Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital, the center of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela. Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the part of the country. Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 910 m above sea level, the valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2, 200-metre-high mountain range, Cerro El Ávila, to the south there are more hills and mountains. Libertador holds many of the government buildings and is the Capital District, the Distrito Capital had a population of 2,013,366 as of 2011, while the Metropolitan District of Caracas was estimated at 3,273,863 as of 2013. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an population of 5,243,301. Businesses that are located in the city include service companies, banks and it has a largely service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area. The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela are headquartered in Caracas, PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela.
Caracas is Venezuelas cultural capital, with restaurants, museums. Some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas, in 2015, Venezuela and its capital, had the highest per capita murder rates in the world, with 119 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. Most murders and other violent crimes go unsolved, at the time of the founding of the city in 1567, the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, fajardos settlement did not last long. It was destroyed by natives of the led by Terepaima. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives, on 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada laid the foundations of the city of Santiago de León de Caracas. The foundation −1567 – I take possession of land in the name of God. In 1577 Caracas became the capital of the Spanish Empires Venezuela Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel, during the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela was frequently raided by pirates.
With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas was relatively immune to such attacks, encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation. As the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas grew in importance, in 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela. José María España and Manuel Gual led a revolution aimed at independence
Jean Arp or Hans Arp was a German-French sculptor, painter and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. When Arp spoke in German he referred to himself as Hans, following the return of Alsace to France at the end of World War I, French law determined that his name become Jean. In 1904, after leaving the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg, from 1905 to 1907, Arp studied at the Kunstschule in Weimar, and in 1908 went back to Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian. Arp was a founder-member of the Moderne Bund in Lucerne, participating in their exhibitions from 1911 to 1913. In 1912, he went to Munich, called on Wassily Kandinsky, that year, he took part in a major exhibition in Zürich, along with Henri Matisse, Robert Delaunay and Kandinsky. In Berlin in 1913, he was taken up by Herwarth Walden, in 1915, he moved to Switzerland to take advantage of Swiss neutrality. He wrote the date in other space as well, drew a line beneath them. He took off all his clothes and went to hand in his paperwork, Arp was a founding member of the Dada movement in Zürich in 1916.
In 1920, as Hans Arp, along with Max Ernst, however, in 1925, his work appeared in the first exhibition of the surrealist group at the Galérie Pierre in Paris. In 1926, Arp moved to the Paris suburb of Meudon, in 1931, he broke with the Surrealist movement to found Abstraction-Création, working with the Paris-based group Abstraction-Création and the periodical, Transition. Beginning in the 1930s, the artist expanded his efforts from collage and bas-relief to include bronze and he produced several small works made of multiple elements that the viewer could pick up, and rearrange into new configurations. Throughout the 1930s and until the end of his life, he wrote and published essays, in 1942, he fled from his home in Meudon to escape German occupation and lived in Zürich until the war ended. Arp visited New York City in 1949 for an exhibition at the Buchholz Gallery. In 1950, he was invited to execute a relief for the Harvard University Graduate Center in Cambridge and would be commissioned to do a mural at the UNESCO building in Paris.
In 1958, a retrospective of Arps work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, followed by an exhibition at the Musée National dArt Moderne, France, the Musée dart moderne et contemporain of Strasbourg houses many of his paintings and sculptures. Arp and his first wife, the artist Sophie Taeuber-Arp, became French nationals in 1926, in the 1930s, they bought a piece of land in Clamart and built a house at the edge of a forest. Influenced by the Bauhaus, Le Corbusier and Charlotte Perriand, Taeuber designed it and she died in Zürich in 1943. After living in Zürich, Arp was to make Meudon his primary residence again in 1946, Arp married the collector Marguerite Hagenbach, his long-time companion, in 1959
The same material can be utilised as a casting resin, in inks and coatings, and has many other uses. Chemically, it is the polymer of methyl methacrylate. PMMA is an alternative to polycarbonate when extreme strength is not necessary. Additionally, PMMA does not contain the potentially harmful bisphenol-A subunits found in polycarbonate and it is often preferred because of its moderate properties, easy handling and processing, and low cost. The first acrylic acid was created in 1843, methacrylic acid, derived from acrylic acid, was formulated in 1865. The reaction between acid and methanol results in the ester methyl methacrylate. In 1877 the German chemist Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig discovered the process that turns methyl methacrylate into polymethyl methacrylate. In 1933, the brand name Plexiglas was patented and registered by another German chemist, in 1936 Imperial Chemical Industries began the first commercially viable production of acrylic safety glass. During World War II both Allied and Axis forces used acrylic glass for submarine periscopes and aircraft windshields, common orthographic stylings include polymethyl methacrylate and polymethylmethacrylate.
