Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles IV, born Wenceslaus, was the first King of Bohemia to become Holy Roman Emperor. He was a member of the House of Luxembourg from his father's side and the Czech House of Přemyslid from his mother's side, he was the eldest son and heir of King John of Bohemia, who died at the Battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346. His mother, Elizabeth of Bohemia, was the sister of King Wenceslas III, the last of the male Přemyslid rulers of Bohemia. Charles inherited the County of Luxembourg from his father and was elected king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. On 2 September 1347, Charles was crowned King of Bohemia. On 11 July 1346, the prince-electors chose him as King of the Romans in opposition to Emperor Louis IV. Charles was crowned on 26 November 1346 in Bonn. After his opponent died, he was crowned King of the Romans. In 1355, he was crowned King of Holy Roman Emperor. With his coronation as King of Burgundy in 1365, he became the personal ruler of all the kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles IV was born to King John of the Luxembourg dynasty and Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia of the Czech Premyslid Dynasty in Prague.
He was named Wenceslaus, the name of his maternal grandfather, King Wenceslaus II. He chose the name Charles at his confirmation in honor of his uncle, King Charles IV of France, at whose court he was resident for seven years, he received French education and was literate and fluent in five languages: Latin, German and Italian. In 1331, he gained some experience of warfare in Italy with his father. At the beginning of 1333, Charles went to Lucca to consolidate his rule there. In an effort to defend the city, Charles founded the town of Montecarlo. From 1333, he administered the lands of the Bohemian Crown due to his father's frequent absence and deteriorating eyesight. In 1334, Charles was named Margrave of the traditional title for heirs to the throne. Two years he assumed the government of Tyrol on behalf of his brother, John Henry, was soon involved in a struggle for the possession of this county. On 11 July 1346, in consequence of an alliance between his father and Pope Clement VI, relentless enemy of the emperor Louis IV, Charles was chosen as Roman king in opposition to Louis by some of the prince-electors at Rhens.
As he had promised to be subservient to Clement, he made extensive concessions to the pope in 1347. Confirming the papacy in the possession of vast territories, he promised to annul the acts of Louis against Clement, to take no part in Italian affairs, to defend and protect the church. Charles IV was in a weak position in Germany. Owing to the terms of his election, he was derisively referred to as a "Priests' King". Many bishops and nearly all of the Imperial cities remained loyal to Louis the Bavarian. Worse still, Charles backed the wrong side in the Hundred Years' War, losing his father and many of his best knights at the Battle of Crécy in August 1346, with Charles himself escaping from the field wounded. Civil war in Germany was prevented, when Louis IV died on 11 October 1347, after suffering a stroke during a bear hunt. In January 1349, House of Wittelsbach partisans attempted to secure the election of Günther von Schwarzburg as king, but he attracted few supporters and died unnoticed and unmourned after a few months.
Thereafter, Charles faced no direct threat to his claim to the Imperial throne. Charles worked to secure his power base. Bohemia had remained untouched by the plague. Prague became his capital, he rebuilt the city on the model of Paris, establishing the New Town. In 1348, he founded the Charles University in Prague, named after him and was the first university in Central Europe; this served as a training ground for lawyers. Soon Prague emerged as the cultural center of Central Europe. Having made good use of the difficulties of his opponents, Charles was again elected in Frankfurt on 17 June 1349 and re-crowned at Aachen on 25 July 1349, he was soon the undisputed ruler of the Empire. Gifts or promises had won the support of the Swabian towns. In 1350, the king was visited at Prague by the Roman tribune Cola di Rienzo, who urged him to go to Italy, where the poet Petrarch and the citizens of Florence implored his presence. Turning a deaf ear to these entreaties, Charles kept Cola in prison for a year, handed him as a prisoner to Clement at Avignon.
