Dolphin is a common name of aquatic mammals within the order Cetacea, arbitrarily excluding whales and porpoises. The term dolphin refers to the extant families Delphinidae, Platanistidae and Pontoporiidae, the extinct Lipotidae. There are 40 extant species named as dolphins. Dolphins range in size from the 1.7 m long and 50 kg Maui's dolphin to the 9.5 m and 10 t killer whale. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, they have two limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not quite as flexible as seals, some dolphins can travel at 55.5 km/h. Dolphins use their conical shaped teeth to capture fast moving prey, they have well-developed hearing, adapted for both air and water and is so well developed that some can survive if they are blind. Some species are well adapted for diving to great depths, they have a layer of blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water. Although dolphins are widespread, most species prefer the warmer waters of the tropic zones, but some, like the right whale dolphin, prefer colder climates.
Dolphins feed on fish and squid, but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals, like seals. Male dolphins mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a long period of time. Dolphins produce a variety of vocalizations in the form of clicks and whistles. Dolphins are sometimes hunted in places such as Japan, in an activity known as dolphin drive hunting. Besides drive hunting, they face threats from bycatch, habitat loss, marine pollution. Dolphins have been depicted in various cultures worldwide. Dolphins feature in literature and film, as in the film series Free Willy. Dolphins are sometimes trained to perform tricks; the most common dolphin species in captivity is the bottlenose dolphin, while there are around 60 captive killer whales. The name is from Greek δελφίς, "dolphin", related to the Greek δελφύς, "womb".
The animal's name can therefore be interpreted as meaning "a'fish' with a womb". The name was transmitted via the Latin delphinus, which in Medieval Latin became dolfinus and in Old French daulphin, which reintroduced the ph into the word; the term mereswine has historically been used. The term'dolphin' can be used to refer to, under the parvorder Odontoceti, all the species in the family Delphinidae and the river dolphin families Iniidae, Pontoporiidae and Platanistidae; this term has been misused in the US in the fishing industry, where all small cetaceans are considered porpoises, while the fish dorado is called dolphin fish. In common usage the term'whale' is used only for the larger cetacean species, while the smaller ones with a beaked or longer nose are considered'dolphins'; the name'dolphin' is used casually as a synonym for bottlenose dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin. There are six species of dolphins thought of as whales, collectively known as blackfish: the killer whale, the melon-headed whale, the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale, the two species of pilot whales, all of which are classified under the family Delphinidae and qualify as dolphins.
Though the terms'dolphin' and'porpoise' are sometimes used interchangeably, porpoises are not considered dolphins and have different physical features such as a shorter beak and spade-shaped teeth. Porpoises share a common ancestry with the Delphinidae. A group of dolphins is called a "school" or a "pod". Male dolphins are called "bulls", females "cows" and young dolphins are called "calves". Parvorder Odontoceti, toothed whales Family Platanistidae Ganges and Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica with two subspecies Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor Family Iniidae Amazon river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis Orinoco river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis humboldtiana Araguaian river dolphin, Inia Araguaiaensis Bolivian river dolphin, Inia boliviensis Family Lipotidae Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer Family Pontoporiidae La Plata dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei Family Delphinidae, oceanic dolphins Genus Delphinus Long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis Genus Tursiops Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus Burrunan dolphin, Tursiops australis, a newly discovered species from the sea around Melbourne in September 2011.
