Aleatoric music is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance, and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer. The term is most associated with procedures in which the chance element involves a limited number of possibilities; the term became known to European composers through lectures by acoustician Werner Meyer-Eppler at the Darmstadt International Summer Courses for New Music in the beginning of the 1950s. According to his definition, "a process is said to be aleatoric... if its course is determined in general but depends on chance in detail". Through a confusion of Meyer-Eppler's German terms Aleatorik and aleatorisch, his translator created a new English word, "aleatoric", which became fashionable and has persisted. More the variant "aleatoriality" has been introduced. Compositions that could be considered a precedent for aleatory composition date back to at least the late 15th century, with the genre of the catholicon, exemplified by the Missa cuiusvis toni of Johannes Ockeghem.
A genre was the Musikalisches Würfelspiel or musical dice game, popular in the late 18th and early 19th century. These games consisted of a sequence of musical measures, for which each measure had several possible versions and a procedure for selecting the precise sequence based on the throwing of a number of dice; the French artist Marcel Duchamp composed two pieces between 1913 and 1915 based on chance operations. One of these, Erratum Musical written for three voices, was published in 1934. Two of his contemporaries, Francis Picabia and Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes experimented with chance composition, these works being performed at a Festival Dada staged at the Salle Gaveau concert hall, Paris, on 26 May 1920. American composer John Cage's Music of Changes was "the first composition to be determined by random procedures", though his indeterminacy is of a different order from Meyer-Eppler's concept. Cage asked Duchamp: "How is it that you used chance operations when I was just being born?".
The earliest significant use of aleatory features is found in many of the compositions of American Charles Ives in the early 20th century. Henry Cowell adopted Ives's ideas during the 1930s, in such works as the Mosaic Quartet, which allows the players to arrange the fragments of music in a number of different possible sequences. Cowell used specially devised notations to introduce variability into the performance of a work, sometimes instructing the performers to improvise a short passage or play ad libitum. American composers, such as Alan Hovhaness used procedures superficially similar to Cowell's, in which different short patterns with specified pitches and rhythm are assigned to several parts, with instructions that they be performed at their own speed without coordination with the rest of the ensemble; some scholars regard the resultant blur as "hardly aleatory, since exact pitches are controlled and any two performances will be the same" although, according to another writer, this technique is the same as that used by Witold Lutosławski.
Depending on the vehemence of the technique, Hovhaness's published scores annotate these sections variously, for example as “Free tempo / humming effect” and “Repeat and repeat ad lib, but not together”. In Europe, following the introduction of the expression "aleatory music" by Meyer-Eppler, the French composer Pierre Boulez was responsible for popularizing the term. Other early European examples of aleatory music include Klavierstück XI by Karlheinz Stockhausen, which features 19 elements to be performed in a sequence to be determined in each case by the performer. A form of limited aleatory was used by Witold Lutosławski, where extensive passages of pitches and rhythms are specified, but the rhythmic coordination of parts within the ensemble is subject to an element of chance. There has been much confusion of the terms indeterminate/chance music. One of Cage's pieces, HPSCHD, itself composed using chance procedures, uses music from Mozart's Musikalisches Würfelspiel, referred to above, as well as original music.
