Sir John Cass was a merchant and philanthropist. He was born in Rosemary Lane, in the City of London and he was the son of Thomas Cass, carpenter to the Royal Ordnance. In 1665, the moved to Grove Street, in South Hackney to escape the plague. Cass became a merchant and politician who served as Alderman, for the ward of Portsoken and he was elected as one of the Tory MPs for the City in 1710, until losing to the Whig faction in 1715. He was appointed a commissioner of the Commission for Building Fifty New Churches, in 1711 and he was knighted in 1713, and died in 1718 of a brain haemorrhage. He was buried in the churchyard of St Mary Matfelon, in Whitechapel, Cass was a master of the Carpenters Company in 1713, but the following year transferred to the Skinners Company, and became their master. Between 1709–1715 he was treasurer to the Bethlem Royal Hospital and the Bridewell, He died on 5 July 1718 and his widow Elizabeth died on 7 July 1732. He was a philanthropist who founded a school for fifty boys, Cass had made a will at this time, but when his health failed in 1718, planned a new version taking account of the extra property he had acquired in the intervening years.
Cass began a new will, but by the time of his only three pages had been initialled. The will — worth £2000 — was contested by his heirs at law Court of Chancery, lady Cass continued as patroness of the schools, but died in 1732. The school continued for a few years under the aegis of Valentine Brewis, one of the trustees Cass had named. In the early 1740s the remaining trustees petitioned Parliament for the permanent endowment of the school, and this enabled the Sir John Casss Foundation to be established in 1748. The Foundation has provided funding for the Sir John Cass School of Education at the University of East London campus in Stratford, funding has been provided for the Sir John Cass Hall, a hall of residence for students, in Well Street, London Borough of Hackney. A statue of Cass is placed outside the Sir John Cass School, at Dukes Place and he is shown wearing a long wig and the Sheriffs gown. This is a copy of the original, dated 1751. Cassland Road in Hackney commemorates the land holdings of the Cass family, a row of almshouses in 1669, were subsequently funded by land owned by Cass on Hackney Marshes.
In 1849, they were rebuilt by Sir John Casss Foundation, Sir John Cass Business School Sir John Casss Foundation Cass School of Education Sir John Cass Department of Art and Design Sir John Casss Foundation Primary School
Henry I of England
Henry I, known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death. Henry was the son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin. On Williams death in 1087, Henrys elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England, Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry gradually rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert, Henry was present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, and he seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of Williams less popular policies. Henry married Matilda of Scotland but continued to have a number of mistresses. Robert, who invaded in 1101, disputed Henrys control of England, the peace was short-lived, and Henry invaded the Duchy of Normandy in 1105 and 1106, finally defeating Robert at the Battle of Tinchebray. Henry kept Robert imprisoned for the rest of his life, following Henrys victory at the Battle of Brémule, a favourable peace settlement was agreed with Louis in 1120.
Considered by contemporaries to be a harsh but effective ruler, Henry skilfully manipulated the barons in England, Normandy was governed through a growing system of justices and an exchequer. Many of the officials who ran Henrys system were new men of obscure backgrounds rather than families of high status. Henry encouraged ecclesiastical reform, but became embroiled in a dispute in 1101 with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury. He supported the Cluniac order and played a role in the selection of the senior clergy in England. Henrys only legitimate son and heir, William Adelin, drowned in the White Ship disaster of 1120, Henry took a second wife, Adeliza, in the hope of having another son, but their marriage was childless. In response to this, Henry declared his daughter, his heir, the relationship between Henry and the couple became strained, and fighting broke out along the border with Anjou. Henry died on 1 December 1135 after a week of illness, despite his plans for Matilda, the King was succeeded by his nephew, Stephen of Blois, resulting in a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.
