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Aldhelm

Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmesbury Abbey, Bishop of Sherborne, Latin poet and scholar of Anglo-Saxon literature, was born before the middle of the 7th century. He is said to have been the son of Kenten, of the royal house of Wessex, he was not, as his early biographer Faritius asserts, the brother of King Ine. After his death he was venerated as his feast day being the day of his death, 25 May. Aldhelm received his first education in the school of the Irish scholar and monk Máeldub, who had settled in the British stronghold of Bladon on the site of the town called Mailduberi, Meldunesburg, etc. and Malmesbury, after him. In 668, Pope Vitalian sent Theodore of Tarsus to be Archbishop of Canterbury. At the same time the North African scholar Hadrian became abbot of St Augustine's at Canterbury. Aldhelm was one of his disciples, for he addresses him as the'venerable preceptor of my rude childhood.' He must have been thirty years of age when he began to study with Hadrian. His studies included Roman law, astrology, the art of reckoning and the difficulties of the calendar.

He learned, according to the doubtful statements of both Greek and Hebrew. He introduces many Latinized Greek words into his works. Ill health compelled Aldhelm to leave Canterbury and he returned to Malmesbury Abbey, where he was a monk under Máeldub for fourteen years, dating from 661 and including the period of his studies with Hadrian; when Máeldub died, Aldhelm was appointed in 675, according to a charter of doubtful authenticity cited by William of Malmesbury, by Leuthere, Bishop of Winchester, to succeed to the direction of the monastery, of which he became the first abbot. Aldhelm introduced the Benedictine rule and secured the right of the election of the abbot by the monks themselves; the community at Malmesbury increased, Aldhelm was able to found two other monasteries as centres of learning, at Frome, Somerset and at Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire. Following a pilgrimage to Rome, he was given permission by Pope Sergius I in a Papal Bull of 701 to establish the monastery at Frome, where he had built a church circa 685.

The Anglo-Saxon building of St Laurence's Church, Bradford-on-Avon dates back to his time, may safely be regarded as his. At Malmesbury he built a new church to replace Máeldub's modest building, obtained considerable grants of land for the monastery. Aldhelm's fame as a scholar spread to other countries. Artwil, the son of an Irish king, submitted his writings for Aldhelm's approval, Cellanus, an Irish monk from Peronne, was one of his correspondents. Aldhelm was the first Anglo-Saxon, so far as we know, to write in Latin verse, his letter to Acircius is a treatise on Latin prosody for the use of his countrymen. In this work he included 101 riddles in Latin hexameters; each of them is a complete picture, one of them runs to 83 lines. That Aldhelm's merits as a scholar were early recognised in his own country is shown by the encomium of Bede, who speaks of him as a wonder of erudition, his fame reached Italy, at the request of Pope Sergius I he paid a visit to Rome, of which, there is no notice in his extant writings.

On his return, bringing with him privileges for his monastery and a magnificent altar, he received a popular ovation. Aldhelm was deputed by a synod of the church in Wessex to remonstrate with the Britons of Dumnonia on the Easter controversy. British Christians followed a unique system of calculation for the date of Easter and bore a distinctive tonsure. Aldhelm wrote a long and rather acrimonious letter to king Geraint of Dumnonia achieving ultimate agreement with Rome. In 705, or earlier, Hædde, Bishop of Winchester and the diocese was divided into two parts. Sherborne was the new see, of which Aldhelm became the first bishop around 705, he wished to resign the abbey of Malmesbury which he had governed for thirty years, but yielding to the remonstrances of the monks he continued to direct it until his death. He was now an old man; the cathedral church which he built at Sherborne, though replaced by a Norman church, is described by William of Malmesbury. In his capacity as bishop, he displayed a great deal of energy.

This included going into public places where he would sing hymns and passages from the gospels interspersed with bits of clowning to draw attention to his message. Aldhelm was on his rounds in his diocese when he died at the church in Doulting village in 709, the Church of St Aldhelm and St Aldhelm's Well in the village are dedicated to him; the body was taken to Malmesbury, crosses were set up by his friend, Bishop of Worcester, at the various stopping-places. He was buried in the church of St Michael at Malmesbury Abbey, his biographers relate miracles due to his sanctity worked at his shrine. The cape in Dorset known as St Alban's Head is more properly called St. Aldhelm's Head in his honour. Aldhelm was revered as a saint with his feast day being celebrated on 25 May, his relics were translated in 980 by the Archbishop of Canterbury. He is commemorated by a statue in niche 124 of the West Front of Salisbury Cathedral. There is a statue in Sherborne Abbey of Aldhelm, created in 2004 by Marzia Colonna.

