Aldenham is a village and civil parish in Hertfordshire, 3.5 miles north-east of Watford and 2 miles southwest of Radlett. It is one of Hertsmere's 14 conservation areas; this secluded little village has eight pre-19th century buildings that are listed buildings and the parish itself is unchanged, though buildings have been rebuilt, since Saxon times when the majority of the land was owned by the abbots of Westminster Abbey. In the Index of Multiple Deprivation, the ward of Aldenham East was ranked the least deprived ward out of 8414 in England, while Aldenham West featured among the least deprived three per cent in the country. Radlett forms the eastern part of the civil parish. For most recorded history Aldenham was administered together with the nearby settlement of Radlett, which until the modern era was of comparable size. In 1086 in the Domesday Book, Aldenham parish appears to have straddled the boundary of two ancient hundreds: Danish Hundred and St. Albans Hundred; the Domesday surveyors were recording a property ownership dispute, ongoing for three centuries regarding forested land.
The Church of St John the Baptist in Aldenham village is seven hundred and fifty years old and there is good reason to believe that an earlier Saxon church stood on the site. After the Reformation the lands were sold off to the highest bidders and Aldenham is smaller today than it was 500 years ago. In 1940, a German air attack damaged stained glass and removed the "Hertfordshire Spike" – the spire on the top of the tower. Restoration work was completed in 1951. Both the church and the village have been used in many films and television programmes, being within easy travelling distance of Elstree Studios; these have included the film Confessions of a Window Cleaner, BBC television series Pathfinders, the Coldplay music video for "Life in Technicolor II", to name but a few. Although it gave its name to the Aldenham Bus Works owned by London Transport, Aldenham Works was located at nearby Elstree. Round Bush is on the B462 road, in the Hertsmere District and lies to the east, less than 300 metres away.
Its population size and number of buildings make it a smaller settlement. However, Round Bush has one pub A more average size hamlet, the centre with the vast majority of the homes due to surrounding cultivated larger sized farms – is where three roads meet at a public house; this is the largest hamlet, is 0.8 miles southeast, it is larger in population size than the village itself, see Letchmore Heath. On Hilfield Lane, Patchetts Green is a hamlet of several historic houses, including the Three Compasses public house, Little Patchetts Green Farm and Patchetts Farm; the other listed buildings here are: Delrow Cottage, Delrow Almshouses and Garden CottageCrossways Cottage is just northeast of the Infant School and almshouses and is opposite the junction of the lane leading to Letchmore Heath. Close to the church stand a number of buildings of historical interest; the earliest of these is Aldenham Social Club – a late medieval hall house dating from around 1500. To the west of the churchyard stands Church Farm House and to the east the old vicarage, a fine example of early 18th century red brick architecture.
The parish of Aldenham has two British public schools: Aldenham School and the Haberdashers' Aske's Boys School. Wall Hall is a magnificent gothic revival mansion with a castellated façade created in the early nineteenth century; the golf and country park is central to the village in Church Lane. Aldenham Country Park is council-owned land, some distance away from the old village closer to the two southern hamlets it has a 60 acres lake, Hillfield Reservoir and is south of Letchmore Heath. Directly south of the country park is Aldenham Sailing Club which enjoys Aldenham Reservoir a 50 acres wide boxing glove shaped lake next to Elstree. Aldenham Aldenham in the Domesday Book
Sir Samuel Wilks, 1st Baronet, was a British physician and biographer. Samuel Wilks was born on 2 June 1824 in Camberwell, the second son of Joseph Barber Wilks, a cashier at the East India House. After attending Aldenham School and University College School he was apprenticed to Richard Prior, a doctor in Newington. In 1842 he entered Guy's Hospital to study medicine. After graduating MB in 1848 he was hired as a physician to the Surrey Infirmary. In 1856 he returned to Guy's Hospital, first as assistant physician and curator of its museum as physician and lecturer on medicine. From 1866 to 1870 he was examiner in the practice of medicine at the University of London and from 1868 to 1875 examiner in medicine at the Royal College of Surgeons. Among his major discoveries, Wilks recognised ulcerative colitis in 1859, differentiating it from bacterial dysentery, his work was confirmed by Sir Arthur Hurst. Wilks' autopsy of a 42-year-old woman who died after several months of diarrhoea and fever demonstrated a transmural ulcerative inflammation of the colon and terminal ileum.
