FIFA Confederations Cup
The FIFA Confederations Cup was an international association football tournament for men's national teams, held every four years by FIFA. It was contested by the holders of each of the six continental championships, along with the current FIFA World Cup holder and the host nation, to bring the number of teams up to eight. Between 2005 and 2017, the tournament was held in the nation that would host the next World Cup, acting as a test event for the larger tournament; the last champions were Germany, who won the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup by defeating Chile 1–0 in the final to win their first title. In March 2019, FIFA confirmed that the tournament would no longer be active owing to an expansion of the FIFA Club World Cup in 2021; the tournament was organized by and held in Saudi Arabia and called the King Fahd Cup, contested in 1992 and 1995 by the Saudi national side and some continental champions. In 1997, FIFA took over the organization of the tournament, named it the FIFA Confederations Cup and staged the competition every two years.
After 2005, it was held every four years, in the year prior to each World Cup in the host country of the forthcoming World Cup. Considered a dress-rehearsal for the World Cup it precedes, it used around half of the stadiums intended for use at the following year's competition and gave the host nation, which qualified for that tournament automatically, experience at a high level of competition during two years of otherwise friendlies. At the same time, participation was made optional for European champions; the host nation, the World Cup holders, the six continental champions qualifed for the competition. In those cases where a team meets more than one of the qualification criteria, another team was invited to participate the runner-up in a competition that the extra-qualified team won. On four occasions teams have chosen not to participate in the tournament. Germany did so twice, in 1997 and in 2003 when Germany were awarded a place as the 2002 World Cup runners-up, replaced by the third-placed team Turkey.
World champions France declined a place in the 1999 Confederations Cup, replaced by Brazil, the 1998 World Cup runners-up. Italy, UEFA Euro 2000 runners up, declined their place in the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup. An earlier tournament that invited former World Cup winners, the Mundialito, celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the first World Cup; the Artemio Franchi Trophy, contested in 1985 and 1993 between the winners of the Copa América and UEFA European Football Championship, was another example of an earlier contest between football confederations. Both of these are considered by some to be a form of an unofficial precursor to the Confederations Cup, although FIFA recognised only the 1992 tournaments onwards to be Confederations Cup winners; the 2021 tournament was to be held in Qatar, the host country of the 2022 FIFA World Cup, as announced on 2 December 2010 after the country was awarded the hosting rights of the 2022 FIFA World Cup. However, concerns arose surrounding Qatar's high temperatures during the summer period.
On 25 February 2015, this resulted in FIFA announcing that it would move the 2021 Confederations Cup to another country of the Asian Football Confederation, so it could still be held during the traditional window of June/July 2021, without interrupting domestic leagues. As compensation, another FIFA tournament the 2021 FIFA Club World Cup, could be held in Qatar in November/December 2021, as the test event for the 2022 World Cup. In October 2017, FIFA divulged plans to abolish the Confederations Cup by 2021 and replace it with a quadrennial, twenty-four team FIFA Club World Cup and move the latter tournament from December to June. On 15 March 2019, FIFA announced that the Confederations Cup would be abolished, with the 2021 FIFA Club World Cup taking place instead; the eight qualified teams are drawn into two round-robin groups: two teams from the same confederation cannot be drawn in a group, except if there are three teams from the same confederation. Every team plays all other teams in their group once, for a total three matches.
The top two teams of each group advance to the semi-finals, with the winners of each group playing the runners-up of the other group. The rankings of teams in each group are determined as follows: If two or more teams are equal on the basis of the above three criteria, their rankings are determined as follows: The winners of the semi-finals advanced to the final, while the losers played in the third-place game. For the knockout stage if the score was drawn at the end of regular time, extra time was played and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winner; the first two editions were in fact the defunct King Fahd Cup. FIFA recognized them retroactively as Confederations Cup editions. *: Hosts FIFA Confederations Cup on FIFA.com
1994 FIFA World Cup
The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States, from 17 June to 17 July 1994. The United States was chosen as the host by FIFA on 4 July 1988. Despite the host nation's lack of soccer tradition, the tournament was the most financially successful in World Cup history; the total attendance of nearly 3.6 million for the final tournament remains the highest in World Cup history, despite the expansion of the competition from 24 to 32 teams, first introduced at the 1998 World Cup and is the current format. Brazil won the tournament after beating Italy 3–2 in a penalty shoot-out at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California near Los Angeles, after the game had ended 0–0 after extra time, it was the first World Cup final to be decided on penalties. The victory made Brazil the first nation to win four World Cup titles. There were four new entrants in the tournament: Greece, Saudi Arabia, as well as two countries that were formed at the end of the Cold War: Russia, following the breakup of the Soviet Union, for the first time since 1938, a newly reunified Germany took part in the tournament, following Germany reunification in October 1990, a few months after West Germany's victory in the 1990 World Cup.