Henry was probably born in England in 1068, in either the summer or the last weeks of the year, possibly in the town of Selby in Yorkshire. His father was William the Conqueror, who had originally been the Duke of Normandy and then, following the invasion of 1066, became the King of England, the invasion had created an Anglo-Norman elite, many with estates spread across both sides of the English Channel. These Anglo-Norman barons typically had close links to the kingdom of France, Henrys mother, Matilda of Flanders, was the granddaughter of Robert II of France, and she probably named Henry after her uncle, King Henry I of France. Henry was the youngest of William and Matildas four sons, physically he resembled his older brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus, being, as historian David Carpenter describes, short and barrel-chested, with black hair
Wards of the City of London
The City of London is divided into 25 wards. Unlike other modern-day English local authorities, the City of London Corporation has two bodies, the now largely ceremonial Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council. The wards are a survival of the governmental system that allowed very small areas to exist as self-governing units within the wider city. They are both electoral/political sub-divisions and permanent ceremonial and administrative entities within the City and they had their boundaries changed in 2003, and to a lesser extent in 2013, though the number of wards and their names did not change. Each ward, or aldermanry, has its own alderman, who is the most senior official or representative in the ward, the aldermen traditionally held office for life but in the modern era put themselves up for re-election at least every six years. They now customarily retire at 70, the retirement age as a justice of the peace. Each ward returns one alderman to the Court of Aldermen, one of the aldermen is elected as Lord Mayor of London for a period of one year.
The Lord Mayor performs many functions and holds many ancient positions, the City of London is the only remaining local authority in Great Britain to have aldermen, since their general abolition in England and Wales in 1974 and the London boroughs in 1978. Wards continue to have beadles, with most having just one and these should not be confused with the Beadles of the Livery Companies of the City, who are employees of them. The wards alderman presides over the wardmote and appoints one of the councillors of the ward as a deputy for the year ahead. Wardmotes at which an alderman is to be elected are presided over by the Lord Mayor, there are twenty two of these. Confusingly, there is a United Wards Club which was formed many of the others as a joint association and is now additional to them. In recent times the ward clerk is a permanent position held by an official at the Corporation, the ward clerk is a separate office to that of the Town Clerk of London, who is the chief executive of the Corporation.
Boundary changes in 2003 removed some of these places from their wards, but that boundary review. The Common Council as we know it today, as a body of the wards, was realised in 1384 when the Citys guilds no longer elected members. The number of members of the Common Council grew to 240 by the mid-nineteenth century, each ward was divided into precincts, each of which elected one common councilman. As the number of precincts grew over time, the number of councilmen elected therefore increased, the precincts have now been abolished. The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since their creation in time immemorial
Bethnal Green is a district mostly in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and partly in the London Borough of Hackney. Located 3.3 miles northeast of Charing Cross, it was historically a hamlet in the ancient parish of Stepney, the parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Bethnal Green in 1900 and the population peaked in 1901, entering a period of steady decline which lasted until 1981. Some 173 people were killed at an incident at Bethnal Green tube station in 1943. Bethnal Green has formed part of Greater London since 1965, the place-name Blithehale or Blythenhale, the earliest form of Bethnal Green, is derived from the Anglo-Saxon healh and blithe, or from a personal name Blitha. Nearby Cambridge Heath, is unconnected with Cambridge and may derive from an Anglo-Saxon personal name. The area was marshland and forest which, as Bishopswood. Over time, the name became Bethan Hall Green, which, a Tudor ballad, the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, tells the story of an ostensibly poor man who gave a surprisingly generous dowry for his daughters wedding.
The tale furnishes the parish of Bethnal Greens coat of arms, the Blind Beggar public house in Whitechapel is reputed to be the site of his begging. Boxing has an association with Bethnal Green. Daniel Mendoza, who was champion of England from 1792 to 1795 though born in Aldgate, since numerous boxers have been associated with the area, and the local leisure centre, York Hall, remains notable for presentation of boxing bouts. He was a capable pastoral visitor and established a parochial school, after examining the text of the sermon, the Bishop of London condemned it as containing erroneous and dangerous notions. As a result, the bishop sent Woodard to be a curate in Clapton, the Green and Poors Land is the area of open land now occupied by Bethnal Green Library, the V&A Museum of Childhood and St Johns Church, designed by John Soane. In Stows Survey of London the hamlet was called Blethenal Green and it was one of the hamlets included in the Manor of Stepney and Hackney. From that date, the trust has administered the land and its books are kept in the London Metropolitan Archives.