The full chemical name is poly, although often called simply acrylic, acrylic can refer to other polymers or copolymers containing polyacrylonitrile. The other notable names include, Acrylite, a trademark of Evonik Cyro since 1976 Lucite, a trademark of DuPont, first registered in 1937 R-Cast. Founded in 1987 after spinning off from Reynolds & Taylor and they specialize in large scale and thick monolithic acrylic. Plexiglas, a trademark of ELF Atochem, now a subsidiary of Arkema in the US, radical initiation is used, but anionic polymerization of PMMA can be performed. To produce 1 kg of PMMA, about 2 kg of petroleum is needed, PMMA produced by radical polymerization is atactic and completely amorphous. The glass transition temperature of atactic PMMA is 105 °C, PMMA is thus an organic glass at room temperature, i. e. it is below its Tg. The forming temperature starts at the transition temperature and goes up from there. All common molding processes may be used, including molding, compression molding.
The highest quality PMMA sheets are produced by casting, but in this case
Delta Solar is a public artwork by Venezuelan sculptor Alejandro Otero located outside of the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC, United States. Delta Solar is meant to pay homage to modern technology and the Inca sun cult and this abstract sculpture consists of stainless steel sails that move in the breeze. They are attached to a geometric grid formed into the shape of a Delta Formation. It sits on concrete and in a reflecting pool, the sculpture was dedicated on June 29,1977 by Carlos Andrés Pérez, president of Venezuela as a gift celebrating the Bicentennial of the American Revolution. The sculpture was supposed to be dedicated in the Spring, however. Continuum List of public art in Washington, D. C. Ward 2
Spray painting is a painting technique where a device sprays a coating through the air onto a surface. The most common types employ compressed gas—usually air—to atomize and direct the paint particles, Spray guns evolved from airbrushes, and the two are usually distinguished by their size and the size of the spray pattern they produce. Airbrushes are hand-held and used instead of a brush for detailed work such as photo retouching, painting nails or fine art, air gun spraying uses equipment that is generally larger. It is typically used for covering large surfaces with a coating of liquid. Spray guns can be automated or hand-held and have interchangeable heads to allow for different spray patterns. Single color aerosol paint cans are portable and easy to store, in 1949, Edward Seymour developed a type of spray painting, aerosol paint, that could be delivered via a compressed aerosol in a can. This process occurs when paint is applied to an object through the use of a spray gun. The air gun has a nozzle, paint basin, and air compressor, when the trigger is pressed the paint mixes with the compressed air stream and is released in a fine spray.
Due to a range of nozzle shapes and sizes, the consistency of the paint can be varied. The shape of the workpiece and the desired paint consistency and pattern are important factors when choosing a nozzle, the three most common nozzles are the full cone, hollow cone, and flat stream. There are two types of air-gun spraying processes, in an automatic process the gun head is attached to a mounting block and delivers the stream of paint from that position. The object being painted is usually placed on rollers or a turntable to ensure overall equal coverage of all sides, high volume low pressure is similar to a conventional spray gun using a compressor to supply the air, but the spray gun itself requires a lower pressure. A higher volume of air is used to aerosolise and propel the paint at lower air pressure, the result is a higher proportion of paint reaching the target surface with reduced overspray, materials consumption, and air pollution. A regulator is often required so that the air pressure from a compressor can be lowered for the HVLP spray gun.
