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AlcobaƧa Monastery

The Alcobaça Monastery is a Roman Catholic monastic complex located in the town of Alcobaça, in central Portugal, some 120km north of Lisbon. The monastery was established in 1153 by the first Portuguese king, Afonso Henriques, would develop a close association with the Portuguese monarchy throughout its seven-century-long history; the church and monastery were the first Gothic buildings in Portugal, together with the older Augustinian Monastery of Santa Cruz in Coimbra, it was one of the most important mediaeval monasteries in Portugal. Due to its artistic and historical relevance, it was included in UNESCO's World Heritage Site list in 1989; the Alcobaça Monastery is one of the first buildings associated with the Cistercian Order in Portugal. It was founded in 1153 as a gift from the first Portuguese king, Afonso I or Afonso Henriques to Bernard of Clairvaux, following the king's conquest of the city of Santarém from the Moors in March 1147; the foundation of the monastery was part of a larger strategy by King Afonso I to assert his authority and promote the colonisation of lands conquered from the Moors during the "Reconquista Cristã" or Reconquista.

Construction began in 1178, some 25 years after the first Cistercian monks settled in the Alcobaça region. The monks lived in wooden houses, would only move to the newly built monastery in 1223; the church proper wasn't completed until 1252. Church and adjacent monastery are the earliest examples of Gothic architecture in Portugal, the church itself was the largest in Portugal at the time of its completion; the final touch in this large mediaeval ensemble was given in the late 13th century, when King Denis I ordered the construction of the Gothic cloister known as the Cloister of Silence. The monks dedicated their lives to religious meditation, creating illuminated manuscripts in a scriptorium; the monks from the monastery produced an early authoritative history on Portugal in a series of books. The library at Alcobaça was one of the largest Portuguese mediaeval libraries, but was pillaged by the invading French in 1810, many items were stolen in an anti-clerical riot in 1834, when the religious orders in Portugal were dissolved.

The remnants of the monastery library, including hundreds of mediaeval manuscripts, are kept today in the Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, Portugal's national library in Lisbon. During the Middle Ages, the monastery became a powerful and influential presence within the kingdom of Portugal; the monastery owned and developed extensive agriculture areas, the abbot exerted influence over a large area. A public school was opened in 1269; the importance of the monastery can be measured by the fact that many monarchs were buried here in the 13th and 14th centuries. Kings Afonso II and Afonso III and their queens Urraca of Castile and Beatrice of Castile are buried here, as well as King Pedro I and his mistress, Inês de Castro, murdered on the orders of Pedro's father, King Afonso IV. After being crowned king, Pedro commissioned two magnificent Gothic tombs for himself and his mistress, both of which can still be seen inside the monastery church. During the reign of Manuel I, a second floor was added to the cloister and a new sacristy was built, following the characteristic Portuguese late Gothic style known as "Manueline".

The monastery was further enlarged in the 18th century, with the addition of a new cloister and towers to the church, although the mediaeval structure was preserved. In the Baroque period, the monks were famous for their clay sculptures, many of them are still inside the monastery. Elaborate tiles and altarpieces completed the decoration of the church; the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake did not cause significant damage to the monastery, although part of the sacristy and some smaller buildings were destroyed. Far greater damage was caused by invading French troops in the first years of the 19th century during the Peninsular War, itself a part of the Napoleonic Wars. In addition to looting the library, they robbed the tombs and stole and burnt part of the inner decoration of the church. In 1834, with the dissolution of the monasteries in Portugal, the last monks left the monastery. Alcobaça Monastery was classified as a National Monument January 1, 1907 and included to the special protection zone on August 16, 1957.

The Alcobaça Monastery was built following an early Gothic style, represents the arrival of this style in Portugal. The church and other main buildings were constructed from 1178 until the end of the 13th century; the church was consecrated in 1252. Following the precepts of the Cistercian Order, the original monastic buildings were built along lean architectonic lines, without any decoration apart from some capital sculpture and a statue of the Virgin Mary; the main façade of the monastery has two plain-style wings with the church in the middle. The façade of the church is a mix of styles: the portal and the rose window above were part of the original church, while the statues and the two flanking towers were added in the beginning of the 18th century; the side walls of the church have crenellations and the apse has eight flying buttresses to support the weight of the vault of the apse, a typical feature of Gothic architecture. The first architect of the church, most of French origin, followed the design of the Abbey of Clairvaux, founded by Bernard of Clairvaux in 1115.

The church is a Latin-cross building with three aisles. The lateral aisles of the nave are as high as the central one, which together with the relative slenderness of the church and large length conveys an impression

Cayo Costa State Park

Cayo Costa State Park is a Florida State Park on Cayo Costa, directly south of Boca Grande, 12 miles west of Cape Coral and just north of North Captiva Island. The park is accessible only by private boat, ferry or helicopter. Cayo Costa was occupied by Calusa people until about 1700. Native Americans built a number of shell mounds on the island. Starting early in the 18th century, fishermen from Cuba began establishing ranchos, stations for catching and processing fish for the Havana market, along the southwest coast of the Florida peninsula from Tampa Bay to the Caloosahatchee River, possibibly including on Cayo Costa; the ranchos operated through the period of British rule, the second period of Spanish rule, into the period of American rule, until they were forced out during the Second Seminole War. Tervio Padilla known as "Captain Pappy", settled on Cayo Costa in the second half of the 19th century. Born in the Canary Islands, Padilla became a U. S. citizen in 1862. Padilla operated a rancho on Cayo Costa, where he and his workers caught and processed fish for the Cuban market.