Genus Lissodelphis Northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis Southern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis peronii Genus Sotalia Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis Costero, Sotalia guianensis Genus Sousa Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis Chinese white dolphin, Sousa chinensis chinensis Atlantic humpback dolphin, Sousa teuszii Genus Stenella Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene Pantropical
Aldus Pius Manutius was a humanist, scholar and the founder of the Aldine Press. Manutius devoted the part of his life to publishing and disseminating rare texts, his interest in and preservation of Greek manuscripts mark him as an innovative publisher of his age dedicated to the editions he produced. His enchiridia, small portable books, revolutionized personal reading and are the predecessor of the modern paperback. Manutius wanted to produce Greek texts for his readers because he believed that works by Aristotle or Aristophanes in their original Greek form were pure and unadulterated by translation. Before Manutius, publishers printed volumes in Greek due to the complexity of providing a standardized Greek typeface. Manutius published rare manuscripts in their original Greek and Latin forms, he commissioned the creation of typefaces in Greek and Latin resembling humanist handwriting of his time. As the Aldine Press grew in popularity, Manutius's innovations were copied across Italy despite his efforts to prevent piracy of Aldine editions.
Because of the Aldine Press's growing reputation of meticulous, accurate publications, Erasmus sought out Manutius to publish his translations of Iphigenia in Aulis. In his youth, Manutius studied in Rome to become a humanist scholar, he was friends with Giovanni Pico and tutored Pico's nephews, the princes of Carpi and Leonello Pio. While a tutor, Manutius published two works for his pupils and their mother. In his late thirties or early forties Manutius settled in Venice to become a print publisher, he met Andrea Torresani in Venice and the two cofounded the Aldine Press. Manutius is known as "Aldus Manutius the Elder" to distinguish him from his grandson, Aldus Manutius the Younger. Aldus Manutius was born close to Rome in Bassiano between 1449 and 1452, he grew up in a wealthy family during the Italian Renaissance and in his youth was sent to Rome to become a humanist scholar. In Rome, he studied Latin under Gaspare da Verona and attended lectures by Domizio Calderini in the early 1470s. From 1475 to 1478, Manutius studied Greek in Ferrara with Guarino da Verona as his teacher.
Most of Manutius's early life is rather unknown. According to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 17, Manutius was granted citizenship of the town of Carpi on 8 March 1480 where he owned local property, in 1482 he traveled to Mirandola for a time with his longtime friend and fellow student, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, where he stayed two years to study Greek literature. Pico recommended Manutius to become the tutor of his nephews and Leonello Pio, princes of the town of Carpi. In Carpi, Manutius shared a close bond with his student, Alberto Pio. At the end of the 1480s, Manutius published two works addressed to his two pupils and their mother, Caterina Pico — both works were published in Venice by Baptista de Tortis: Musarum Panagyris with its Epistola Catherinae Piae and the Paraenesis. Giovanni Pico and Alberto Pio's families funded the starting costs of Manutius's printing press and gave him lands in Carpi. Manutius determined that Venice was the best location for his work, settling there in 1490.
In Venice, Manutius began gathering publishing contracts, at which point he met Andrea Torresani, engaged in print publishing. Torresani and Manutius became lifelong business partners, for their first contract together Manutius hired Torresani to print the first edition of his Latin grammar book the Institutiones grammaticae, published on 9 March 1493; the Aldine Press, established in 1494, had its first publication in March 1495: Erotemata cum interpretatione Latina by Constantine Lascaris. Andrea Torresani and Pier Francesco Barbarigo, nephew of the Doge, Agostino Barbarigo, each held fifty percent of the press. Of Torresani's fifty percent, Manutius was given one-fifth, but accounts are unclear as to whether Manutius's one-fifth refers to ten percent of the Aldine Press or ownership to one-fifth of Torresani's share; the press's first great achievement was a five-volume folio edition of Aristotle. Manutius started the first volume of his Aristotle edition in 1495. Four more volumes were published together in 1497 and 1498.
The Aldine Press produced nine comedies of Aristophanes in 1498, Pietro Bembo edited Petrarch's poems that Manutius published in July 1501. In addition to editing Greek manuscripts, Manutius corrected and improved texts published in Florence and Milan; the Second Italian War suspended the press for a time. During that time, Desiderius Erasmus asked Manutius to publish his translations of Hecuba and Iphigenia in Aulis through the Aldine Press. Erasmus's original letter to Manutius inquires about the printer's proposed plans: a Greek Plato and a polyglot bible. Through correspondence, the two came to an agreement. In December 1507, the Aldine Press published Iphigenia in Audlis in an 80-page octavo with Erasmus's translation from Greek into Latin. With the success and accuracy of their first collaboration, Manutius agreed to publish the expanded version of the Adagiorum collectanea Erasmus was working on. Erasmus traveled to Venice, where he spent his first ten months working at the Aldine Press.