Three teams, one African, one Asian, one European, made their debuts at the 1994 tournament. Nigeria qualified from the African zone alongside Cameroon and Morocco as CAF was granted three spots as a result of the strong performances by African teams in 1990. In the Asian zone, Saudi Arabia qualified for the first time by topping the final round group ahead of South Korea as both edged out Japan, who were close to making their own World Cup debut, but were denied by Iraq in what became known as the "Agony of Doha"; the Japanese would not have to wait long though. In the European zone, Greece made their first World Cup appearance after topping a group from which Russia qualified, competing independently for the first time after the dissolution of the Soviet Union; the defending champions West Germany were united with their East German counterparts, representing the unified Germany for the first time since the 1938 World Cup. Norway qualified for the first time since 1938, Bolivia for the first time since 1950, Switzerland for the first time since 1966.
Norway's 56-year gap between appearances in the final tournament equaled Egypt's record in the previous tournament as the longest. Mexico had its first successful qualification campaign since 1978, failing to qualify in 1982, qualifying as hosts in 1986 and being banned for the Cachirules scandal in 1990; the qualification campaigns of both Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were affected by political events. The nation of Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, completing its qualifying group under the name "Representation of Czechs and Slovaks", but failed to qualify for the finals, having been edged out by Romania and Belgium in Group 4. Yugoslavia was suspended from international competition in 1992 as part of United Nations sanctions against the country as a result of the Yugoslav Wars; the sanctions were not lifted until 1994, by which time it was no longer possible for the team to qualify. Chile's suspension from the 1990 FIFA World Cup, following the forced interruption of their qualification game against Brazil, extended to the 1994 qualifiers as well.
This was the second World Cup for which neither England, Northern Ireland nor Wales qualified, with England missing out after having finished fourth in the 1990 tournament, Scotland failing to qualify for the first time since 1970. France, designated as hosts of the 1998 tournament missed out following surprise home losses to Israel and Bulgaria; this was the second World Cup in a row for which France had failed to qualify, the last one to date to not feature England and Japan. Other notable absentees were 1990 Round of 16 participants Uruguay, UEFA Euro 1992 champions Denmark, Poland and Hungary; the following 24 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournamentː Three nations bid for host duties: United States and Morocco. The vote was held in Zurich on 4 July 1988, only took one round with the United States bid receiving a little over half of the votes by the Exco members. FIFA hoped that by staging the world's most prestigious tournament there, it would lead to a growth of interest in the sport.
One condition FIFA imposed was the creation of a professional football league – Major League Soccer was founded in 1993 and began operating in 1996. There was some initial controversy about awarding the World Cup to a country where football was not a nationally popular sport, at the time, in 1988, the U. S. did not have a professional league of its own anymore. Success of the 1984 Summer Olympics the soccer tournament contributed to FIFA's decision. Despite the controversy, the U. S. staged a hugely successful tournament, with average attendance of nearly 70,000 breaking a record that surpassed the 1966 FIFA World Cup average attendance of 51,000, thanks to the large seating capacities the stadiums in the United States provided for the spectators in comparison to the smaller venues of Europe and Latin America. To this day, the total attendance for
Serie A called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia. It has been operating for over eighty years since the 1929–30 season, it had been organized by Lega Calcio until 2010, when the Lega Serie A was created for the 2010–11 season. Serie A is regarded as one of the best football leagues in the world and it is depicted as the most tactical national league. Serie A was the world's second-strongest national league in 2014 according to IFFHSand has produced the highest number of European Cup finalists: Italian clubs have reached the final of the competition on 27 occasions, winning the title 12 times. Serie A is ranked third among European leagues according to UEFA's league coefficient, behind La Liga, Premier League, ahead of Bundesliga and Ligue 1, based on the performance of Italian clubs in the Champions League and the Europa League during the last five years.
Serie A led the UEFA ranking from 1986 to 1988 and from 1990 to 1999. In its current format, the Italian Football Championship was revised from having regional and interregional rounds, to a single-tier league from the 1929–30 season onwards; the championship titles won prior to 1929 are recognised by FIGC with the same weighting as titles that were subsequently awarded. However, the 1945–46 season, when the league was played over two geographical groups due to the ravages of WWII, is not statistically considered if its title is official. All the winning teams are recognised with the title of Campione d'Italia, ratified by the Lega Serie A before the start of the next edition of the championship; the league hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus and Internazionale, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs from 2000 to 2008, being the first two cited founding members of its successive organisation, European Club Association.
More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any league in the world other than Spain's La Liga. – although Spain's La Liga has the highest total number of Ballon d'Or winners. Juventus, Italy's most successful club of the 20th century and the most successful Italian team, is tied for fourth in Europe and eighth in the world with the most official international titles; the club is the only one in the world to have won all possible official confederation competitions. Milan is joint third club for official international titles won in the world, with 18. Internazionale, following their achievements in the 2009–10 season, became the first Italian team to have achieved a treble. Inter are the only team in Italian football history to have never been relegated. Juventus and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina and Napoli, are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football. Serie A is one of the most storied football leagues in the world. Of the 100 greatest footballers in history chosen by FourFourTwo magazine in 2017, 42 players have played in Serie A, more than any other league in the world.
Juventus is the team that has produced the most World Cup champions, with Inter and Milan, being third and ninth in that ranking. Serie A, as it is structured today, began during the 1929–30 season. From 1898 to 1922, the competition was organised into regional groups; because of growing teams attending regional championships, the Italian Football Federation split the CCI in 1921. When CCI teams rejoined the FIGC created two interregional divisions renaming Categories into Divisions and splitting FIGC sections into two North-South leagues. In 1926, due to internal crises, the FIGC changed internal settings, adding southern teams to the national division leading to the 1929–30 final settlement. No title was awarded in 1927 after Torino were stripped of the championship by the FIGC. Torino were declared champions in the 1948–49 season following a plane crash near the end of the season in which the entire team was killed; the Serie A Championship title is referred to as the scudetto because since the 1924–25 season, the winning team will bear a small coat of arms with the Italian tricolour on their strip in the following season.
The most successful club is Juventus with 34 championships, followed by both Milan and Internazionale, with 18 championships apiece. From the 2004–05 season onwards, an actual trophy was awarded to club on the pitch after the last turn of the championship; the trophy, called the Coppa Campioni d'Italia, has been used since the 1960–61 season, but between 1961 and 2004 was consigned to the winning clubs at the head office of the Lega Nazionale Professionisti. In April 2009, Serie A announced a split from Serie B. Nineteen of the twenty clubs voted in favour of the move in an argument over television rights. Maurizio Beretta, the former head of Italy's employers' association, became president of the new league. In April 2016, it was announced that Serie A was selected by the International Football Association Board to test video replays, which were private for the 2016–17 season, allowing them to become a live pilot phase, with replay assistance implemented in the 2017–18 season. On the decision, FIGC President Carlo Tavecchio said, "We were among the first supporters of using technology on the pitch and we believe we have everything required to offer our contribution to this important experiment."
For most of Serie A's history, there were 16 or 18
1995 Copa América
The 1995 Copa América football tournament was staged in Uruguay. It was won by Uruguay. All 10 CONMEBOL members took part, with Mexico and the USA invited in order to reach 12 teams; the USA were the surprise of the tournament, beating defending champions Argentina 3–0 and winning the group. The USA went on to defeat Mexico on penalties in the second round but lost to Brazil 1–0 in the semi-finals, they fell to Colombia 4–1 in the third-place game, finishing fourth overall. In this edition of the tournament, extra time was not played. Instead it went straight to a penalty shootout. For a complete list of all participating squads: 1995 Copa América squads The teams were divided into three groups of four teams each; each team plays one match against each of the other teams within the same group. Three points are awarded for one point for a draw and zero points for a defeat. First and second placed teams, in each group, advance to the quarter-finals; the best third placed team and the second best third placed team advance to the quarter-finals.