Bethnal House, or Kirbys Castle, was the house on the Green. One of its owners was Sir Hugh Platt, author of books on gardening, under its next owner it was visited by Samuel Pepys. In 1727 it was leased to Matthew Wright and for almost two centuries it was an asylum and its two most distinguished inmates were Alexander Cruden, compiler of the Concordance to the Bible, and the poet Christopher Smart. Cruden recorded his experience in The London Citizen Grievously Injured and Smarts stay there is recorded by his daughter, records of the asylum are kept in the annual reports of the Commissioner in Lunacy
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
Leadenhall Street is a road in London that is about 0.3 miles long and links Cornhill and Bishopsgate in the west to St. Botolph Street and Aldgate in the east. It is situated in the City of London, which is the nucleus of modern London as well its primary financial district. It was formerly the start of the A11 road from London to Norwich, the Aldgate Pump is located at the east end of the street. During much of the 18th and 19th centuries its name was synonymous with the East India Company, the nearest London Underground station is Aldgate, and the closest mainline railway station is Fenchurch Street. The Leadenhall Press was established following a move of the publisher Field & Tuer to No.50 Leadenhall Street in 1868, in 1879 a telephone exchange was installed at No.101 Leadenhall Street by the Telephone Company Ltd. — one of the first in London. The street was home to East India House from 1729 until its demolition in 1861, Leadenhall Market is accessible via Whittington Avenue, a small side-road off Leadenhall Street.
The London Metal Exchange is located at No,56, opposite the church of St. Katharine Cree, which dates from 1631 and was made a Grade I listed building in 1950. Several major companies are headquartered on Leadenhall Street, including Xchanging, Ace European Group, Verdasyss EMEA, due to the proximity of Lloyds, a number of other insurance firms and brokers have offices on Leadenhall Street. The Leadenhall Building, located at No.122 and opposite the Lloyds building, is a 48-storey skyscraper, a 38-storey skyscraper at 52-54 Lime Street has been approved for construction at the junction of Leadenhall Street and Lime Street. A new office development including a tower of 34 storeys has been proposed for 40 Leadenhall Street, Fenchurch Street Lime Street St Mary Axe Google Maps Media related to Leadenhall Street at Wikimedia Commons
London postal district
The London postal district is the area in England of 241 square miles to which mail addressed to the LONDON post town is delivered. It was integrated by the Post Office into the national system of the United Kingdom during the early 1970s and corresponds to the N, NW, SW, SE, W, WC, E. The postal district has known as the London postal area. The County of London was much smaller at 117 square miles, by the 1850s, the rapid growth of the metropolitan area meant it became too large to operate efficiently as a single post town. A Post Office inquiry into the problem had been set up in 1837, in 1854 Charles Canning, the Postmaster General, set up a committee at the Post Office in St. Martins Le Grand to investigate how London could best be divided for the purposes of directing mail. In 1856, of the 470 million items of mail sent in the United Kingdom during the year, approximately one fifth were for delivery in London, the General Post Office thus at the control of the Postmaster General devised the area in 1856 project-managed by Sir Rowland Hill.
Hill produced an almost perfectly circular area of 12 miles radius from the central post office at St. Martins Le Grand, within the district it was divided into two central areas and eight compass points which operated much like separate post towns. Each was constituted London with a suffix indicating the area it covered, the system was introduced during 1857 and completed on 1 January 1858. The remaining eight letter prefixes have not changed, at the same time, the London postal district boundary was retracted in the east, removing places such as Ilford for good. In 1868 the S district was split between SE and SW, the NE and S codes have been re-used in the national postcode system and now refer to the NE postcode area around Newcastle upon Tyne and the S postcode area around Sheffield. In 1917, as a measure to improve efficiency, the districts were further subdivided with a number applied to each sub-district. Exceptionally and esoterically, W2 and SW11 are head districts, the numbered sub-districts became the outward code of the postcode system as expanded into longer codes during the 1970s.