Some writers do not make a distinction between aleatory and indeterminancy in music, use the terms interchangeably. From this point of view, indeterminate or chance music can be divided into three groups: the use of random procedures to produce a determinate, fixed score, mobile form, indeterminate notation, including graphic notation and texts; the first group includes scores in which the chance element is involved only in the process of composition, so that every parameter is fixed before their performance. In John Cage’s Music of Changes, for example, the composer selected duration and dynamics by using the I Ching, an ancient Chinese book which prescribes methods for arriving at random numbers; because this work is fixed from performance to performance, Cage regarded it as an determinate work made using chance procedures (Pritc
The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 1982 in Norwegian music. 2 -- The 9th Vossajazz started in Norway. 26 – 10th Nattjazz started in Bergen, Norway. 27 – The 13th Kalvøyafestivalen started at Kalvøya near by Oslo. A Arild AndersenLifelines G Jan GarbarekPaths, with Bill Frisell, Eberhard Weber, Jon Christensen Trip to Prillarguri, with George Russell SextetHaakon GrafHideaway with Jon Christensen and Sveinung HovensjøK Karin KrogTwo Of A Kind with Bengt HallbergBjørn Kruse / Olav Berg / Nils Henrik Asheim / Kjell SamkopfContemporary Music From Norway with The Norwegian Contemporary Music EnsembleN Lillebjørn NilsenOriginal Nilsen R Inger Lise RypdalKontakt T Radka ToneffFairytales with Steve Dobrogosz October 21 – Radka Toneff, jazz singer. November 27 – Jonas Brunvoll, Jr. operatic singer and actor. January 1 – Andreas Lønmo Knudsrød, jazz drummer. 19 – Maria Solheim and songwriter. February 4 – Hedvig Mollestad Thomassen, jazz guitarist and composer. 12 – Øyvind Hegg-Lunde, jazz drummer and percussionist.
13 – Even Helte Hermansen, jazz guitaristMarch 8 – Isak Strand and electronica artist, Me At Sea. 9 – Gunnar Greve, talent manager, A&R, songwriter, record executive nad vocalist. 27 – Admiral P, singer and reggae artist. April 2 – Daniel Herskedal, jazz tubist and composer. 9 – Øyvind Skarbø, drummer and composer. 21 – Ørjan Hartveit, classical baritone singer. June 14 – Anders Jektvik, singer and guitarist. 28 – Simen Aanerud and inventor. July 6 – Petter Vågan, guitarist and composer. 27 – Kristin Minde, pop singer and pianist. August 7 – Anders Hana, jazz guitarist and composer. September 5 – Sondre Lerche, singer and multi-instrumentalist. November 6 – Torbjørn Schei, black metal singer and songwriter. 24 – Therese Birkelund Ulvo, contemporary composer and music producer. 29 – Marthe Valle and songwriter. December 17 – Stephan Meidell and composer. Unknown date Håvard Lothe and guitarist. 1982 in Norway Music of Norway Norway in the Eurovision Song Contest 1982
Nikolai Skladnichenko is a Russian professional ice hockey forward. He is playing with HC Spartak Moscow of the Kontinental Hockey League. Skladnichenko first played junior in North America with the Bobcaygeon Bucks of the Greater Toronto Midget Hockey League. Skladnichenko returned to Russia and made his Kontinental Hockey League debut playing with Metallurg Novokuznetsk during the 2012–13 KHL season. On July 23, 2015, Skladnichenko returned to North America to pursue a professional career, signing a one-year American Hockey League contract with the Toronto Marlies. After attending the Marlies training camp for the 2015-16 season, Skladnichenko was unable to make the roster and was re-assigned to attend the training camp of ECHL affiliate, the Orlando Solar Bears. On October 12, 2015, with little interest to play in the third tier ECHL, Skladnichenko mutually agreed to terminate his contract with the Toronto Marlies in order to return to Russia. After his return to Russia, Skladnichenko's rights were traded by Metallurg Novokuznetsk to Amur Khabarovsk on November 5, 2015.
He signed a two-year contract with Amur and belatedly began the season in Khabarovsk to appear in 16 games for 7 points. Nikolai Skladnichenko career statistics at EliteProspects.com Nikolai Skladnichenko career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database
Andy Murray won his third major and second Wimbledon title defeating Milos Raonic in the final, 6–4, 7–6, 7–6, to win the Gentlemen's Singles tennis title at the 2016 Wimbledon Championships. Novak Djokovic was the two-time defending champion, top seed, but was defeated in the third round by the No. 28 seed Sam Querrey. This was Djokovic's first defeat before the quarterfinals of a major tournament since the 2009 French Open, ending a streak of 28 quarterfinal appearances in a row; the defeat broke his streak of four consecutive major tournament victories, dating back to the 2015 Wimbledon Championships. Raonic became the first Canadian male tennis player to reach a Grand Slam final, he was the first non-European to reach the final at Wimbledon since Andy Roddick in 2009, the first player born in the 1990s to reach the Grand Slam final, as well as the first non-European to make any Grand Slam final since Kei Nishikori at the 2014 US Open. Querrey became the first male American tennis player to reach the quarterfinals at a Grand Slam tournament since John Isner and Andy Roddick both reached the quarterfinals of the 2011 US Open.