Aldhelm's flag may be flown in his celebration. The flag, a white cross on a red background, is a colour reversed version of England's St. George flag

Lady on the Rock

"Lady on the Rock" is a song written by Joe Vitale, Bill Szymczyk and Stephen Stills. The song was released in 1981 as a single from Vitale's second solo studio album, Plantation Harbor, reached number 47 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock chart; the track is titled "Lady on the Rock" on the single release. The track is a patriotic anthem about the Statue of Liberty, how America is the land of the free; the song became quite popular. This airplay pushed the single to No. 47 on the Mainstream Rock Tracks and helped the album Plantation Harbor chart. Joe Vitale - lead and backing vocals, percussion, spoken wordAdditional personnelGeorge "Chocolate" Perry - bass guitar Paul Harris - clavinet Joe Walsh - lead and rhythm guitars, spoken word Don Felder - rhythm guitar Marilyn "Mini" Martin - backing vocals

Knife collecting

Knife collecting is a hobby which includes seeking, acquiring, cataloging, displaying and maintaining knives. Some collectors are generalists, accumulating an assortment of different knives. Others focus on a specialized area of interest bayonets, knives from a particular factory, Bowie knives, pocketknives, or handmade custom knives; the knives of collectors may be antiques or marketed as collectible. Antiques are knives at least 100 years old. Collectors and dealers may use the word vintage to describe older collectibles; some knives which were once everyday objects may now be collectible since all those once produced have been destroyed or discarded, like certain WW2 era knives made with zinc alloy handles which are degrading due to the material's shelf life. Some collectors collect only in childhood while others continue to do so throughout their lives and modify their collecting goals in life. Knives have been collected by individuals since the 19th century with formal collecting organizations beginning in the 1940s.

The custom knife-collecting boom began in the late 1960s and continues to the present. Some novice knife collectors start by purchasing knives that appeal to them, slowly work at acquiring knowledge about how to build a collection. Others want to develop some background in the field before starting to buy knives. In general, knives of significance, artistic beauty, values or interest that are "too young" to be considered antiques, fall into the realm of collectibles, but not all collectibles are limited editions, many of them have been around for decades. Many knife collectors enjoy making a plan for their collections, combining education and experimentation to develop a personal collecting style. Knife magazines such as Knives Illustrated and Blade are one of the most popular means to learn more about the field. Attending knife shows, gun shows, militaria shows is another way for a collector to familiarize him or herself with the hobby; these shows sometimes include seminars on a variety of subjects such as knife making seminars, the history of knife companies, starting a collection or how to insure a collection.

There are a number of books dedicated to collecting knives. Although national and international collector clubs exist such as the National Knife Collectors Association. A collector may find and join a local knife club to meet other people who collect knives. Knife publications list the location and time of club meetings as a service to new collectors. Collectors who have narrowed their collecting focus to the knives of a particular maker or factory may want to join a club that focuses on this producer's work: such as the Randall Knife Society, Emerson's Collector Club, etc. Knife collections are varied and run the gamut from collections of $5US pocketknives to $100,000US Art knives. Collecting antique Bowie knives is one of the higher-end forms of knife collecting with rare models selling for more than $200,000. Mass-produced Sheffield Bowies from the 19th century can sell in the range of $5,000US to $15,000US. A potential collector may wish to chat with other knife collectors in specialized discussion forums via the Internet.

Fellow knife collectors are very happy to share information with new collectors. Internet Knife forums allow for an open exchange of information, sometimes with experts and makers available to answer questions and offer guidance. In addition, several web-sites specializing in the selling and trading of knives have been launched in recent years to help collectors manage their items as well as compare and trade directly with others. There are a number of usenet and Internet forums dedicated to the discussion of knives and knife collecting; the oldest of such forums is rec.knives, a usenet group started in 1992. The largest is BladeForums.com with over 250,000 members which emphasizes production knives. Manufacturers such as Cold Steel and Benchmade have established their own forums giving them input from users and a method of responding to customer service issues in a timely fashion; some forums such as Usual Suspects Network have gone so far as to host their own knife shows on a scale similar to Blade magazine's annual Blade Show.

A great resource for new information on knives is YouTube. With YouTube or other video websites, the ability to learn about knives becomes easier. There are many big name YouTube knife collectors that can a help a person decide if they want to add a knife to their collection. On YouTube, a person can learn about the blade steel, the ergonomics, the price point as well as a lot of other information that pertains to the knife. A person can add comments to specific videos and get answers to questions about the knife they are looking at; this is another form of communication between knife collectors. Some companies post videos showcasing new knives that they just released, it is a fun and interactive way to learn more about knives and the hobby. With the popularity of apps on phones, Instagram emerged as another resources that knife collectors use to get information about knives, as well as follow other knife collectors who post pictures of their knives. Instagram differentiates from video websites like YouTube, instead of posting videos, most users post photos of their knives.