Ad hoc changes have taken place to the organisation of the districts, subdivisions of postcode sub-districts Owing to heavier demand, seven high-density postcode districts in central London have been subdivided to create new, smaller postcode districts. This is achieved by adding a letter after the postcode district. Where such sub-districts are used such as on street signs and maps. The districts subdivided are E1, N1, EC SW1, W1, WC1, there are solely non-geographic suffixed sub-districts for PO boxes in NW1 and SE1. The London postal district has never been aligned with the London boundary, when the initial system was designed, the London boundary was restricted to the square mile of the small, ancient City of London. The wider metropolitan area covered parts of Middlesex, Kent, Essex
Colchester /ˈkoʊltʃɛstər/ is an historic large town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex. As the oldest recorded Roman town in Britain, Colchester is claimed to be the oldest town in Britain and it was for a time the capital of Roman Britain, and is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network. Colchester is some 50 miles northeast of London and is connected to the capital by the A12 road and it is seen as a popular town for commuters, and is less than 30 miles away from Stansted Airport and 20 miles from the passenger ferry port of Harwich. Colchester is home to Colchester Castle and Colchester United Football Club and it has a Conservative Member of Parliament, Will Quince, who was elected in the 2015 General Election. The River Colne runs through the town and it is a widely held belief that the name Colchester is derived from the Latin words Colonia and Castra, meaning fortifications. The earliest forms of the name Colchester are Colenceaster and Colneceastre from the 10th century, in this way of interpreting the name, the River Colne which runs through the town takes its name from Colonia as well.
Cologne gained its name from a similar etymology, ekwall went as far as to say it has often been held that Colchester contains as first element colonia. This derivation is ruled out of court by the fact that Colne is the name of old villages situated a good many miles from Colchester. The identification of Colonia with Colchester is doubtful, from these deposits beneath the town have been found Palaeolithic flint tools, including at least six Acheulian handaxes. Further flint tools made by hunter gatherers living in the Colne Valley during the Mesolithic have been discovered and this included a pit found at Culver Street containing a ritually placed Neolithic grooved ware pot, as well as find spots containing Deverel-Rimbury bucket urns. Before the Roman conquest of Britain it was already a centre of power for Cunobelin – known to Shakespeare as Cymbeline – king of the Catuvellauni, who minted coins there. Its Celtic name, variously represented as CA, CAM, CAMV, CAMVL and CAMVLODVNO on the coins of Cunobelinus, during the 30s AD Camulodunon controlled a large swathe of Southern and Eastern Britain, with Cunobelin called King of the Britons by Roman writers.
Camulodunon is considered one of possible sites around Britain for the legendary Camelot of King Arthur. Soon after the Roman conquest of Britain in AD43, a Roman legionary fortress was established, when the Roman frontier moved outwards and the twentieth legion had moved to the west, Camulodunum became a colonia named in a second-century inscription as Colonia Victricensis. This contained a large and elaborate Temple to the Divine Claudius, Colchester is home to two of the five Roman theatres found in Britain, the one at Gosbecks being the largest in Britain, able to seat 5,000. Camulodunum served as a provincial Roman capital of Britain, but was attacked and destroyed during Boudicas rebellion in AD61, sometime after the destruction, London became the capital of the province of Britannia. Colchesters town walls c.3,000 yd. long were built c. 65–80 A. D. when the Roman town was rebuilt after the Boudicca rebellion. In 2004, Colchester Archaeological Trust discovered the remains of a Roman Circus underneath the Garrison in Colchester, the Roman town of Camulodunum, officially known as Colonia Victricensis, reached its peak in the Second and Third centuries AD
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England were established for administration by the Normans, in most cases based on earlier kingdoms and shires established by the Anglo-Saxons and others. They ceased to be used for administration with the creation of the counties in 1889. They are alternatively known as ancient counties or traditional counties, where they are not included among the modern counties of England they are known as former counties. Counties were used initially for the administration of justice, collection of taxes and organisation of the military and they continue to form the basis of modern local government in many parts of the country away from the main urban areas, although sometimes with considerably altered boundaries. The name of a county often gives a clue to how it was formed, either as a division took its name from a centre of administration. The majority of English counties are in the first category, with the name formed by combining the central town with the suffix -shire, for example Yorkshire.