Wilks firstly described trichorrhexis nodosa, in 1852. The term was proposed in 1876 by a Hungarian dermatologist. In 1957, he provided the first autopsy description of a condition of the upper airways known as tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica. Subsequently, in 1868, he published the characteristic mental symptoms on alcoholic paraplegia. Wilks described the first case of myasthenia gravis, in 1877, he was a collaborator and biographer of the "Three Great", contemporary physicians who worked at Guy's Hospital, Dr. Thomas Addison, the discoverer of Addison's disease, Dr. Richard Bright, discoverer of Bright's disease and Dr. Thomas Hodgkin, discoverer of Hodgkin's lymphoma. After the death of Addison in 1860, he carried out the job of examining specimens from all over the country in order to confirm the diagnosis of Addison's disease and thus was able to amass a large case archive, he rediscovered and confirmed the existence of Hodgkin's lymphoma, at the same time recognizing Hodgkin's priority and proposing the eponym.
Among his many services and honors, Wilks was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1870. He was named Physician Extraordinary to Queen Victoria in 1897; the following year he was created a baronet, of Grosvenor Street in the Parish of Saint George Hanover Square in the County of London. In life he suffered a stroke and was terminally paraplegic, he died aged 87 at his home in Hampstead on 8 November 1911. After his death the baronetcy became extinct, he had married widow of previous employer Richard Prior. Lectures on Pathological Anatomy, 1869 Lectures on the Specific Fevers and on Diseases of the Chest, 1874 Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System, 1878 Lectures on Pathology Delivered at the London Hospital. J & A Churchill, London, 1891. A Biographical History of Guy's Hospital, 1892 Leigh Rayment's list of baronets Kauntze R.: Samuel Wilks. Guy's Hosp Rep. 1970. Eadie, Mervyn J. "Samuel Wilks: neurologist and generalist of the Mid-Victorian Era". Journal of Medical Biography. 16: 215–20.
Doi:10.1258/jmb.2007.007042. PMID 18952992; the Wilks Report on Addison's Disease complete
Watford Football Club is a professional football club based in Watford, England, that plays in the Premier League, the highest level in the English football league system. Founded in 1898 by the amalgamation of West Herts and Watford St. Mary's. After finishing the 1914–15 season as Southern League champions under the management of Harry Kent, Watford joined the Football League in 1920; the club played at several grounds in its early history, before moving to a permanent location at Vicarage Road in 1922, where it remains. Watford spent most of the following half century in the lower divisions of The Football League, changing colours and crest on multiple occasions. England manager Graham Taylor's tenure at the club saw Watford scale new heights. Between Taylor's appointment in 1977 and departure in 1987, Watford rose from the Fourth Division to the First Division; the team finished second in the First Division in the 1982–83 season, competed in the UEFA Cup in 1983–84, reached the 1984 FA Cup Final.
Watford experienced a decade of decline between 1987 and 1997, before Taylor returned as full-time manager, leading the team to successive promotions from the renamed Second Division to the Premier League for one season in 1999–2000. The club experienced a further one season stint in the top division of English football during the 2006–07 season, under Aidy Boothroyd's management. Watford secured promotion in 2014–15, have competed in the Premier League since the 2015–16 season finishing 13th, 17th and 14th respectively. Watford is owned by the Pozzo family, which owns Udinese Calcio in Italy and Granada CF in Spain. Sir Elton John, who owned Watford during both of Graham Taylor's successful periods as manager, served alongside Taylor as the club's joint Honorary Life President until 2008, only to resume the role he shared alongside Graham Taylor until Taylor's death. Watford Football Club was formed on 15 April 1898 by the amalgamation of two strong local clubs, West Herts and Watford St Mary's.
The Watford Observer of 7 May 1898 reported - When three-parts of the season was gone, there were whispers of the advantages of amalgamation of the two clubs. That the principle was right few disputed, the question narrowed itself down to a few minor difficulties, it was ascertained that the executive on both sides regarded the suggestion favourably, joint meetings of the officials were arranged. The proposals took a definite shape, soon amalgamation was a thing accomplished, it was decided, that each club should finish off its fixtures. Next season the Watford club will play on the Cassio-Road ground, one of the chief ideas of the amalgamation is to have a second team of sufficient strength to be an attraction while the first string is engaged elsewhere; the details of the amalgamation scheme we have given in these columns. Speaking the local football season which has just closed has been a most important one, it has witnessed two steps which have marked fresh epochs - the adoption of professionalism and the amalgamation of West Herts and Watford St. Mary's.
