century California, Stephen Johnson Field an associate justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, once served as the only alcalde of Marysville, California, a town established in 1850 during the Gold Rush by immigrants, who temporarily used the Spanish and Mexican form of municipal government. In Texas, the position of county judge was based on that of the alcalde which had existed in the state prior to the Texas Revolution. Like the alcaldes before them, county judges under the Texas Constitution wield both judicial and chief executive functions.

Although in larger counties today the county judge functions as county chief executive, in smaller counties, the role of the county judge continues to have many of the combined judicial and administrative functions of the alcalde. The city of Sonoma, California has a tradition to name an honorary title of Alcalde/Alcaldesa, to preside over ceremonial events of the city, with "mayor" being the official position of city governor. In Belize, any rural community may appoint an alcalde; the alcalde serves both judicial and administrative functions and is paid a small stipend by the government. The alcalde is responsible for managing communal land, judging disputes, determining punishment for petty crimes; this type of local government is most used by Maya communities in southern Belize. Alcalde ordinario Presidente municipal Mayor Sargento mayor Corre

Cleyde Y√°conis

Cleyde Yáconis, was a Brazilian actress. She began her career at Brazilian Comedy Theater with actress Cacilda Becker. Having a repertoire of more varied and illustrious theatrical dramaturgy nationwide. To Cleyde, has always been normal squad to play characters older than her own because of its contralto voice and her serious features, she participated in theater productions and television, in cinema but acted little in more than a half-century career. Her last TV role was fun Dona Brigida Gouveia, in the Silvio de Abreu's soap opera Passione, aired by Rede Globo. Among her television work, stand out Mulheres de Areia, Os Inocentes, Ninho da Serpente, Rainha da Sucata and Torre de Babel. On September 29, 2009, the former Cosipa Culture Theatre was renamed "Cleyde Yáconis Theatre" in honor of the actress who starred in the first play produced in the house - The Road to Mecca. In July 2010, she withdrew from Passione, she came back to production on August 12. Due to complications that had the implant prosthesis in her femur, the actress stayed away from the soap opera recordings for at least 15 days.

On April 15, 2013, she died at the Hospital Sírio Libanês. 1966 - O amor tem cara de mulher - Vanessa 1967 - Éramos Seis - Dona Lola 1968 - A Muralha - bandeirante 1968 - Os Diabólicos - Paula 1969 - A menina do veleiro azul 1969 - Vidas em conflito - Ana 1970 - Mais Forte que o Ódio - Clô 1973 - Mulheres de Areia - Clarita Assunção 1974 - Os Inocentes - Juliana 1975 - Ovelha Negra - Laura 1976 - O Julgamento - Mercedes 1976 - Um Dia, o Amor - Maria Eunice 1978 - Aritana - Elza 1979 - Gaivotas - Lídia 1980 - Um homem muito especial - Marta 1981 - Floradas na Serra - Dona Matilde 1981 - O fiel e a pedra 1981 - O vento do mar aberto - Clara 1982 - Campeão - Helena 1982 - Ninho da Serpente - Guilhermina Taques Penteado 1984 - Meus Filhos, Minha Vida - Adelaide 1985 - Uma Esperança no Ar 1990 - Rainha da Sucata - Isabelle de Bresson 1991 - Vamp - D. Virginia 1993 - Olho no Olho - D. Julieta 1993 - Sex Appeal - Cecília 1997 - Os Ossos do Barão - Melica Parente de Redon Pompeo e Taques 1998 - Torre de Babel - Diolinda Falcão 2001 - As Filhas da Mãe - Dona Gorgo Gutierrez 2004 - Um Só Coração - herself 2006 - Cidadão Brasileiro - Dona Joana Salles Jordão 2007 - Eterna Magia - Dona Chiquinha 2010 - Passione Bodas de Papel Célia & Rosita Jogo Duro Dora Doralina Parada 88 - O Limite de Alerta Beto Rockfeller A Madona de Cedro Na Senda do Crime Elas Não Gostam de Apanhar O Caminho para Meca de Athol Fugard A Louca de Chaillot de Jean Giroudoux Cinema Eden de Marguerite Duras Longa Jornada Noite A Dentro de Eugene O'Neill Péricles, o Príncipe de Tiro de William Shakespeare As Filhas de Lúcifer de William Luce Mambembe de Melhor Atriz O Baile de Máscaras de Mauro Rasi Molière de Melhor Atriz A Cerimônia do Adeus de Mauro Rasi O Jardim das Cerejeiras de Anton Tchekov A Nonna Os Amantes de Harold Pinter A Capital Federal de Arthur Azevedo Medeia de Eurípedes Édipo Rei de Sófocles O Fardão de Bráulio Pedroso As Fúrias de Rafael Alberti Toda Nudez Será Castigada de Nélson Rodrigues Molière de Melhor Atriz Vereda da Salvação de Jorge Andrade Os Ossos do Barão de Jorge Andrade Yerma de Federico García Lorca A Morte do Caixeiro Viajante de Arthur Miller A Escada de Jorge Andrade A Semente de Gianfrancesco Guarnieri O Pagador de Promessas de Dias Gomes O Santo e a Porca de Ariano Suassuna A Rainha e os Rebeldes de Ugo Betti Eurydice de Jean Anouilh Maria Stuart de Friedrich Schiller Leonor de Mendonça de Gonçalves Dias Assim É de Luigi Pirandello Ralé de Máximo Gorki Seis Personagens a Procura de um Autor de Luigi Pirandello Pega-Fogo de Jules Renard O Anjo de Pedra de Tennessee Williams Cleyde Yáconis on IMDb