A cemetery on the island holds the graves of Padilla and his wife, as well as of 30 Cuban fishermen who died in a 1910 hurricane. Cayo Costa Island is one of a chain of barrier islands that shelter Charlotte Harbor and Pine Island Sound; the park contains nine miles of soft white sandy beaches and 2,506 acres of pine forests, oak-palm hammocks, mangrove swamps. There is a variety of wildlife. Among the most looked-for animals found in Cayo Costa State Park are the sea turtles. There are four species found on the island, the loggerhead, hawksbill and Kemp's ridley. Cayo Costa has many volunteers who check the entire nine mile beach each morning during sea turtle nesting season to find new nests and document them, during the months of March through October in Southwest Florida; the loggerhead turtle is found far more than the others, the green turtle is a distant second. The loggerhead turtle and green turtle's eggs have the most diverse niches awhile hawksbill and Kemp's ridley do not, their niches rely on climate and weather which allow the eggs to survive on land and hatch.

Another species found on the island is the common raccoon. These animals pose a big problem during the sea turtle nesting season due to the fact that they are the most common species of predation on the eggs. Others types of predation on the eggs include: high tide, ants, ghost crabs, looting humans; the West Indian manatee is found coming up to the island beaches. This is considered an endangered animal, but the population is growing, they can be seen near the canals and docks of the island. The West Indian manatee is found in Puerto Rico. Although they are part of the same species, there is genetic diversity and allele frequency between the two populations; the bottlenose dolphin can be seen jumping and playing along the all nine miles of beaches on the island. Each dolphin has its own personal whistle. Dolphins are able to communicate through them. Scientists are able to put them with the individual dolphin that made them; the snowy egret can be found on the island. They stay near the beaches, they are a small white heron with yellow feet.

Both sexes of the snowy egret have the same features during the breeding season. The southern bald eagle can be found sitting up on the high trees; this is another threatened species. The eagles prefer fish, they scavenge and steal food when they are able to, the eagle hunts for live prey only as a last resort. The mother-in-law's tongue is found on the island; this plant is most seen as a house plant, but this invasive species came from one of the houses on the island and has spread widely. Staff is trying to rid the island of this invasive plant; the resurrection fern is found growing on trees throughout Cayo Costa. It is an epiphyte that if it is dehydrated, will curl up its leaves looking dead; when the plant receives water or rain, the plant will "come back to life" and reappear green and alive. Seagrape is found at Cayo Costa; the fruit comes about in the summer time during the wet season of southwest Florida. It starts out at a bright green grape ripens to a purplish color; the fruit consists of a large seed with little flesh.

It is well known of Florida natives to make wines from the grapes. This plant is native to the Caribbean; this plant can grow up to fifty feet tall, is close to the ocean because they are one of the few salt tolerant plants. Activities include hiking, off-road bicycling, kayaking, picnicking, shelling, wildlife viewing and sunbathing. Amenities include boat slips, hiking trails, picnic pavilions, 12 primitive camping cabins and bath house/restrooms; the park offers a small nature center/gift shop with nature exhibits as well as items for sale. The park has the following available for purchase: ice, sun lotion, bug spray, T-shirts, bird keys, shell keys, postcards. Cayo Costa has bikes available for half-day and

Belarusian Premier League (women)

The Belarusian Premier League is the top level women's football league of Belarus. The champion of the league qualifies for a spot in the UEFA Women's Champions League. In 2009 teams in the league played each other twice. In the 2010 season the teams play each other three times. In 2008 there were two playoff groups after the regular season. Teams 1 to 4 and 5 to 8 played a double round robin; the 2019 season is made up by the following teams. A list of all champions. 1992 Nadezhda Mahilyou 1993 Nadezhda Mahilyou 1994 Trikotazhnitsa Babruisk 1995 Viktoriya Brest 1996 Belkar Babruisk 1997 Babruichanka Babruisk 1998 Babruichanka Babruisk 1999 Babruichanka Babruisk 2000 Babruichanka Babruisk 2001 Babruichanka Babruisk 2002 Babruichanka Babruisk 2003 Babruichanka Babruisk 2004 Babruichanka Babruisk 2005 Universitet Vitebsk 2006 Universitet Vitebsk 2007 Zorka BDU 2008 Universitet Vitebsk 2009 Universitet Vitebsk 2010 Babruichanka Babruisk 2011 Babruichanka Babruisk 2012 Babruichanka Babruisk 2013 FC Minsk 2014 FC Minsk 2015 FC Minsk 2016 FC Minsk 2017 FC Minsk 2018 FC Minsk 2019 FC Minsk Official Site League at League at