Outside Prague, Charles attempted to expand the Bohemian crown lands, using his imperial authority to acquire fiefs in Silesia, the Upper Palatinate, Franconia. The latter regions comprised "New Bohemia," a string of possessions intended to link Bohemia with the Luxemburg territories in the Rhineland; the Bohemian estates, were not willing to support Charles in these ventures. When Charles sought to codify Bohemian law in the Maiestas Carolina of 1355, he met with sharp resistance. After that point, Charles found. In 1354, Charles crossed the Alps without an army, received the Lombard crown in St. Ambrose Basilica, Milan, on 5 January 1355, was crowned emperor at Rome by a cardinal in April of the same year, his sole object appears to have
Maciej Stryjkowski was a Polish and Lithuanian historian, writer and a poet, notable as the author of Chronicle of Poland, Lithuania and all of Ruthenia. The work is considered to be the first printed book on the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Maciej Stryjkowski was born around 1547 in Stryków, a town in the Rawa Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland, he graduated from a local school in the town of Brzeziny, after which he joined the army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and served in the forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He served in a garrison in Vitebsk under Alexander Guagnini, he was a Pole, but spent most of his life in the Grand Duchy as a soldier. Around 1573, at the age of 25, he retired from active service and became a protégé of Merkelis Giedraitis, the bishop of Samogitia. Stryjkowski became a Catholic priest and ended as a provost at the parish of Jurbarkas, a small village in the Lithuanian-Prussian borderland. There he devoted his life to writing a monumental chronicle of the lands of Poland-Lithuania published in Königsberg in 1582.
The book, published under the title of Chronicle of Poland, Lithuania and all of Ruthenia of Kiev, Novgorod... is a classic piece of literature written in the Polish language and detailed much of the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and its parts from their legendary roots up to 1581. Some fragments of his work are written in Lithuanian language, he encouraged Lithuanian nobility to use the Lithuanian language. The chronicle was a successful compilation of earlier chronicles by Jan Długosz and Maciej Miechowita, but includes Ruthenian chronicles, folk tales and legends, it gained much fame among the szlachta and it is argued that Stryjkowski was among the Polish-Lithuanian writers to shape the Lithuanian national identity, as his works were copied by scores of writers and chroniclers in all parts of the region. Until the 19th century the works of Stryjkowski were considered to be the basic sources of information on early period of history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it was not until the advent of modern historiography that his chronicle started to be criticised and disputed due to his favour of the magnates, lack of distinction between legends and historic accounts and his theory on the Roman origin of the Lithuanian ruling families.
In 1577 Stryjkowski authored a large epic poem On the beginnings of the famed nation of Lithuania, which however was not published until after Stryjkowski's death. He died around the year 1593, though place remain unknown. J. Radziszewska, Maciej Stryjkowski, historyk-poet z epoki Odrodzenia, Katowice, 1978. Julia Radziszewska. Maciej Stryjkowski: historyk-poeta z epoki Odrodzenia. Katowice: Silesian University. * List of Lithuanian Gods Found in Maciej Sryjkowski chonicle by Gintaras Beresnevičius Front page of Strykowski's chronicle and his contemporary portrait
Elizabeth of Poland, Duchess of Pomerania
Princess Elizabeth of Poland was the eldest child of Casimir III of Poland and his first wife, Aldona of Lithuania. Elizabeth was betrothed to her future brother-law, Louis VI the Roman, she was passed over for her younger sister, Cunigunde. An agreement, directed against the Teutonic Order, was reached on 24 February 1343 in Poznań between Elizabeth's father and Bogislaw V, Duke of Pomerania; as a result, Elizabeth married Bogislaw on 28 February 1343. She received a dowry from her father of 20 000 kop and lived in Castle of Darlowo during her marriage; the couple had children: Elizabeth of wife of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Casimir IV of Pomerania, her daughter Elizabeth was married in 1363 to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. The marriage took place during the Congress of Kraków. Elizabeth of Poland, never saw her daughter married off, she had died in 1361, at a monastery of the Order of Saint Augustine in Świątkach, was buried there. Her son, Casimir was groomed to become Casimir the Great's successor as King of Poland but was sidelined by Louis I of Hungary, instead succeeded Bogislaw in 1364 as duke of Pomerania.
Frost, Robert I.. The Making of the Polish-Lithuanian Union 1385-1569. Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Lerski, George J.. "Kazimierz IV". Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. ABC-CLIO
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Gediminas was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death. He is credited with founding this political entity and expanding its territory which, at the time of his death, spanned the area ranging from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. Seen as one of the most significant individuals in early Lithuanian history, he was responsible for both building Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, establishing a dynasty that came to rule other European countries such as Poland and Bohemia; as part of his legacy, he gained a reputation for being a champion of paganism, who diverted attempts to Christianize his country by skillful negotiations with the Pope and other Christian rulers. Gediminas was born in about 1275; because written sources of the era are scarce, Gediminas' ancestry, early life, assumption of the title of Grand Duke in ca. 1316 are obscure and continue to be the subject of scholarly debate. Various theories have claimed that Gediminas was either his predecessor Grand Duke Vytenis' son, his brother, his cousin, or his hostler.