It was the first time since 2002 that the men's final did not feature Djokovic, Roger Federer, or Rafael Nadal. Federer did not play tennis again until the start of the 2017 Hopman Cup due to knee and back injuries; this was the first Grand Slam for Juan Martín del Potro since the 2014 Australian Open, following a long break due to a wrist injury. He was granted a protected ranking at the start of the tournament, he lost to Lucas Pouille in the third round. Click on the seed number of a player to go to their draw section. Men's Singles Draw
Sculptured is an American experimental death metal band, mixing melodic and atonal segments. Sculptured's unusual style is evident on the first track of Apollo Ends, "Washing My Hands of It", while the track "Snow Covers All" uses a form of serialism, while "Above the 60th Parallel" features a Twelve-tone technique solo; the band introduces classical orchestrations in some of its pieces. The history and fate of Sculptured is inherently related to Agalloch because of Don Anderson's significant involvement with both bands; because of this, Sculptured left The End Records at the same time as Agalloch. The Spear of the Lily is Aureoled Apollo Ends Embodiment: Collapsing Under the Weight of God Until the End of Time: An End Records Compilation Maiden America: Iron Maiden Tribute White: Nightmares in the End: An End Records Compilation Phases: the Dark Side of Music: An End Records Compilation Don Anderson - guitar, vocals Thomas Walling - vocals Jason William Walton - bass Dave Murray - drums Andy Winter - keyboards Burke Harris - trumpet John Haughm - drums Clint Idsinga - Trombone Chris Maycock - Drums John Schlegel - Drums Brian Yager - vocals MySpace site Official website The End Records' Sculptured page Drummer Dave Murray's website
Ra. One is a 2011 Indian superhero film co-written and directed by Anubhav Sinha, starring Arjun Rampal in the title role with Shahrukh Khan, Kareena Kapoor, Shahana Goswami and Armaan Verma in the lead roles; the film was co-produced by Red Chillies Entertainment and Eros International, involved a large, multi-national crew for the production. Ra. One was one of the most expensive Indian productions, the most expensive Bollywood film at that time with an official budget of ₹135 crore. Commercially, the film set records for single-day net revenue and highest three-day opening weekend, though it suffered large drops at the box office in subsequent weeks. Ra. One became the third-highest-grossing Bollywood film of 2011, it is estimated. Upon release, Ra. One met a mixed critical reception in India. Despite the mixed reception and reports of failing audience expectations, the film's visual effects and other technical aspects received unanimous praise from the audiences and a number of industry members, including prominent actors and directors.
Mirroring this trend, Ra. One received a number of awards and nominations at high-profile ceremonies including the National Film Awards, Filmfare Awards and International Indian Film Academy Awards, the majority of them being for technical aspects like action, production design and sound design; the visual effects, executed by Red Chillies VFX under the supervision of Jeffrey Kleiser, won the award for Best Special Effects at nine award ceremonies. Another heavily-awarded feature of Ra. One was its business aspect, which won a number of awards at the ETC Bollywood Business Awards and the Zee Cine Awards for the marketing and box office records; the film received numerous nominations for its soundtrack, with a special emphasis on the song "Chammak Challo" and its choreography. The film received further nominations at the Star Screen Awards and Stardust Awards for the acting and entertainment categories which were voted upon by popular choice. However, Ra. One did receive a number of dishonourable awards and nominations at the Golden Kela Awards and the Ghanta Awards for the film itself and its director.
Despite this, it was reported that winning the National Film Award had given a major boost to the enthusiasm for a sequel to Ra. One. Note – The lists are ordered by the date of announcement, not by the date of ceremony/telecast. Portals