It is another great tool to vie

Relativity (M. C. Escher)

Relativity is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher, first printed in December 1953; the first version of this work was a woodcut made earlier that same year. It depicts a world; the architectural structure seems to be the centre of an idyllic community, with most of its inhabitants casually going about their ordinary business, such as dining. There are doorways leading to park-like outdoor settings. All of the figures have featureless bulb-shaped heads. Identical characters such as these can be found in many other Escher works. In the world of Relativity, there are three sources of gravity, each being orthogonal to the two others; each inhabitant lives in one of the gravity wells. There are sixteen characters, spread between each gravity source, six in one and five each in the other two; the apparent confusion of the lithograph print comes from the fact that the three gravity sources are depicted in the same space. The structure has seven stairways, each stairway can be used by people who belong to two different gravity sources.

This creates interesting phenomena, such as in the top stairway, where two inhabitants use the same stairway in the same direction and on the same side, but each using a different face of each step. In the other stairways, inhabitants are depicted as climbing the stairways upside-down, but based on their own gravity source, they are climbing normally; each of the three parks belongs to one of the gravity wells. All but one of the doors seem to lead to basements below the parks. Though physically possible, such basements are unusual and add to the surreal effect of the picture; this is one of Escher’s most popular works, has been used in a variety of ways

Secularism in Iran

Secularism in Iran was established as state policy shortly after Rezā Shāh was crowned Shah in 1924. He made any public display or expression of religious faith, including the wearing of the headscarf and chador by women and wearing of facial hair by men illegal. Public religious festivals and celebrations were banned, Islamic clergy were forbidden to preach in public, mosque activities were restricted and regulated. Although criticised by the religious traditionalists and viewed as authoritarian by foreign observers, Reza Shah intended to secularise Iran and eliminate the influence of the Shi'a clergy upon the government and the society. During his reign, the first instances of Islamic extremism and terrorism appeared in Iran as a backlash against his secularist policies. For example, secularist politicians and writers such as Ahmad Kasravi were assassinated by Muslim fighters, the most notorious of which remains Navvab Safavi, who today is considered a hero by the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

After Reza Shah was forcibly deposed and sent into exile by British and Soviet forces with the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, the era of secularism in Iran ended. From 1941 until 1953, democracy was properly restored to Iran, but the Shi'a clergy were able to return to their previous level of power and influence because of their primary base of support in rural parts of central Iran. After 1953 the Iranian government, while becoming less and less democratic increasingly took steps to restore Reza Shah's authoritarian policies and eliminate the influence of the Shi'a clergy and organised religion from the government and public life. In the late 1960s, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi had forced the Shi'a clerical novitiates to attend public state-run universities in order to gain religious certification and license to preach, similar to Catholic and Christian schools of theology. Mohammad Reza Shah began taking steps in the 1970s to exclude Shi'a clergy from participating in the Parliament and to impose restrictions on public displays of religion and religious observance.

Both Reza Shah and Mohammad Reza Shah took much inspiration from the post-revolutionary French and Classical American political schools of thought which advocate separation of religion and state, both blamed the British for the rise of Islamism and radical Islam in Iran and the Middle East. For this reason Pahlavi Iran vigorously pursued close relations with the United States. In 1979, after the deposition of the government of Prime Minister Shapour Bakhtiar in February of that year, an interim government was established under Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan which sought to establish a nationalist Islamic democratic government with pro-free market economic policy, in opposition to the wishes of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and his pro-Islamic Republic faction. Bazargan's government resigned en masse in November 1979 after the US Embassy takeover by radicalist students; the end of Bazargan's government marked the end of state-directed secularism in Iran. In February 1980 the Islamic Republican Party established the current theocratic government of Iran, with Ayatollah Khomeini as Supreme Leader of Iran.

Secular opposition to the Islamist government of the Islamic Republic of Iran had been active in the country up until 1984, afterwards they were branded heretics and apostates by the clerical hierarchy, jailed, executed or exiled. Rezā Shāh Mohammad Mosaddegh Ahmad Kasravi Dariush Forouhar Shapour Bakhtiar Fazlollah Zahedi Dariush Homayoon Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Amir-Abbas Hoveyda Irreligion in Iran

2016 Porsche Carrera Cup Italia

The 2016 Porsche Carrera Cup Italia season is the tenth Porsche Carrera Cup Italy season. It will begin on 30 April at Monza and finished on 16 October in Mugello, after seven events with three races at each event. Starting from 2016, each round includes three races: two sprints on Saturday and an endurance on Sunday; each one of the sprint races' starting grid is defined by a qualifying session. Only the best Sprint Race for each weekend counts towards the championship. † - Drivers did not finish the race, but were classified as they completed over 90% of the race distance. † - Drivers did not finish the race, but were classified as they completed over 90% of the race distance. The Michelin Cup is the trophy reserved to the gentlemen drivers; the Scholarship Programme Cup is the trophy reserved to the under-26 drivers elected by Porsche at the beginning of the season. Porsche Carrera Cup Italy website