An Entrance to the Paris Métropolitain

An Entrance to the Paris Métropolitain is a sculpture by Hector Guimard, conceived in 1902 and fabricated between 1902 and 1913. Guimard designed 141 entrances to the Paris Métro of varying types. One is featured at the National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden in Washington, D. C. Before the turn of the century, the French were lacking a public transportation system. During their time of reconstruction during the mid-1800s, London was building their “Underground.” This time would have been ideal for the French to build such a transportation system. City officials did realize at the time, that without a metro system, Paris would suffer in the future. Despite this, Parisians did not like the idea of something so industrial being all over the city; the French were so opposed to the idea of a metro that the first line had to be built underground without ripping up surface streets. The above ground effect was important to Parisians; this meant. After several designs were refused by the citizens of Paris a compromise was made to make the metro's above ground components a work of art rather than an industrial eyesore.

The entrances were said to be sleek and modern, but none of the proposed designs in the past had achieved either of these descriptions. Most of the previous designs were too bulky for Paris sidewalks. A contest was held to see who would design the above-ground stations; the winner, an architecture firm by the name of: Duray and Paumier. The decision was overruled by the chairman of the Conseil Municipal de Paris. Instead Hector Guimard, an art nouveau artist who had not entered the contest, won the honor of designing the entrances, he was chosen because of his own take on the “Art Nouveau” style and because his metal designs were cheaper and easier to make than other designs involving masonry and stone. Other than the practical reasons, Guimard's designs, which centered around sleek lines that come from natural curves of plants, were better made with steel. Guimard made different designs of above-ground entrances ranging from grand steel and glass pavilions to the most common type of entrance, a small railing, two lamps, a sign saying Metropolitain.

By 1904, 141 stations were completed. Parisians did not like the entrances. In fact they called the font which Guimard himself designed “un-French.” Parisians called the green on the entrance “german.” Despite the bad reception from Parisians, the entrances were kept up rather than being taken down because of popular opinion. All of the entrances were above ground, outdoors; because of this, they had to endure the sun and all of the damages that come with the elements. Many of the entrances began peeling and falling into disrepair. Many of the entrances were taken down before the Art Nouveau style was considered worthy to preserve. Right now, only 86 of the original 141 entrances remain in use; the ones that were not taken down had been repaired and repainted so many times that they bore little resemblance to the originals. Parisians grew to love the entrances as a symbol of Paris. One of the original entrances now stands in the sculpture garden at the National Gallery of Art; because the entrance was “repaired’ so much that none of the colors were original, it had to be restored by the gallery.

In fact, the existing paint layers were, “faded and chalky, were lifting from the cast iron structure” Layers of corrosion inhibitors and more durable paint had to be added for the harsh winters in Washington D. C; the restoration was done by conservators and contractors who restored the original “faux bronze” look which Guimard intended. Paris Métro entrances by Hector Guimard