Alternatively a turbine unit can be used to propel the air without the need for an air line running to the compressor, a rule of thumb puts two thirds of the coating on the substrate and one third in the air. True HVLP guns use 8–20 cfm, and a compressor with a minimum of 5 horsepower output is required. HVLP spray systems are used in the automotive, marine, architectural coating, furniture finishing, scenic painting and cosmetic industries. Like HVLP, Low volume low pressure spray guns operate at a lower pressure and this is a further effort at increasing the transfer efficiency of spray guns, while decreasing the amount of compressed air consumption
Calder’s monumental stationary sculptures are called stabiles. He produced wire figures, which are like drawings made in space, Alexander Sandy Calder was born in 1898 in Lawnton, Pennsylvania. His actual birthday, remains a source of much confusion, according to Calders mother, Calder was born on August 22, yet his birth certificate at Philadelphia City Hall, based on a hand-written ledger, stated July 22. When Calders family learned about the certificate, they reasserted with certainty that city officials had made a mistake. His father, Alexander Stirling Calder, was a sculptor who created many public installations. Calders mother was a portrait artist, who had studied at the Académie Julian. She moved to Philadelphia, where she met Stirling Calder while studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Calders parents married on February 22,1895, his sister, Mrs. Margaret Calder Hayes, was instrumental in the development of the UC Berkeley Art Museum. In 1902, Calder posed nude for his father’s sculpture The Man Cub and that same year he completed his earliest sculpture, a clay elephant.
Three years later, Stirling Calder contracted tuberculosis, and Calders parents moved to a ranch in Oracle, the children were reunited with their parents in late March 1906 and stayed at the ranch in Arizona until fall of the same year. After Arizona, the Calder family moved to Pasadena, the windowed cellar of the family home became Calders first studio and he received his first set of tools. He used scraps of copper wire that he found in the street to make jewelry for his sisters dolls, on January 1,1907, Nanette Calder took her son to the Tournament of Roses Parade in Pasadena, where he observed a four-horse-chariot race. This style of event became the finale of Calders miniature circus performances, in the fall of 1909, the Calder family moved back to Philadelphia, where Calder briefly attended Germantown Academy, moved to Croton-on-Hudson, New York. That Christmas, he sculpted a dog and an out of sheet brass as gifts for his parents. The sculptures are three-dimensional and the duck is kinetic because it rocks when gently tapped, in Croton, during his early high school years, Calder was befriended by his fathers painter friend Everett Shinn with whom he built a gravity powered system of mechanical trains.
Calder described it, We ran the train on wooden rails held by spikes and we even lit up some cars with candle lights. After Croton, the Calders moved to Spuyten Duyvil to be closer to New York City, while living in Spuyten Duyvil, Calder attended high school in nearby Yonkers. During Calders high school years, the family moved back and forth between New York and California, in each new location, Calders parents reserved cellar space as a studio for their son. Toward the end of period, Calder stayed with friends in California while his parents moved back to New York
Victor Vasarely, was a Hungarian–French artist, who is widely accepted as a grandfather and leader of the op art movement. His work entitled Zebra, created in the 1930s, is considered by some to be one of the earliest examples of op art, Vasarely was born in Pécs and grew up in Pöstyén and Budapest, where in 1925 he took up medical studies at Eötvös Loránd University. In 1927, he abandoned medicine to learn traditional academic painting at the private Podolini-Volkmann Academy, in 1928/1929, he enrolled at Sándor Bortnyiks private art school called Műhely, widely recognized as Budapests centre of Bauhaus studies. Cash-strapped, the műhely could not offer all that the Bauhaus offered, instead it concentrated on applied graphic art and typographical design. In 1929 he painted his Blue Study and Green Study, in 1930, he married his fellow student Claire Spinner. Together they had two sons and Jean-Pierre, in Budapest, he worked for a ball-bearings company in accounting and designing advertising posters.
Vasarely became a designer and a poster artist during the 1930s combining patterns. Vasarely left Hungary and settled in Paris in 1930 and he worked as a graphic artist and as a creative consultant at the advertising agencies Havas and Devambez. His interactions with other artists during this time were limited and he thought of opening an institution modeled after Sándor Bortnyiks műhely and developed some teaching material for it. Having lived mostly in hotels, he settled in 1942/1944 in Saint-Céré in the Lot département. After the Second World War, he opened an atelier in Arcueil, in 1961, he finally settled in Annet-sur-Marne. Vasarely eventually went on to art and sculpture using optical illusion. His early graphic period resulted in such as Zebras, Chess Board. Afterwards, he said he was on the wrong track and he exhibited his works in the gallery of Denise René and the gallery René Breteau. Writing the introduction to the catalogue, Jacques Prévert placed Vasarely among the surrealists, Prévert creates the term imaginoires to describe the paintings.