Himmerod Abbey

Himmerod Abbey is a Cistercian monastery in the community of Großlittgen in the Verbandsgemeinde of Manderscheid in the district of Bernkastel-Wittlich, Rhineland-Palatinate, located in the Eifel, in the valley of the Salm. Himmerod Abbey is a direct foundation of Clairvaux. In its turn it founded a daughter house, Heisterbach Abbey, in 1189; the Baroque church was completed in 1751, but after secularisation from 1802 under French occupation fell into ruin. In 1922 the monastery was re-founded by the settlement here of German Cistercian monks from the former monastery of Mariastern in the present Bosnia; the church was re-built under Abbot Vitus Recke, completed in 1962, contains a famous organ by Johannes Klais. The new abbey founded the Abbey of the Holy Cross, Itaporanga near São Paulo in Brazil, in 1936; the abbey has a book - and art shop, a café, a guesthouse and retreat-house and a fishery. The last abbot is Bruno Fromme, in post since 1991. "German news agency dpa on Saturday quoted the monastery’s head, Abbot Johannes, as saying the financial situation and the small number of monks had played a key role in the decision.

The monastery’s property, near the village of Grosslittgen, will be transferred to the Catholic diocese of Trier, while the six monks will move to other monasteries. It was not clear what would happen to the monastery’s other staff." The abbey has its own publishing house, the Himmerod Drucke, which to date has published over 50 works by a number of authors Father Stephan Reimund Senge, a monk at Himmerod. The journal Unsere Liebe Frau von Himmerod appears three times a year, the newsletter Himmeroder Rundbrief about 10 times a year. From 5 October to 9 October 1950, officers of the former Wehrmacht, on the authority of the West German government, met in conference at Himmerod Abbey to prepare for Chancellor Konrad Adenauer to launch the re-armament of Germany; the conference produced the Himmerod memorandum, which laid out the prerequisites for re-armament and suggested what Germany could contribute to the defense of western Europe. This was an important step toward the official founding of the Bundeswehr in 1955.

Rainer M. Schröder: Das Geheimnis der weißen Mönche. Arena, 2002. ISBN 3-401-02150-8 Himmerod Abbey website The Klais Organ Initiative Sudan, an aid development project of Father Stephan from Himmerod

Lucy Herndon Crockett

Lucy Herndon Crockett was an American novelist and artist who illustrated her own books. She was born in Honolulu, the daughter of Nell Botts Crockett and Col. Cary Ingram Crockett. William Lewis Herndon, a commander in the U. S. Navy, was her great-uncle, she was educated at a number of different schools. She lived in the Philippines while her father was serving as an advisor to Governor-General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. an experience that fed into two of her earliest two books and His Nuong and That Mario. She served in World War II with the Red Cross, spending five years in New Caledonia, the Philippines and Korea. Of the nine books she wrote and illustrated, several reflect her life after the war; the Magnificent Bastards, her best-known book, was about her experiences with the U. S. Marine Corps, while Popcorn on the Ginza was about her time in occupied Japan; the Magnificent Bastards was made into a 1956 film starring William Holden and Deborah Kerr under the title The Proud and Profane. After the war, she lived in Smyth County, where she ran a gift shop.

Her papers are held by Virginia Tech. In 2015, the William King Museum of Art mounted an exhibition about her life, The Proud and the Profane: The Colorful Life and Illustrations of Lucy Herndon Crockett. Lucio and His Nuong: A Tale of the Philippine Islands Capitan: The Story of an Army Mule The Mario Uncle Bouqui of Haiti Popcorn on the Ginza: An Informal Portrait of Postwar Japan Teru: A Tale of Yokohama The Magnificent Bastards The Year Something Almost Happened in Pinoso Pong Choolie You Rascal


Maxakalisaurus is a genus of titanosaur sauropod dinosaur, found in the Adamantina Formation of Brazil, 45 kilometers from the city of Prata, in the state of Minas Gerais in 1998. It was related to Saltasaurus, a sauropod considered unusual because it had evolved defensive traits, including bony plates on its skin and vertical plates along its spine; the genus name is derived from the tribe of the Maxakali. The type specimen of Maxakalisaurus belonged to an animal about 13 meters long, with an estimated weight of 9 tons, according to paleontologist Alexander Kellner, it could have reached a length of 20 meters, it lived about 80 million years ago. Because sauropods seem to have lacked significant competition in South America, they evolved there with greater diversity and more unusual traits than elsewhere in the world."This is the biggest dinosaur yet described in Brazil," said Alexander Kellner, lead author of the scientific description. "We have found the bones of what appear to be larger dinosaurs, but we still haven't been able to put them together for scientific descriptions."In 2016, a new specimen comprising a dentary and teeth was described as belonging to Maxakalisaurus.

The phylogenetic analysis recovered Maxakalisaurus as an aeolosaurine along with Aeolosaurus and Gondwanatitan. A reconstructed Maxikalisaurus skeleton was on display in the National Museum of Brazil, it is unknown if it was damaged by the National Museum of Brazil fire on 2 September 2018. Santucci, R. M. & Bertini, R. J.. "A large sauropod titanosaur from Peirópolis, Bauru Group, Brazil." N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 2006: 344-360. Brazil's Biggest Dinosaur Unveiled -