For several centuries only two versions of his origins circulated. Chronicles — written long after Gediminas' death by the Teutonic Knights, a long-standing enemy of Lithuania — claimed that Gediminas was a hostler to Vytenis. Another version introduced in the Lithuanian Chronicles, which appeared long after Gediminas' death, proclaimed that Gediminas was Vytenis' son. However, the two men were the same age, making this relationship unlikely. Recent research indicates. In 1974 historian Jerzy Ochmański noted that Zadonshchina, a poem from the end of the 14th century, contains a line in which two sons of Algirdas name their ancestors: "We are two brothers – sons of Algirdas, grandsons of Gediminas, great-grandsons of Skalmantas." This discovery led to the belief. Ochmański posited that the poem skipped the generation represented by Butvydas, jumped back to the unknown ancestor. Baranauskas disagrees, believing Skalmantas was Butvydas' brother rather than his father, that Vytenis and Gediminas were therefore cousins.
Gediminas ruled for 25 years. He inherited a vast domain, comprising not only Lithuania proper, but Samogitia, Podlasie and Minsk. However, these possessions were all environed by the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order, which had long been the enemies of the state. Gediminas allied himself with the Tatars against the Teutonic order in 1319; the systematic raiding of Lithuania by the knights under the pretext of converting it had long since united all the Lithuanian tribes, but Gediminas aimed at establishing a dynasty which should make Lithuania not secure but powerful, for this purpose he entered into direct diplomatic negotiations with the Holy See as well. At the end of 1322, he sent letters to Pope John XXII soliciting his protection against the persecution of the knights, informing him of the privileges granted to the Dominicans and Franciscans in Lithuania for the preaching of God's Word. Gediminas asked that legates should be dispatched to him in order to be baptized; this action was supported by the Archbishop of Frederic Lobestat.
Following these events, peace between the Duchy and the Livonian order was conducted on 2 October 1323. On receiving a favourable reply from the Holy See, Gediminas issued circular letters, dated 25 January 1325, to the principal Hansa towns, offering a free access into his domains to men of every order and profession from nobles and knights to tillers of the soil; the immigrants were to be governed by their own laws. Priests and monks were invited to come and build churches at Vilnius and Navahradak. In October 1323, representatives of the archbishop of Riga, the bishop of Dorpat, the king of Denmark, the Dominican and Franciscan orders, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order assembled at Vilnius, when Gediminas confirmed his promises and undertook to be baptised as soon as the papal legates arrived. A compact was signed at Vilnius, in the name of the whole Christian World, between Gediminas and the delegates, confirming the promised privileges, thus his raid upon Dobrzyń, the latest acquisition of the knights on Polish soil, speedily gave them a ready weapon against him.
The Prussian bishops, who were devoted to the knights, questioned the authority of Gediminas' letters and denounced him as an enemy of the faith at a synod in Elbing. Gediminas disentangled himself from his difficulties by repudiating his former promises; these retrogressive measures amounted to a statesmanlike recognition of the fact that the pagan element was still the strongest force in Lithuania, could not yet be dispensed with in the coming struggle for nationality. At the same time Gediminas informed the papal legates at Riga through his ambassadors that his difficult position compelled him to postpone his steadfast resolve of being baptised, the legates showed their confidence in him by forbidding the neighbouring states to war against Lithuania for the next four years, besides ratifying the treaty made between Gediminas and the archbishop of Riga. Disregarding the censures of the church, the Order resumed the war with Gediminas by murdering one of his de
A cymbal is a common percussion instrument. Used in pairs, cymbals consist of thin round plates of various alloys; the majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note. Cymbals are used in many ensembles ranging from the orchestra, percussion ensembles, jazz bands, heavy metal bands, marching groups. Drum kits incorporate at least a crash, ride, or crash/ride, a pair of hi-hat cymbals. A player of cymbals is known as a cymbalist; the word cymbal is derived from the Latin cymbalum, the latinisation of the Greek word κύμβαλον kymbalon, "cymbal", which in turn derives from κύμβη kymbē, "cup, bowl". In orchestral scores, cymbals may be indicated by the French cymbales. Many of these derive from the word for plates. Cymbals have existed since ancient times. Representations of cymbals may be found in reliefs and paintings from Armenian Highlands, Babylon, ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, ancient Rome. References to cymbals appear throughout the Bible, through many Psalms and songs of praise to God.
Cymbals may have been introduced to China from Central Asia in the 3rd or 4th century AD. In India, Cymbals have been in use since the ancient times and are still used across all major temples and Buddhist sites. Gigantic Aartis along Ganges which are revered by Hindus all over the world, are incomplete without large cymbals. Cymbals were employed by Turkish janissaries in the 14th century or earlier. By the 17th century, such cymbals were used in European music, more played in military bands and orchestras by the mid 18th century. Since the 19th century, some composers have called for larger roles for cymbals in musical works, a variety of cymbal shapes and hardware have been developed in response; the anatomy of the cymbal plays a large part in the sound. A hole is drilled in the center of the cymbal, used to either mount the cymbal on a stand or for tying straps through; the bell, dome, or cup is the raised section surrounding the hole. The bell produces a higher "pinging" pitch than the rest of the cymbal.
The bow is the rest of the surface surrounding the bell. The bow is sometimes described in two areas: the crash area; the ride area is the thicker section closer to the bell while the crash area is the thinner tapering section near the edge. The edge or rim is the immediate circumference of the cymbal. Cymbals are measured in inches or centimeters; the size of the cymbal affects its sound, larger cymbals being louder and having longer sustain. The weight describes. Cymbal weights are important to the sound how they play. Heavier cymbals have a louder volume, more cut, better stick articulation. Thin cymbals have a fuller sound, lower pitch, faster response; the profile of the cymbal is the vertical distance of the bow from the bottom of the bell to the cymbal edge. The profile affects the pitch of the cymbal: higher profile cymbals have higher pitch. Cymbals offer a composer nearly endless amounts of effect, their unique timbre allows them to project against a full orchestra and through the heaviest of orchestrations and enhance articulation and nearly any dynamic.
Cymbals have been utilized to suggest frenzy, fury or bacchanalian revels, as seen in the Venus music in Wagner's Tannhäuser, Grieg's Peer Gynt suite, Osmin's aria "O wie will ich triumphieren" from Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail. Orchestral crash cymbals are traditionally used in pairs, each one having a strap set in the bell of the cymbal by which they are held; such a pair is always known as crash plates. The sound can be obtained by rubbing their edges together in a sliding movement for a "sizzle", striking them against each other in what is called a "crash", tapping the edge of one against the body of the other in what is called a "tap-crash", scraping the edge of one from the inside of the bell to the edge for a "scrape" or "zischen," or shutting the cymbals together and choking the sound in what is called a "hi-hat chick" or crush. A skilled percussionist can obtain an enormous dynamic range from such cymbals. For example, in Beethoven's ninth symphony, the percussionist is employed to first play cymbals pianissimo, adding a touch of colour rather than loud crash.
Crash cymbals are damped by pressing them against the percussionist's body. A composer may write "Let vibrate", secco, or equivalent indications on the score. Crash cymbals have traditionally been accompanied by the bass drum playing an identical part; this combination, played loudly, is an effective way to accentuate a note since it contributes to both low and high frequency ranges and provides a satisfying "crash-bang-wallop". In older music the composer sometimes provided one part for this pair of instruments, writing senza piatti or piatti soli if only one is needed; this came from the common practice of having one percussionist play using one cymbal mounted to the shell of the bass drum. The percussionist would crash the cymbals with the left hand and use a mallet to strike the bass drum with the right; this method is nowadays employed in pit orchestras and called for by composers who desire a certain effect. Stravinsky calls for
History of Poland during the Piast dynasty
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation. The dynasty was founded by a series of dukes listed by the chronicler Gallus Anonymous in the early 12th century: Siemowit and Siemomysł, it was Mieszko I, the son of Siemomysł, now considered the proper founder of the Polish state at about 960 AD. The ruling house remained in power in the Polish lands until 1370. Mieszko converted to Christianity of the Western Latin Rite in an event known as the Baptism of Poland in 966, which established a major cultural boundary in Europe based on religion, he completed a unification of the West Slavic tribal lands, fundamental to the existence of the new country of Poland. Following the emergence of the Polish state, a series of rulers converted the population to Christianity, created a kingdom of Poland in 1025 and integrated Poland into the prevailing culture of Europe. Mieszko's son Bolesław I the Brave established a Roman Catholic Archdiocese in Gniezno, pursued territorial conquests and was crowned in 1025 as the first king of Poland.
The first Piast monarchy collapsed with the death of Mieszko II Lambert in 1034, followed by its restoration under Casimir I in 1042. In the process, the royal dignity for Polish rulers was forfeited, the state reverted to the status of a duchy. Duke Casimir's son Bolesław II the Bold revived the military assertiveness of Bolesław I, but became fatally involved in a conflict with Bishop Stanislaus of Szczepanów and was expelled from the country. Bolesław III, the last duke of the early period, succeeded in defending his country and recovering territories lost. Upon his death in 1138, Poland was divided among his sons; the resulting internal fragmentation eroded the initial Piast monarchical structure in the 12th and 13th centuries and caused fundamental and lasting changes. Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans, which led to centuries of Poland's warfare with the Knights and the German Prussian state. In 1320, the kingdom was restored under Władysław I the Elbow-high strengthened and expanded by his son Casimir III the Great.
The western provinces of Silesia and Pomerania were lost after the fragmentation, Poland began expanding to the east. The period ended with the reigns of two members of the Capetian House of Anjou between 1370 and 1384; the consolidation in the 14th century laid the base for the new powerful kingdom of Poland, to follow. The tribe of the Polans in what is now Greater Poland gave rise to a tribal predecessor of the Polish state in the early part of the 10th century, with the Polans settling in the flatlands around the emerging strongholds of Giecz, Poznań, Gniezno and Ostrów Lednicki. Accelerated rebuilding of old tribal fortified settlements, construction of massive new ones and territorial expansion took place during the period ca. 920–950. The Polish state developed from these tribal roots in the second half of the century. According to the 12th-century chronicler Gallus Anonymus, the Polans were ruled at this time by the Piast dynasty. In existing sources from the 10th century, Piast ruler Mieszko I was first mentioned by Widukind of Corvey in his Res gestae saxonicae, a chronicle of events in Germany.
Widukind reported that Mieszko's forces were twice defeated in 963 by the Veleti tribes acting in cooperation with the Saxon exile Wichmann the Younger. Under Mieszko's rule, his tribal state became the Polish state; the viability of the Mieszko's emerging state was assured by the persistent territorial expansion of the early Piast rulers. Beginning with a small area around Gniezno, the Piast expansion lasted throughout most of the 10th century and resulted in a territory approximating that of present-day Poland; the Polanie tribe conquered and merged with other Slavic tribes and first formed a tribal federation later a centralized state. After the addition of Lesser Poland, the country of the Vistulans, of Silesia, Mieszko's state reached its mature form, including the main regions regarded as ethnically Polish; the Piast lands totaled about 250,000 km2 in area, with an approximate population of under one million. A pagan, Mieszko I was the first ruler of the Polans tribal union known from contemporary written sources.
A detailed account of aspects of Mieszko's early reign was given by Ibrâhîm ibn Ya`qûb, a Jewish traveler, according to whom Mieszko was one of four Slavic "kings" established in central and southern Europe in the 960s. In 965, allied with Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia at the time, married the duke's daughter Doubravka, a Christian princess. Mieszko's conversion to Christianity in its Western Latin Rite followed on 14 April 966, an event known as the Baptism of Poland, considered to be the founding event of the Polish state. In the aftermath of Mieszko's victory over a force of the Velunzani in 967, led by Wichmann, the first missionary bishop was appointed: Jordan, bishop of Poland; the action counteracted the intended eastern expansion of the Magdeburg Archdiocese, established at about the same time. Mieszko's state had a complex political relationship with the German Holy Roman Empire, as Mieszko was a "friend", ally and vassal of Holy Roman Emperor Otto I and paid him tribute from the western part of his lands.
Mieszko fought wars with the Polabian Slavs, the Czechs, Margrave Gero of the Saxon Eastern March in 963–964 and Margrave Odo I of the Saxon Eastern March in 972 in the Battle of Cedynia. The victories over Wichmann an