Self Portrait and The Blind Man are associated with this period, 1947-1951, Developing geometric abstract art, Vasarely found his own style. The overlapping developments are named after their geographical heritage, Denfert refers to the works influenced by the white tiled walls of the Paris Denfert - Rochereau metro station. Ellipsoid pebbles and shells found during a vacation in 1947 at the Breton coast at Belle Île inspired him to the Belles-Isles works, since 1948, Vasarely usually spent his summer months in Gordes in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur
Pieter Cornelis Piet Mondriaan, after 1906 Mondrian, was a Dutch painter. Mondrian was a contributor to the De Stijl art movement and group and he evolved a non-representational form which he termed neoplasticism. This consisted of ground, upon which he painted a grid of vertical and horizontal black lines. Mondrians arrival in Paris from the Netherlands in 1911 marked the beginning of a period of profound change and he encountered experiments in Cubism and with the intent of integrating himself within the Parisian avant-garde removed an a from the Dutch spelling of his name. Mondrian was born in Amersfoort in the Netherlands, the second of his parents children and he was descended from Christian Dirkzoon Monderyan who lived in The Hague as early as 1670. The family moved to Winterswijk in the east of the country when his father, Pieter Cornelius Mondriaan, was appointed Head Teacher at a primary school. Mondrian was introduced to art from a early age. His father was a drawing teacher, with his uncle, Fritz Mondriaan.
After a strictly Protestant upbringing, in 1892, Mondrian entered the Academy for Fine Art in Amsterdam and he already was qualified as a teacher. He began his career as a teacher in primary education, most of his work from this period is naturalistic or Impressionistic, consisting largely of landscapes. These paintings are most definitely representational, and they illustrate the influence that various artistic movements had on Mondrian, including pointillism, on display in the Gemeentemuseum Den Haag are a number of paintings from this period, including such Post-Impressionist works as The Red Mill and Trees in Moonrise. Another painting, depicting a tree in a field at dusk, even augurs future developments by using a palette consisting almost entirely of red, although Avond is only limitedly abstract, it is the earliest Mondrian painting to emphasize primary colors. Mondrians earliest paintings showing a degree of abstraction are a series of canvases from 1905 to 1908 that depict dim scenes of trees and houses reflected in still water.
Mondrians art was related to his spiritual and philosophical studies. In 1908, he interested in the theosophical movement launched by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky in the late 19th century. The work of Blavatsky and a spiritual movement, Rudolf Steiners Anthroposophy. In 1918, he wrote I got everything from the Secret Doctrine, in 1921, in a letter to Steiner, Mondrian argued that his neoplasticism was the art of the foreseeable future for all true Anthroposophists and Theosophists. He remained a committed Theosophist in subsequent years, although he believed that his own artistic current, would eventually become part of a larger
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements, Architecture can mean, A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures, the style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure Knowledge of art, technology, the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering services in connection with the design and construction of buildings. The earliest surviving work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. According to Vitruvius, a building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity.
An equivalent in modern English would be, Durability – a building should stand up robustly, utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing, according to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, for Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only true Christian form of architecture. The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, Architecture was the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men. That the sight of them contributes to his health, power.
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance and his work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way adorned. For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, but suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say, This is beautiful, le Corbusiers contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said Architecture starts when you carefully put two bricks together. The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design, function came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural
Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, Venezuela covers 916,445 km2 and has an estimated population of 31775371. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples and it gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. This new constitution changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and Venezuela has the worlds largest known oil reserves and has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports.
The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s, the Venezuelan government established populist policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, significantly reducing economic inequality and poverty. However, such policies became controversial since they destabilized the economy, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, so he named the region Veneziola Piccola Venezia. The name acquired its current spelling as a result of Spanish influence, where the suffix -uela is used as a term, thus. The German language 16th century-term for the area, Klein-Venedig, means little Venice, Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that they found people who called themselves the Veneciuela.
Thus, the name Venezuela may have evolved from the native word and it is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest, it has been estimated at around one million. In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina, Auaké, Mariche, the Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They stored water in tanks and their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops, regional crops included potatoes and ullucos