The amalgamation was approved by the full F. A. committee on 27 May 1898 as reported by the Lichfield Mercury of 28 May 1898 "permission was given to Watford St. Mary's and West Herts to take the name of Watford Football Club, the two clubs having amalgamated." West Herts were known as Watford Rovers who were formed in 1881 by Henry Grover, who went on to play for the club as a full back. Rovers composed of amateur players, held home games at several locations in the town of Watford; the team first competed in the FA Cup in the 1886–87 season, in 1889 Watford won the County Cup for the first time. The team became the football section of "West Hertfordshire Club and Ground" in 1891, moved to a ground on Cassio Road; as "West Herts" they joined the Southern Football League in 1896. West Herts fortunes slumped at the start of the 1897/98 season and attendances were less than 200, they took the bold step of turning their fortunes revived. Watford St. Mary's were runners up in the Hertfordshire Senior Cup of 1894/95 and attracted crowds of 400 to 500 when West Herts were at home.
The two clubs talked of an amalgamation, which occurred on 15 April 1898. This was reported by the Watford Observer of 7 May 1898, it was agreed. The new club was named Watford Football Club. Following relegation to the Southern League Second Division in 1903, Watford appointed its first manager – former England international and First Division top scorer John Goodall, he led Watford to promotion, kept the team in the division until his departure in 1910. Despite financial constraints, Watford won the Southern League title in the 1914–15 season under his successor, Harry Kent. Watford held the title for five years following the suspension of the Southern League during the First World War – after finishing the 1919–20 season runners-up on goal average, the club resigned from the Southern League to join the new Football League Third Division. From 1921–22, the third tier of The Football League consisted of two parallel sections of 22 clubs, fighting both for promotion to the Second Division and battling to hold on to their league status.
There was a re-election system in place which meant the bottom two teams in each of the two divisions had to apply for re-election to the league. Watford finished outside the top six league positions in every season between 1922 and 1934. Following Kent's departure in 1926, they finished 21st out of 22 clubs in 1926–27, but were unanimously re-elected to the league after a ballot of clubs in the top two divisions of The Football
Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice sometimes called the World Court, is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It settles legal disputes submitted by states and gives advisory opinions on legal issues referred by authorized U. N. organs and specialized agencies. Through its opinions and rulings, the ICJ serves as a source of international law; the ICJ is the successor of the Permanent Court of International Justice, established by the League of Nations in 1920 and began its first session in 1922. After the Second World War, both the League and the PCIJ were dissolved and replaced by the United Nations and ICJ, respectively; the Statute of the ICJ draws from that of its predecessor, the latter's cases remain valid opinio juris. All members of the U. N. are party to the ICJ Statute. The ICJ comprises a panel of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and Security Council for nine-year terms, it is seated in the Peace Palace in The Hague, making it the only principal U. N. organ not located in New York City.
Its official working languages are French. Established in 1945 by the UN Charter, the court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice; the Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the court. The court's workload covers a wide range of judicial activity. After the court ruled that the United States's covert war against Nicaragua was in violation of international law, the United States withdrew from compulsory jurisdiction in 1986 to accept the court's jurisdiction only on a discretionary basis. Chapter XIV of the United Nations Charter authorizes the UN Security Council to enforce Court rulings. However, such enforcement is subject to the veto power of the five permanent members of the Council, which the United States used in the Nicaragua case; the ICJ is composed of fifteen judges elected to nine-year terms by the UN General Assembly and the UN Security Council from a list of people nominated by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
The election process is set out in Articles 4–19 of the ICJ statute. Elections are staggered, with five judges elected every three years to ensure continuity within the court. Should a judge die in office, the practice has been to elect a judge in a special election to complete the term. No two judges may be nationals of the same country. According to Article 9, the membership of the court is supposed to represent the "main forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems of the world"; that has meant common law, civil law and socialist law. There is an informal understanding that the seats will be distributed by geographic regions so that there are five seats for Western countries, three for African states, two for Eastern European states, three for Asian states and two for Latin American and Caribbean states. For most of the court's history, the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council have always had a judge serving, thereby occupying three of the Western seats, one of the Asian seats and one of the Eastern European seats.
Exceptions have been China not having a judge on the court from 1967 to 1985, during which time it did not put forward a candidate, British judge Sir Christopher Greenwood being withdrawn as a candidate for election for a second nine-year term on the bench in 2017, leaving no judges from the United Kingdom on the court. Greenwood had been supported by the UN Security Council but failed to get a majority in the UN General Assembly. Indian judge Dalveer Bhandari instead took the seat. Article 6 of the Statute provides that all judges should be "elected regardless of their nationality among persons of high moral character" who are either qualified for the highest judicial office in their home states or known as lawyers with sufficient competence in international law. Judicial independence is dealt with in Articles 16–18. Judges of the ICJ are not able to act as counsel. In practice, members of the court have their own interpretation of these rules and allow them to be involved in outside arbitration and hold professional posts as long as there is no conflict of interest.