He lived in Manutius and Torresani's home, where he shared a room with Girolamo Aleandro. His research using Manutius's resources and Greek scholars enabled him to expand his collection of proverbs from 819 entries to 3,260 entries; the Aldine press published this newly expanded collection of proverbs, Adagiorum Chiliades, in 1508. After the publication of Adagiorum Chiliades, Erasmus helped Manutius proofread a Greek edition of Plutarch's Moralia along with many other Aldine Press pub
Agostino Barbarigo was Doge of Venice from 1486 until his death in 1501. While he was Doge, the imposing Clock Tower in the Piazza San Marco with its archway through which the street known as the Merceria leads to the Rialto, was designed and completed. A figure of the Doge was shown kneeling before the lion of Venice on the top storey below the bell but this was removed by the French in 1797 after Venice had surrendered to Napoleon. In 1496 he created an Italian coalition to push back Charles VIII of France from Italy, which led to the Battle of Fornovo during the French retreat from Italy. During his reign Venice annexed the island of Cyprus, his relationships with the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II were amicable, but they became strained starting from 1492 leading to open war in 1499. The Venetian merchants in Istanbul were arrested, while Bosnian troops invaded Dalmatia and reached Zara; the Venetian fleet was defeated at the Battle of Zonchio, the Republic lost its base in Lepanto. The latter was soon followed by Modone and Corone, which meant the loss of all the main intermediate stops for the Venetian ships sailing towards the Levante.
After four years of war, a peace treaty was signed in 1503. By it, Venice maintained in Morea only Nafplion and Monemvasia, his dogaressa was Elisabetta Soranzo. Agostino's brother was Marco Barbarigo, who had preceded him as Doge but survived in office for less than a year. Part is in the Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista, attributed to the workshop of Antonio Rizzo. Agostino Barbarigo appears as the doge-elect for his brother Marco in the video game Assassin's Creed II. Marco's short reign as Doge is ended. In Facebook game Assassin's Creed: Project Legacy it is discovered that Agostino became corrupt, is subsequently killed by the Assassins on 20 September 1501 via a series of poison-coated letters. Italian Wars
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible and appealing when displayed. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing, letter-spacing, adjusting the space between pairs of letters; the term typography is applied to the style and appearance of the letters and symbols created by the process. Type design is a related craft, sometimes considered part of typography. Typography may be used as a decorative device, unrelated to communication of information. Typography is the work of typesetters, graphic designers, art directors, manga artists, comic book artists, graffiti artists, now, anyone who arranges words, letters and symbols for publication, display, or distribution, from clerical workers and newsletter writers to anyone self-publishing materials; until the Digital Age, typography was a specialized occupation. Digitization opened up typography to new generations of unrelated designers and lay users; as the capability to create typography has become ubiquitous, the application of principles and best practices developed over generations of skilled workers and professionals has diminished.
So at a time when scientific techniques can support the proven traditions through understanding the limitations of human vision, typography as encountered may fail to achieve its principal objective: effective communication. The word "typography" in English comes from the Greek roots τύπος typos = "impression" and -γραφία -graphia = "writing". Although applied to printed, published and reproduced materials in contemporary times, all words, letters and numbers written alongside the earliest naturalistic drawings by humans may be called typography; the word, typography, is derived from the Greek words τύπος typos "form" or "impression" and γράφειν graphein "to write", traces its origins to the first punches and dies used to make seals and currency in ancient times, which ties the concept to printing. The uneven spacing of the impressions on brick stamps found in the Mesopotamian cities of Uruk and Larsa, dating from the second millennium B. C. may be evidence of type, wherein the reuse of identical characters was applied to create cuneiform text.