Tie-breaker If teams finish leveled on points, the following tie-breakers are used:greater goal difference in all group games. At the end of the first stage, a comparison was made between the third-placed teams of each group; the two third-placed teams with the best results advanced to the quarter-finals. With four goals, Gabriel Batistuta and Luis García both ended the tournament as top scorers. In total, 69 goals were scored with three of them credited as own goals. Copa América 1995 at RSSSF
A.S. Roma Hall of Fame
This is a list of A. S. Roma players who have been inducted into the club's Hall of Fame. A. S. Roma's Hall of Fame has been launched in 2012 as part of the initiatives for the club's 85th anniversary. Exceptionally for the starting 2012 Class, eleven players were chosen through an on-line voting process from an initial list of 55 retired players, composed by one goalkeeper, one right-back, two central defenders, one left-back, two midfielders, one playmaker, three strikers. In the following years, the number of players elected has been intentionally reduced. In 2017, following the retirement of Roma legend Francesco Totti, no players but him were included into the list. Nationality column refers to the country represented internationally by the player; as Roma Hall of Fame at ASRoma.it
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League is an annual club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations and contested by top-division European clubs. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world and the most prestigious club competition in European football, played by the national league champions of the strongest UEFA national associations. Introduced in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup, more known as the European Cup, it was a straight knockout tournament open only to the champion club of each national championship; the competition took on its current name in 1992, adding a round-robin group stage and allowing multiple entrants from certain countries. It has since been expanded, while most of Europe's national leagues can still only enter their champion, the strongest leagues now provide up to five teams. Clubs that finish next-in-line in their national league, having not qualified for the Champions League, are eligible for the second-tier UEFA Europa League competition.
In its present format, the Champions League begins in late June with four knockout qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 6 surviving teams enter the group stage; the 32 teams are drawn into eight groups of four teams and play each other in a double round-robin system. The eight group winners and eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in May; the winner of the Champions League qualifies for the FIFA Club World Cup. The competition has been won by 22 clubs. Real Madrid is the most successful club in the tournament's history, having won it 13 times, including its first five seasons. Real Madrid are the reigning champions. Spanish clubs have the highest number of victories, followed by Italy. England has the largest number of winning teams, with five clubs having won the title; the first pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Mitropa Cup, a competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, played between Central European clubs.
In 1930, the Coupe des Nations, the first attempt to create a cup for national champion clubs of Europe, was played and organised by Swiss club Servette. Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent; the tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary. Latin European nations came together to form the Latin Cup in 1949. After receiving reports from his journalists over the successful Campeonato Sudamericano de Campeones of 1948, Gabriel Hanot, editor of L'Équipe, began proposing the creation of a continent-wide tournament. After Stan Cullis declared Wolverhampton Wanderers "Champions of the World" following a successful run of friendlies in the 1950s, in particular a 3–2 friendly victory against Budapest Honvéd, Hanot managed to convince UEFA to put into practice such a tournament, it was conceived in Paris in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup. The first edition of the European Cup took place during the 1955–56 season. Sixteen teams participated: Milan, AGF Aarhus, Djurgården, Gwardia Warszawa, Partizan, PSV Eindhoven, Rapid Wien, Real Madrid, Rot-Weiss Essen, Saarbrücken, Sporting CP, Stade de Reims, Vörös Lobogó.
The first European Cup match took place on 4 September 1955, ended in a 3–3 draw between Sporting CP and Partizan. The first goal in European Cup history was scored by João Baptista Martins of Sporting CP; the inaugural final took place at the Parc des Princes between Stade de Real Madrid. The Spanish squad came back from behind to win 4–3 thanks to goals from Alfredo Di Stéfano and Marquitos, as well as two goals from Héctor Rial. Real Madrid defended the trophy next season in their home stadium, the Santiago Bernabéu, against Fiorentina. After a scoreless first half, Real Madrid scored twice in six minutes to defeat the Italians. In 1958, Milan failed to capitalise after going ahead on the scoreline twice, only for Real Madrid to equalise; the final held in Heysel Stadium went to extra time where Francisco Gento scored the game-winning goal to allow Real Madrid to retain the title for the third consecutive season. In a rematch of the first final, Real Madrid faced Stade Reims at the Neckarstadion for the 1958–59 season final winning 2–0.
West German side Eintracht Frankfurt became the first non-Latin team to reach the European Cup final. The 1959–60 season finale still holds the record for the most goals scored, with Real Madrid beating Eintracht Frankfurt 7-3 in Hampden Park, courtesy of four goals by Ferenc Puskás and a hat-trick by Alfredo Di Stéfano; this was a record that still stands today. Real Madrid's reign ended in the 1960–61 season when bitter rivals Barcelona dethroned them in the first round. Barcelona themselves, would be defeated in the final by Portuguese side Benfica 3–2 at Wankdorf Stadium. Reinforced by Eusébio, Benfica defeated Real Madrid 5–3 at the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam and kept the title for a second, consecutive season. Benfica wanted to repeat Real Madrid's successful run of the 1950s after reaching the showpiece event of the 1962–63 European Cup, but a brace from Brazilian-Italian José Altafini at the Wembley Stadi
Ilhéus is a major city located in the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil, 211 km south of Salvador, the state's capital. The city was founded in 1534 as Vila de São Jorge dos Ilhéus and is known as one of the most important tourism centers of the northeast of Brazil. Ilhéus has 222,000 inhabitants, with an area of 1850 km sq, its downtown is located 1 km away from the Atlantic Ocean. Once one of the biggest exporters of cocoa beans, the city depends entirely on tourism; the city's economy is based on tourism, as a result of its beaches and cultural heritage that includes early Portuguese buildings and culinary distinctions, which bring to the city many Brazilian and foreign tourists. Ilhéus is the hometown of the best known and most popular writer in Brazil, he wrote over 25 novels, which were translated into 48 languages and stayed on bestseller lists in 52 countries. His novels like Gabriela and Cinnamon and Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands portray life and customs in the Northeastern region of Brazil.