A judge can be dismissed only by a unanimous vote of the other members of the court. Despite these provisions, the independence of ICJ judges has been questioned. For example, during the Nicaragua case, the United States issued a communiqué suggesting that it could not present sensitive material to the court because of the presence of judges from Eastern bloc states. Judges may give their own separate opinions. Decisions and advisory opinions are by majority, and, in the event of an equal division, the President's vote becomes decisive, which occurred in the Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict, ICJ Reports 66. Judges may deliver separate dissenting opinions. Article 31 of the statute sets out a procedure whereby ad hoc judges sit on contentious cases before the court; the system allows any party to a contentious case to select one additional person to sit as a judge on that case only. It is thus possible; the system may seem strange when compared with domestic court processes, but its purpose is to encourage states to submit cases.
For example, if a state knows that it will have a judicial officer
Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light. It is an achromatic color a color without hue, like white and gray, it is used symbolically or figuratively to represent darkness, while white represents light. Black and white have been used to describe opposites. Since the Middle Ages, black has been the symbolic color of solemnity and authority, for this reason is still worn by judges and magistrates. Black was one of the first colors used by artists in neolithic cave paintings. In the 14th century, it was worn by royalty, clergy and government officials in much of Europe, it became the color worn by English romantic poets and statesmen in the 19th century, a high fashion color in the 20th century. In the Roman Empire, it became the color of mourning, over the centuries it was associated with death, evil and magic. According to surveys in Europe and North America, it is the color most associated with mourning, the end, magic, violence and elegance.
Black ink is the most common color used for printing books and documents, as it provides the highest contrast with white paper and thus the easiest color to read. Black text on a white screen is the most common format used on computer screens; the word black comes from Old English blæc, from Proto-Germanic *blakkaz, from Proto-Indo-European *bhleg-, from base *bhel-, related to Old Saxon blak, Old High German blach, Old Norse blakkr, Dutch blaken, Swedish bläck. More distant cognates include Latin flagrare, Ancient Greek phlegein; the Ancient Greeks sometimes used the same word to name different colors, if they had the same intensity. Kuanos' could mean both dark black; the Ancient Romans had two words for black: ater was a flat, dull black, while niger was a brilliant, saturated black. Ater has vanished from the vocabulary, but niger was the source of the country name Nigeria the English word Negro and the word for "black" in most modern Romance languages. Old High German had two words for black: swartz for dull black and blach for a luminous black.
These are parallelled in Middle English by the terms swart for dull black and blaek for luminous black. Swart still survives as the word swarthy. In heraldry, the word used for the black color is sable, named for the black fur of the sable, an animal. Black was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. They began by using charcoal, made more vivid black pigments by burning bones or grinding a powder of manganese oxide. For the ancient Egyptians, black had positive associations, it was the color of Anubis, the god of the underworld, who took the form of a black jackal, offered protection against evil to the dead. For the ancient Greeks, black was the color of the underworld, separated from the world of the living by the river Acheron, whose water was black; those who had committed the worst sins were sent to the deepest and darkest level. In the center was the palace of Hades, the king of the underworld, where he was seated upon a black ebony throne.
Black was one of the most important colors used by ancient Greek artists. In the 6th century BC, they began making black-figure pottery and red figure pottery, using a original technique. In black-figure pottery, the artist would paint figures with a glossy clay slip on a red clay pot; when the pot was fired, the figures painted with the slip would turn black, against a red background. They reversed the process, painting the spaces between the figures with slip; this created magnificent red figures against a glossy black background. In the social hierarchy of ancient Rome, purple was the color reserved for the Emperor; the black they wore was not rich. In Latin, the word for black, ater and to darken, were associated with cruelty and evil, they were the root of the English words "atrocious" and "atrocity". Black was the Roman color of death and mourning. In the 2nd century BC Roman magistrates began to wear a dark toga, called a toga pulla, to funeral ceremonies. Under the Empire, the family of the deceased wore dark colors for a long period.