Babylonian cylinder seals were used to create an impression on a surface by rolling the seal on wet clay. Typography was implemented in the Phaistos Disc, an enigmatic Minoan printed item from Crete, which dates to between 1850 and 1600 B. C, it has been proposed that Roman lead pipe inscriptions were created with movable type printing, but German typographer Herbert Brekle dismissed this view. The essential criterion of type identity was met by medieval print artifacts such as the Latin Pruefening Abbey inscription of 1119, created by the same technique as the Phaistos Disc; the silver altarpiece of patriarch Pellegrinus II in the cathedral of Cividale was printed with individual letter punches. The same printing technique may be found in tenth to twelfth century Byzantine reliquaries. Other early examples include individual letter tiles where the words are formed by assembling single letter tiles in the desired order, which were reasonably widespread in medieval Northern Europe. Typography with movable type was invented during the eleventh-century Song dynasty in China by Bi Sheng.
His movable type system was manufactured from ceramic materials, clay type printing continued to be practiced in China until the Qing Dynasty. Wang Zhen was one of the pioneers of wooden movable type. Although the wooden type was more durable under the mechanical rigors of handling, repeated printing wore the character faces down and the types could be replaced only by carving new pieces. Metal movable type was first invented in Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty 1230. Hua Sui introduced bronze type printing to China in 1490 AD; the diffusion of both movable-type systems was limited and the technology did not spread beyond East and Central Asia, however. Modern lead-based movable type, along with the mechanical printing press, is most attributed to the goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg in 1439, his type pieces, made from a lead-based alloy, suited printing purposes so well that the alloy is still used today. Gutenberg developed specialized techniques for casting and combining cheap copies of letter punches in the vast quantities required to print multiple copies of texts.
This technical breakthrough was instrumental in starting the Printing Revolution and the first book printed with lead-based movable type was the Gutenberg Bible. Advancing technology revolutionized typography in the latter twentieth century. During the 1960s some camera-ready typesetting could be produced in any office or workshop with stand-alone machines such as those introduced by IBM. During the mid-1980s personal computers such as the Macintosh allowed type designers to create typefaces digitally using commercial graphic design software. Digital technology enabled designers to create more experimental typefaces as well as the practical typefaces of traditional typography. Designs for typefaces could be created faster with the new technology, for more specific functions; the cost for developing typefaces was drastically lowered, becoming available to the masses. The change has been called the "democratization of type" and has given new designers more opportunities to enter the field; the design of typefaces has de
John Rylands Library
The John Rylands Library is a late-Victorian neo-Gothic building on Deansgate in Manchester, England. The library, which opened to the public in 1900, was founded by Enriqueta Augustina Rylands in memory of her husband, John Rylands; the John Rylands Library and the library of the University of Manchester merged in July 1972 into the John Rylands University Library of Manchester. Special collections built up by both libraries were progressively concentrated in the Deansgate building; the special collections, believed to be among the largest in the United Kingdom, include medieval illuminated manuscripts and examples of early European printing, including a Gutenberg Bible, the second largest collection of printing by William Caxton, the most extensive collection of the editions of the Aldine Press of Venice. The Rylands Library Papyrus P52 has a claim to be the earliest extant New Testament text; the library holds personal papers and letters of notable figures, among them Elizabeth Gaskell and John Dalton.
The architectural style is neo-Gothic with elements of Arts and Crafts Movement in the ornate and imposing gatehouse facing Deansgate which dominates the surrounding streetscape. The library, granted Grade I listed status in 1994, is maintained by the University of Manchester and open for library readers and visitors. Enriqueta Rylands purchased a site on Deansgate for her memorial library in 1889 and commissioned a design from architect Basil Champneys. Rylands commissioned the Manchester academic Alice Cooke to index the vast library of the 2nd Earl Spencer which she had purchased and another collection of autographs. Mrs Rylands intended the library to be principally theological, the building, a fine example of Victorian Gothic, has the appearance of a church, although the concept was of an Oxford college library on a larger scale. Champneys presented plans to Mrs Rylands within a week of gaining the commission. Thereafter frequent disagreements arose and Mrs Rylands selected decorative elements, window glass and statues against his wishes.