The plots of these and his other major works treat the lives of poor urban and rural black and mulatto communities of Bahia, as well as the land wars that raged in Ilhéus, where cocoa barons killed each other for power and cocoa plantations. The municipality contains a small part of the 23,262 hectares Una Wildlife Refuge, which surrounds the Una Biological Reserve in the neighboring municipality of Una, it contains 15% of the 9,275 hectares Serra do Conduru State Park, created in 1997. It contains part of the 157,745 hectares Lagoa Encantada e Rio Almada Environmental Protection Area, created in 1993; the APA is threatened by water pollution from sewage and garbage, since most of the communities have no sanitation. There are irregular settlements of squatters in the coastal area. Other threats include irregular fishing, fires and the illegal trade in wild animals. Do Norte Mixing a strip of coconut trees with rich vegetation of native Atlantic Forest, running parallel to the beach for many kilometers there is the Almada River.
There visitors will find standardized stalls and a long bicycle lane. It is a good place for swimming, walking and fishing. São Miguel It is a beach, with coconut trees, clear sands, calm waters; the infrastructure on the beach includes lodges located in the local fishermen's village. Da Avenida Centrally located, its main attractions are on the seashore, where many facilities have been built, such as multiple-activity sports courts, a bike lane, a band shell, the Luís Eduardo Magalhães Conventions Center. Do Cristo As its name indicates, there is a statue of the Redeeming Christ on this popular beach for tourists, its waters are recommended for various water sports, such as kayaking, jet-skiing, Hobie Cat sailing. Da Concha A small-sized beach, with a total width of only 100 meters. From there, tourists have a good view of the Baía do Pontal and of the Avenida Beach. Located at the base of Pernambuco Hill, it still has areas of native vegetation mixed with many coconut trees, its waters are ideal for swimming.
Do Sul Having as its main characteristic a thick field of coconut trees and traces of the native Atlantic Forest, this urban beach is one of the busies beaches in the city. Along its whole length tourists will find a great number of food stalls, most of which specialize in the typical dishes of the state of Bahia. In the sea, there are stretches of natural swimming pools with sandy bottoms. Dos Milionários Its name is a direct consequence of the fact that it was the beach of choice of the rich cocoa “colonels”. Today, it is the most desired beach on the south coast, by swimmers and tourists alike, who love its long strip of sand bordered by a row of coconut trees, its infrastructure includes a camping site, several standardized stalls and rest rooms. CururupeA rich beach in number of growths of mangroves, it has rental huts and kayaks, it has great historical importance, because it was the stage of a fierce battle in 1559, which destroyed completely the village of the Brazilian Indians. Back DoorThe first beach of the Olivença district, the Back Door beach is characterized by its enormous waves.
Because of this, the beach has become the beach of choice for the most important surfing championships held in the state of Bahia. BatubaIts landscape is a mix of vast areas of many reefs, it is a busy beach, much appreciated by surfers. There are several adjacent restaurants specializing in seafood. There is a good camping site, with all the usual facilities. Cai N’água With well equipped stalls, many swimming areas of clear still water, this beach is perfect for the enjoyment of families, it is located within the zone of the settlement with the same name, contains many summer vacation houses as well. CanabravaOne of the favorite beaches for vacationers, on the beach there are countless rental houses and cottages, its landscape is a mix of coconut tree fields, coral reefs, large resorts. AcuípeThis beach has a special landscape, with a mix of sandbank vegetation and a beautiful spread of coconut trees. In Acuípe, tourists will find several hotels and lodges offering visitors an excellent infrastructure.
The beach is good for walking, sea bathing, reel fishing. Museu Casa de Cultura Jorge Amado The estate was bought by Colonel J