In Roman poetry, death was called the black hour. The German and Scandinavian peoples worshipped their own goddess of the night, Nótt, who crossed the sky in a chariot drawn by a black horse, they feared Hel, the goddess of the kingdom of the dead, whose skin was black on one side and red on the other. They held sacred the raven, they believed that Odin, the king of the Nordic pantheon, had two black ravens and Muninn, who served as his agents, traveling the world for him and listening. In the early Middle Ages, black was associated with darkness and evil. In Medieval paintings, the devil was depicted as havin
St Pancras, London
St Pancras is an area of Central and North West London. For many centuries the name was used for various designated areas, but it is now used for the railway station and for upmarket venues in the immediate locality, having been superseded by other place names including Kings Cross and Somers Town; the district now encompassed by the term "St Pancras" is not easy to define, its usage as a place name is limited. The name is sometimes applied to the immediate vicinity of the eponymous railway station, but King's Cross is the usual name for the area around the two mainline stations as a whole. St Pancras was a medieval parish, which ran from close to what is now Oxford Street north as far as Highgate, from what is now Regent's Park in the west to the road now known as York Way in the east, boundaries which take in much of the current London Borough of Camden, including its central part. However, as the choice of name for the borough suggests, St Pancras has lost its status as the central settlement in the area.
The original focus of the area was the church, now known by the retronym of St Pancras Old Church. The building is in the southern half of the parish, is believed by many to be one of the oldest sites of Christian worship in Great Britain. However, in the 14th century the population moved en masse to Kentish Town due to flooding by the River Fleet and the availability of better wells at the new location. A chapel of ease was established there, the old settlement was abandoned, except for a few farms, until the growth of London in the late eighteenth century. In the 1790s Earl Camden began to develop some fields to the north and west of the old church as Camden Town. About the same time, a residential district was built to the south and east of the church known as Somers Town. In 1822 the new church of St Pancras was dedicated as the parish church; the site was chosen on what was called the New Road, now Euston Road, built as London's first bypass, the M25 of its day. The two sites are about a kilometer apart.
The new church is Grade I listed for its Greek Revival style. In the mid 19th century two major railway stations were built to the south of the Old Church, first King's Cross and St Pancras; the new church is closer to Euston station. By the end of the nineteenth century the ancient parish had been divided into 37 parishes, including one for the old church. There are 17 Church of England parishes contained within the boundaries of the ancient parish, all of which benefit from the distributions from the St Pancras Lands Trust, most of which are in South Camden Deanery in the Edmonton Area of the Diocese of London; the parish of St Pancras was administered by a vestry until the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras was established in 1900. In 1965 the former area of the borough was combined with that of two others to form the London Borough of Camden. In the 1950s, St Pancras Council gained a reputation for left-wing radicalism, being referred to as "the most freakish borough in London; the council refused to take part in civil defence preparations for war, which local councils were obliged to provide.
John Lawrence as Mayor was monitored by the Home Office and, as of 2016, the Home Office still refuses Freedom of Information requests relating to Lawrence on the grounds of protecting national security. Housing was in excess demand after the disruption of the Second World War. There was strong opposition to the 1957 Rent Act, which led to a series of decisions that caused serious financial difficulty. John Lawrence and several other councillors were expelled from the Labour Party in 1958, but continued to serve as the Independent Socialists; the Conservative Party won the 1958 council election. In 1960, there was a widespread rent strike in the district. During the 18th and 19th centuries, St Pancras was famous for its cemeteries: as well as the graveyard of Old St Pancras Church, it contained the cemeteries of St James's Church, Piccadilly, St Giles in the Fields, St Andrew, Holborn, St. George's Church, St George the Martyr, Holborn; these were all closed under the Extramural Interment Act in 1854.
The disused graveyard at St Pancras Old Church was left alone for over thirty years, until the building of the Midland Railway required the removal of many of the graves. Thomas Hardy a junior architect and a novelist and poet, was involved in this work, he placed a number of gravestones around a tree, now known as "the Hardy Tree". The cemetery was disturbed again in 2002-03 by the construction of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, but much more care was given to the removal of remains than in the 19th century; the name St Pancras survives in the name of the local parliamentary constituency, Holborn and St. Pancras. One of the political wards in Camden is called St Pancras and Somers Town. Besides Somers Town and the area around St Pancras Old Church, the ward includes much of Camden Town and the former Kings Cross Goods Yard, being redeveloped as a mixed-use district under the name Kings Cross Central. Old St Pancras Church and its graveyard have links to Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy, the Wollstonecraft circle.
To the north of the churchyard is St Pancras Hospital the parish workhouse and latterly the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases. St Pancras is one of the best-known railway stations in England, it has been extended and is now