Champneys was given the honour of speaking about the library at a general meeting of the Royal Institute of British Architects and was awarded a Royal Gold Medal in 1912. The library was granted listed building status on 25 January 1952, upgraded to Grade I on 6 June 1994; the core of the library's collection was formed around 40,000 books, including many rarities, assembled by George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer, which Mrs Rylands purchased from Lord Spencer in 1892. She continued to do so throughout her lifetime. After its inauguration on 6 October 1899 the library opened to readers and visitors on 1 January 1900; the John Rylands Library and the library of the University of Manchester merged in July 1972 and was named the John Rylands University Library of Manchester. Special collections built up by both libraries were progressively concentrated in the Deansgate building; the building has been extended four times, the first time to designs by Champneys in 1920 after the project was delayed by World War I.
The Lady Wolfson Building opened in 1962 on the west side and a third extension, south of the first was built in 1969. In January 2003, an appeal to renovate the building was launched. Funds were generated from grants from the University of Manchester and Heritage Lottery Fund and donations from members of the public and companies in Manchester; the project, Unlocking the Rylands, demolished the third extension, refurbished parts of the old building and erected a pitched roof over its reinforced concrete roof. Champneys designed a pitched roof but Mrs Rylands was advised that an internal stone vault would reduce the fire risk and it was not built; the £17 million project was completed by summer 2007 and the library reopened on 20 September 2007. By the nineteenth century Manchester was a prosperous industrial town and the demands of cotton manufacturing stimulated the growth of engineering and chemical industries; the town became'abominably filthy' and was'often covered during the winter, with dense fogs...
There is at all times a copious descent of soots and other impurities'. This, the overcrowded site, created many design problems for the architect. During the century most textile manufacture moved to newer mills in the surrounding towns while Manchester remained the centre of trading in cotton goods both for the home and foreign markets but pollution from burning coal and gas remained a considerable nuisance; the site chosen by Mrs Rylands was in a central and fashionable part of the city, but was awkward in shape and orientation and surrounded by tall warehouses, derelict cottages and narrow streets. The position was criticised for its lack of surrounding space and the fact that the valuable manuscript collections were to be housed in "that dirty, uncomfortable city... not enough light to read by, the books they have are wretchedly kept" Mrs Rylands negotiated Deeds of Agreement with her neighbours to fix the heights of future adjacent buildings. The permissible height of the building was fixed at just over 34 feet, but it was suggested that it could be taller at the centre if there was an open area around the edges, at the height of buildings, demolished to make way for the construction.
Champneys incorporated this suggestion into his design, setting the two towers of the facade twelve feet back from the boundary and keeping the entrance block low, to allow light into the library. He designed the building in a series of tiered steps with an flat roof to give a'liberal concession' to the neighbours"right to light'; the library was built on a re
Francesco Griffo called Francesco da Bologna, was a fifteenth-century Italian punchcutter. He worked for Aldus Manutius, designing the printer's more important humanist typefaces, including the first italic type, he cut Roman, Greek and first italic type. Aldus gives Griffo credit in the introduction of the Virgil of 1501. However, as Manutius had achieved a monopoly on italic printing and Greek publishing with the permission of the Venetian government, he had a falling-out with Griffo. Griffo went to work for Gershom Soncino, whose family were Hebrew printers, it was with Soncino that Griffo's second italic type was cut in 1503. In 1516 he returned to Bologna. In 1518 Griffo was charged with the murder of his son-in-law, beaten to death with an iron bar; this is his last appearance in the historical record. He is presumed to have been executed. Griffo's typefaces have been influential, his Romans show a degree of abstraction from calligraphy not present in the work of the earlier master Nicolas Jenson, while his italic and Greek types are notably cursive.
