Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa; the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil. Navarre, which had narrowly rejected a joint statue of autonomy with Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay in 1932, was granted a separate statute in 1982. There is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz, in the province of Álava, is the de facto capital as the location of the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government, the residence of the President of the Basque Autonomous Community; the High Court of Justice of the Basque Country has its headquarters in the city of Bilbao.
Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2, Bilbao is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people. The term Basque Country may refer to the larger cultural region, the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community; the following provinces make up the autonomous community: Álava, capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Biscay, capital Bilbao-Bilbo Gipuzkoa, capital Donostia-San Sebastián The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north and Navarre to the east and La Rioja to the south. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif; the three areas are: Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria.
The coast is rough, with small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. The Basque Mountains form the watershed and mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate.
This gives cold, snowy winters. The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as 300 mm. Half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao's metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In 2012, the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was 58.6%, while it is one of the most secularised communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.
Bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes. After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr
Elvillar is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. ELVILLAR in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Vitoria-Gasteiz is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Country and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain. It holds the autonomous community's House of Parliament, the headquarters of the Government, the Lehendakari's official residency; the municipality — which comprises not only the city but the agricultural lands of 63 villages around — is the largest in the Basque Country, with a total area of 276.81 km2, it has a population of 242,082 people. The dwellers of Vitoria-Gasteiz are called vitorianos or gasteiztarrak, while traditionally they are dubbed babazorros. Vitoria-Gasteiz is a multicultural city with strengths in the arts, education, architectural conservation, vehicle industry and gastronomy, it is the first Spanish municipality to be awarded the title of European Green Capital and it is ranked as one of the 5 best places to live in Spain. The old town holds some of the best preserved medieval streets and plazas in the region and it is one of few cities to hold two Cathedrals.
The city holds well known festivals such as the Azkena rock festival, FesTVal, Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival, the Virgen Blanca Festivities. Vitoria-Gasteiz's vicinity is home to world-renowned wineries such as Ysios and the Marqués de Riscal Hotel. Beethoven dedicated his Opus 91 called the "Battle of Vitoria" or "Wellington's Victory", to one of the most famous events of the Napoleonic Wars: the Battle of Vitoria, in which a Spanish and British army under the command of General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army and nearly captured the puppet king Joseph Bonaparte, it was a pivotal point in the Peninsular War, a precursor to the expulsion of the French from Spain. A memorial statue can be seen today in Virgen Blanca Square; the official name of Vitoria-Gasteiz is a compound name of its traditional names in Spanish and Basque, respectively. By inhabitants, it is still referred to as either Vitoria or Gasteiz, depending on the language spoken. More it may be referred to by Basque speakers as Vitorixe, a Basque form of the Spanish name.
In 581 AD, the Visigoth king Liuvigild founded the city of Victoriacum, trying to emulate the Roman foundations, as a celebration of the victory against the Vascones near what is assumed to be the hill occupied by the primitive village of Gasteiz. This however is not sufficiently proven, some historians and experts believe that Victoriacum was located not on the site of present-day Vitoria-Gasteiz but nearby. Several possible locations have been proposed, the foremost of, the late Roman military camp of Iruña-Veleia. Veleia is located some 11 km north of modern Vitoria, on the banks of the same river. However, modern archeological studies of the site suggest that Veleia was last inhabited c.5th century AD, archeologists are still to find a 6th-century visigothic resettlement in the site. Another theory has suggested that Victoriacum was located at the foot of Mount Gorbea where there is a village called Vitoriano; the town of Armentia, nowadays in the outskirts of Vitoria, has been proposed as a possible location of Victoriacum.
In either case, Victoriacum vanishes from history shortly after its foundation. In 1181, Sancho the Wise, King of Navarre founded the town of Nova Victoria as a defensive outpost on top of a hill at the site of the previous settlement of Gasteiz; the existence of Gastehiz inhabited by vasconic people, can be traced back to the lower Middle Ages. It is assumed that Sancho the Wise gave the new city its name in memory of the old settlement of Victoriacum, which must had long since been abandoned. In 1199, the town was besieged for nine months and captured by the troops of Alfonso VIII of Castile, who annexed the town to the Kingdom of Castile; the town was progressively enlarged and in 1431 it was granted a city charter by King Juan II of Castile. In 1463, it was one of the five founding villas of the Brotherhood of Álava alongside Sajazarra, Miranda de Ebro and Salvatierra/Agurain; the Battle of Vitoria of the Peninsular War occurred near Vitoria-Gasteiz along the river Zadorra on 21 June 1813.