Former kingdoms, which became earldoms in the united England did not feature this formulation, so for Kent, Counties ending in the suffix -sex are in this category and are former Saxon kingdoms. Many of these names are formed from compass directions, the third category includes counties such as Cornwall and Devon where the name corresponds to the tribes who inhabited the area. County Durham is anomalous in terms of naming and origin, not falling into any of the three categories, instead it was a diocese that was turned into the County Palatine of Durham, ruled by the Bishop of Durham. The expected form would otherwise be Durhamshire, but it was rarely used, there are customary abbreviations for many of the counties. In most cases these consist of simple truncation, usually with an s at the end signifying shire, some abbreviations are not obvious, such as Salop for Shropshire, Oxon for Oxfordshire, Hants for Hampshire and Northants for Northamptonshire. Counties were often prefixed with County of in official contexts, such as County of Kent and those counties named after central towns lost the -shire suffix, for example Yorkshire would be known as County of York.
This usage was sometimes followed even where there was no town by that name, the -shire suffix was appended for some counties, such as Devonshire and Somersetshire, despite their origin. There is still a Duke of Devonshire, Great Britain was first divided into administrative areas by the Romans, most likely following major geographical features such as rivers. Before their arrival there were distinct tribal areas, but they were in a constant state of flux as territory was gained, the areas that would form the English counties started to take shape soon afterwards, with the Kingdom of Kent founded by settlers around 445. Once the Kingdom of England was united as a whole in 927 it became necessary to subdivide it for convenience and to this end. The whole kingdom was divided into shires by the time of the Norman conquest, robert of Gloucester accounts for thirty-five shires and William of Malmesbury thirty-two, Henry of Huntingdon, thirty-seven. In most cases the counties or shires in medieval times were administered by a sheriff on behalf of the monarch, after the Norman conquest the sheriff was replaced and the shires became counties, or areas under the control of a count, in the French manner
John Stow was an English historian and antiquarian, best known for his Survey of London. John Stow was born in about 1525 in the City parish of St Michael and his father, Thomas Stow, was a tallow chandler. In about 1560 he started upon his work, the Survey of London. An inventory was made of all the books at his home, especially those in defence of papistry, a second attempt to incriminate him was made in 1570 without success. In about 1570 he moved to the parish of St Andrew Undershaft in the Ward of Lime Street and this was followed in 1565 by his Summarie of Englyshe Chronicles which was reprinted several times, with slight variations, during his lifetime. Grenvilles Library is believed to have had a first-edition of Stows Summarie, Stows 1567 edition makes mention in its frontispiece of a rival publication by Richard Grafton, a dispute which magnified. Editions amended by Edmund Howes appeared in 1615 and 1631, in the Chronicle of England 1590 Stow writes, To The Honorable Sir John Hart, Lord Maior.
At the request of Archbishop Parker he compiled a farre larger volume, a history of Britain, but circumstances were unfavourable to its publication and the manuscript was lost. Additions to the published works of Chaucer were twice made through Stows own painful labours in the edition of 1561, referred to above. A number of Stows manuscripts are in the Harley Collection in the British Library and he published a second revised edition in 1603. The edition of 1598 was reprinted, edited by William John Thoms, in 1842, in 1846, an edition based on that of 1598, edited by Henry Morley, was published in 1889, and has been reprinted on several occasions since. A critical edition, based on that of 1603 and edited in two volumes by C. L. Kingsford, was published in 1908, and republished with additional notes in 1927 and this remains the standard scholarly edition. A more popular single-volume edition was published in Everymans Library, with an introduction by H. B, wheatley, in 1912, and has been frequently reprinted.
Whilst such royal approval was welcome it reaped dividend too slowly for Stow to enjoy any substantial benefit during his lifetime, Stow died on 5 April 1605, and was buried in the Church of St Andrew Undershaft on the corner of Leadenhall Street and St. Mary Axe. Stows widow commissioned a monument to him in the church, made of Derbyshire marble. The work has been attributed to Nicholas Johnson. It includes an effigy of Stow, which was coloured, he is represented seated at a desk, writing in a book. Above him is the motto, based on a phrase of Pliny the Younger, Aut scribenda agere, in acknowledgement of Stows continuing reputation as the founding father of London history, the quill held by his effigy has been periodically renewed
City of London Police
The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, including the Middle and Inner Temples. The force responsible for law enforcement within the remainder of Greater London, outside of the City, is the Metropolitan Police Service, the City of London area has a resident population of around 9000. There is an influx of approximately 400,000 commuters into the City. The Commissioner since January 2016 is Ian Dyson, QPM, who was formerly the forces Assistant Commissioner, Policing in the City of London has existed since Roman times. Wood Street police station, headquarters of the City Police, is built on part of the site of a Roman fortress, which may have housed some of the first police in the City. Prior to 1839, the responsibility for policing in the City was divided, from the medieval period, responsibilities were shared with the Aldermans officers the Ward Beadles who are now purely ceremonial. It was these officers responsibility for ensuring the Night Watch was maintained, Policing during the day eventually came under the City Patrol, which evolved into the City Day Police, which was modelled on the Metropolitan Police.
In 1838, the Day Police and Night Watch were merged into a single organisation, the passing of the City of London Police Act 1839 gave statutory approval to the force as an independent police body, heading off attempts made to merge it with the Metropolitan Police. During 1842, the City Police moved its headquarters from Corporations Guildhall to 26 Old Jewry, a main challenge of policing in London prior to the 18th century was both gathering and transferring accurate information. Records were brought to court and often transferred between authorities, with one example being from the Guildhall bookhouse to Bridewell, the records were closely screened and had to otherwise remain in buildings like Guildhall bookhouse, to ensure the accuracy of the information being held. Aside from these records, information traveled between officials through word of mouth. Constables were an important part of police knowledge, within courtrooms, constables provided valuable information on specific criminals or neighborhoods.
Even so, many cases counted on the reliability of individuals with knowledge in London, development of sophisticated investigative techniques would come later. The Agas map can be used to display connections between early London buildings such as Guildhall bookhouse and Bridewell, tracking the total number of Londoners fell under pre-Victorian London policing duties. Beadles kept the names and surnames of householders in an effort to track this total and this allowed police to understand more about which areas of London were growing, the number of aliens in particular areas, and other valuable demographic information. In the twentieth century, after the Jack the Ripper murders in London, in 1902, Henry Jackson was the first British person to be convicted using fingerprinting techniques, a large change from knowledge gathering methods used centuries earlier. However, it was not until 1905 that fingerprinting began to hold as a procurement method. The Metropolitan Police has taken policing knowledge in London much further in modern times, when looking at formal policies on policing according to the Metropolitan Police, transference of knowledge, while easier, has become stricter
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty fire and rescue services, many FRS were previously known as brigades or county fire services, but almost all now use the standard terminology. They are distinct from and governed by an authority, which is the legislative and administrative body. Fire authorities in England and Wales, and therefore fire and rescue services and Northern Ireland have centralised fire and rescue services, and so their authorities are effectively committees of the devolved parliaments. The total budget for services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. The devolved government in Scotland has an agency, HMFSI Scotland. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain,1947, Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed entirely in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire,1959, Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act, it dealt with pensions, staffing arrangements and provision of services by other authorities.
It was repealed in England and Wales along with the 1947 Act,1999, Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of fire strikes. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the action still ongoing. Bains report ultimately led to a change in the relating to firefighting. 2002, Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004, Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, generally only applying to England and it came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises,2006, The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on Fire, promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation. But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries, There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association.
The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee, in June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report. For example, where FRSs were historically inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office, Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Select Committee heard evidence on the Fire Control project. Called to give evidence were Cllr Brian Coleman and Cllr James Pearson from the Local Government Association, giving evidence Matt Wrack from the Fire Brigades Union and John Bonney Chief Fire Officers Association