Philip B. Meggs wrote in A History of Graphic Design, "Griffo researched pre-Caroline scripts to produce a roman type, less artistic but more authentic than Jenson's designs"; the italic type was designed to look like handwriting of the humanist scholars. This more personal form of type became popular in Europe. Typefaces based on his work include Monotype Poliphilus roman, Bembo Book roman, Bembo Titling, Morris Fuller Benton's Cloister Old Style italic, Jack Yan's JY Aetna roman, Bitstream Aldine 401 roman, Franko Luin's Griffo Classico roman and italic; the publications of Francesco Griffo's at Bologna as cited by Francesco Griffo da Bologna: Fragments & glimpses: a compendium of information & opinions about his life and work. Canzoniere et triomphi di messer Francesco Petrarcha, 20 September 1516. Archadia del Sannazaro, 3 October 1516. Gli Asolani di Messer Pietro Bembo, 30 October 1516. Labirinto d amore de Messer Giovanni Bocaccio nomato il Corbaccio, 9 December 1516. M. Tull. Ciceronis Epistolae familiares accuratius recognitae, 20 December 1516.
Volerii Maximi dictorum et factorum memorabilium libri nouem, 24 January 1517. Digital scan of De Aetna
Paulus Manutius was a Venetian printer with a humanist education, the third son of the famous printer Aldus Manutius and his wife Maria Torresano. As a young man Paulus Manutius moved to Venice to get an education and was well received by his father's old friends Pietro Bembo and Egnatio. During Paulus' education his grandfather, Andrea Torresani and two uncles and Francesco, carried on the Aldine Press. Andrea Torresani died in October 1528 which brought disputes between Paulus and his uncles that halted the work of the press for four years. In 1533 Paulus assumed direction of his father's business. In that first year alone the press issued eleven titles. From 1536 to 1539 Paulus was involved in a lawsuit against his uncles in an effort to reclaim his father's italic type. In 1539 Paulus won. Paulus was a passionate Ciceronian, his chief contributions to scholarship are the corrected editions of Cicero's letters and orations, his own epistles in a Ciceronian style, his Latin version of Demosthenes' Philippics.
Throughout his life he combined the occupations of a printer. As a scholar he is remembered for four elegant Latin treatises on Roman antiquities, his correct editions of the classics, printed in a splendid style, were esteemed, yet sales did not always support such productions. But Badoaro failed disgracefully in 1559, the academy was extinct in 1562. Meanwhile, Paulus had established his brother, Antonio in a printing office and book shop at Bologna. Antonio died in 1559, having been a source of trouble and expense to Paulus during the last four years of his life. Other pecuniary embarrassments arose from a contract for supplying fish to Venice, into which Paulus had somewhat strangely entered with the government. In 1561 Pope Pius IV invited him to Rome, offering him a yearly stipend of 500 ducats, undertaking to establish and maintain his press there; the profits on publications were to be divided between the Apostolic Camera. Paulus accepted the invitation, spent the larger portion of his time, under three pontiffs, with varying fortunes, in the city of Rome.
The Vatican was eager to make effective use of the press to counter the growing influence of Protestant publications from beyond the Alps and his Roman editions for the Stamperia del Popolo Romano were Latin works of theology and Biblical or patristic literature. They included Reginald Pole's De Concilio and Reformatio Angliae and official publications from the Council of Trent such as the Canones et decreta the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, the Catechismus, the Breviarium Romanum. Ill-health, the commercial interests he had left behind at Venice, the lack of interest shown by Pope Pius V, left Paulus ready to travel back to Venice in 1570 having spent nine years in Rome. On April 6, 1574 Paulus Manutius was buried at the Dominican Church of Rome. Aldus Manutius Aldine Press Aldus Manutius the Younger This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Symonds, John Addington. "Manutius". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. P. 625