An allied British and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan. The victory assured the eventual end of French control in Spain. There is a monument commemorating this battle in the main square of the city known as the Monument to Independence; when news came to Vienna in late July of that year, Johann Nepomuk Mälzel commissioned Ludwig van Beethoven to compose a symphony, the op. 91 Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria or Siegessymphonie. Work began on the Institute for Middle Education in 1843, with classes beginning during the 1853–54 academic year, it is now current headquarters of the Basque Parliament and the convent of Santa Clara. The Free University opened in the wake of the revolution of 1868; the University operated from 1869, to just prior to the 1873–1874 term because of the second Carlist War. Chief academ
Legutio is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain
Añana is both a valley and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain, with the main population nucleus being the village of Salinas de Añana. Moreover, Añana is the name of one of the seven counties in which the province is divided; the town is renowned for its old salt flats. Over 5,000 pans have been built since the Roman times, with exportation of its salt a major business. Now, the area has focused on spa tourism to bring needed income to the area. AÑANA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Salinas de Añana and "Salt Valley" Tourism Office
Laguardia is a town and municipality located in the southern province of Álava, in the north of Spain. It has a population of 1500; the place lies over a hill and it is surrounded by a wall that the King Sancho the Strong ordered to build. There are still preserved five different entries to access the city, their names are: Santa Engracia. Additionally, the streets and surroundings of Laguardia still keep a medieval atmosphere that give the city an ancient touch. Regarding the economy, its main strength is the wine industry. Indeed, the wine is processed in numerous wineries. During the Middle Ages, it appeared with names such as Leguarda, Guard, Guoardia and Laguoardia until the current name was fixed. Indeed, the full and complete name with which the town is known is La Guardia de Navarra Sonsierra. There has been some controversy about the Basque name of the town. In the late nineteenth century, the belief that before granting the "letter of villazgo" in 1164, the population of Laguardia was called Biasteri had spread.
Many people saw "Biasteri" as a name of Basque origin and folk etymologies such as "bi haitz herri" became popular. As a consequence, the term Biasteri was used as the Basque name of the town until recently. In the late twentieth century and historians reached the conclusion after some research that Biasteri was the ancient name given to the nearby town of Viñaspre, not of Laguardia. Therefore, the association made until that date was not correct, the Basque Language Academy, ruled that the Basque standard name of the town is Guardia. Laguardia has three separate neighborhoods: The Campillar, it is 7.5 km from the city center, near the Ebro River and it has 28 inhabitants. Laserna: It is 11 km from the city center and it is separated from the rest of the municipality by a meander of the river Ebro, it has 43 inhabitants. Páganos: It is 3.5 km away and it has 87 inhabitants. Laguardia possesses a rich historical past. At a place called La Hoya, there is an important archaeological site, it is a pre-Roman settlement of Celtiberian of Berona ethnic and it covers an extensive period of more than a thousand years or so since the twelfth century BC to the second century BC.
Additionally, the town received certain privileges regarding jurisdiction during the reign of the king of Navarre Sancho VI "El Sabio" in 1164. The initial demarcation covered areas from "Las Conchas de Haro" to "Soto Inigo Galindez", in the current term of Viana, it was the beginning of the community of "Villa y Tierra". New villas were created in the surroundings changing the focus of attention to other territories such as San Vicente and Viana. In any case, it was the main square of the Sonsierra of Navarra during most part of the medieval period; as mentioned above, the core of the economy in Laguardia focuses on the world of viticulture. Laguardia is the capital of one of the most famous wine regions of Rioja Alavesa. Additionally, both in Laguardia and its surroundings, a wine known as the Denominación de Origen Calificada Rioja, useful to distinguish particular vines produces in some specific regions; the Wall: the high walls surrounding the town are about two meters high, They are made of stone.
It has five doors. The Church of Santa Maria de los Reyes, which in the past was a Templar monastery. Next to it, there is a tower called the Tower of Santa Torre abbey; the tower has a remarkable Gothic façade with a portico, conserved intact, the carving was finished in the fourteenth century and it was polychromed in the seventeenth. It is one of the few preserved polychrome portals in Spain; the sizes of the archivolts represent the porch tells the story of the Holy Virgin. The Church of San Juan, built in Romanesque style and completed in the Gothic style, it has an attached chapel of the eighteenth century, dedicated to the Virgin of Pilar. Its bell tower belonged to a castle; the Hermitage of Santa María de Berberana. It is Romanesque and the only church in the whole Rioja Alavesa. Plaza Mayor: It is in the center of the town. Tourists can find there both the old townhall; the latter shows on its facade the shield of the villa and a chiming clock with automata that at 12, 14, 17 and 20 hours dance to the rhythm of a typical parade of the celebrations of the town.
Renaissance Old Town Hall: It has an imperial shield of Charles V. The Capuchin convent. Prehistoric remains of a Celtic village in the town of La Hoya. Furthermore, there is a Celtic pond; the Birthplace of the fabulist Félix María de Samaniego. It is a seventeenth-century palace. Blanche of Navarre, Queen of Castile. Felix Maria Samaniego, a writer of fables, his birthplace is a house of the seventeenth century, still preserved and dedicated to wine museum. Óscar de Marcos, professional footballer. The town of Laguardia has always been known for having among its inhabitants talented musicians in all its aspects. Thus, several generations of bagpipers have led to the Day of the Piper, one of the most important festivals, held in honor of illustrious pipers of this town and its surroundings, they are an important part of the musical history of the people and their municipal band, active for 130 years. Several rock
Campezo is a municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. This municipality lies on the western side of the Codés mountain range. Antoñana Bujanda Orbiso Oteo Santa Cruz de Campezo/Santikurutze Kanpezu, capital of the Cuadrilla de Campezo-Montaña Alavesa comarca and main town of the municipality CAMPEZO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia