Orders, decorations, and medals of Bulgaria
Orders and medals of Bulgaria are regulated by the law on the Orders and Medals of the Republic Of Bulgaria of 29 May 2003. The National Military History Museum Of Bulgaria in Sofia has over 150 Bulgarian Orders in the collection, which it has acquired over 85 years in co-operation with the Bulgarian State Mint, which are in the main part imperial, including Orders awarded to Knjaz Alexander and Tsar Boris III along with other high-ranking military leaders of the Royal Bulgarian Army. Note: Awards shown without ribbons are/were worn in full at all times. Like most items which are created by the minting process, mint errors of awards do exist, some which were still issued despite the error and some which were discarded; these mint errors add dimensions to the art of collecting such items. Main error types will be listed here also. Numbers of Orders/Medals that were in use in both The Tsardom Of Bulgaria and The People's Republic Of Bulgaria show the number awarded during both regimes and not just under the single regime.
The decorations of the Principality Of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom were divided into orders and honorary insignia. Orders were awarded to civilians and military personnel for great merits in service of the state. Honorary insignia were awarded for a specific merit or achievement or due to a specific event and medals were presented on the occasion of a political or historic event or for merit. Most of the Imperial commemorative medals were only issued once, to participants at the commemorated event and only the highest level personnel could be expected to be at all these events during their term in high status society. No-one was issued every commemorative medal, as during the turbulence of coups, counter-coups and change of monarchs, the high level society was in near constant change; the Principality Of Bulgaria's first order was created with Article 59 of the Tarnovo Constitution, The Order Of Bravery, which came into force on 1 January 1880. The highest Tsardom Of Bulgaria award was the Order Of Saint Cyril And Saint Methodius awarded to those who brought outstanding excellence to the culture of the Tsardom Of Bulgaria.
These "medals" were "issued" or "awarded" by various groups and organisations including government departments but were/are not recognised as awarded medals and were/are not authorised for official wear on official uniforms. That being so this does not mean by any means that these medals were just for sale to all comers and were/are still held in high respect by those who were given them. Note: Wider ribbons indicate 3 sided imperial type suspension/Narrower ribbons indicate 4/5 sided soviet type suspension. With the exile of Tsar Simeon II all Imperial Bulgarian awards were discontinued and banned, including the wear of such awards. Traces of the Imperial award system were left in the following ways; until 13 December 1950 male ribbons were still issued as a trifold, some medals such as the medal for "Participant In The Anti-Fascist Struggle" continued to have a trifold ribbon until the award was discontinued with the collapse of the People's Republic. Two new orders were created with the same name as imperial orders, The Order " Cyril And Methodius" and the Order "For Bravery".
The Order Of Civil Merit ribbon was used for the new Order Of The People's Republic Of Bulgaria. With the collapse of The People's Republic Of Bulgaria their award system was discontinued with the exception of orders bestowed on foreign nationals. All communist and imperial awards were allowed to be worn; the soviet style 5 sided suspension was dropped, with the exception of the medal 50th Anniversary Of Victory Over Hitler's Fascism, which had a 5 sided enamel suspension and the Imperial tradition of different ribbons for different sexes were reintroduced for certain awards. Between 5 April 1991 and the introduction of The Order For Loyal Service Under The Banner in 1994 there were no official state awards for Bulgarian citizens; as of 29 May 2003 a new award system was introduced and as of the 9 June 2003 the previous system was abolished. Legal organisation of the current Bulgarian Honours System is contained in the Constitution and the Decree on Intellectual Stimulation. Orders are awarded by the President of the Republic.
The nomination of a foreign person is made by the Ministry of External Affairs, whereas Bulgarian nominees are selected by the Council of Ministers. Law on the Orders and the Medals of the Republic of Bulgaria. Collection of orders and medals of the National Museum of Military History. Information on the International Botev Prize
The Khrushchev Thaw refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations. The Thaw became possible after the death of Joseph Stalin in March 1953. First Secretary Khrushchev denounced former General Secretary Stalin in "The Secret Speech" at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party ousted the pro-Stalinists during his power struggle in the Kremlin; the term was coined after Ilya Ehrenburg's 1954 novel The Thaw, sensational for its time. The Khrushchev Thaw was highlighted by Khrushchev's 1954 visit to Beijing, People's Republic of China, his 1955 visit to Belgrade and his subsequent meeting with Dwight Eisenhower that year, culminating in Khrushchev's 1959 visit to the United States; the Thaw initiated irreversible transformation of the entire Soviet society by opening up for some economic reforms and international trade and cultural contacts, books by foreign authors, foreign movies, art shows, popular music and new fashions, massive involvement in international sport competitions.
Although the power struggle between pro-Khrushchev and pro-Stalinists never stopped, it weakened the Soviet Communist Party. The Thaw allowed some freedom of information in the media and culture; such political and cultural updates all together helped liberate the minds of millions and changed public consciousness of several generations of people in the Soviet Union. The Thaw was reverted shortly after Khrushchev was succeeded by Leonid Brezhnev, as he reversed the liberalization of the union, albeit going against his endorsement of the Thaw during the Khrushchev era. Khrushchev's Thaw had its genesis in the concealed power struggle among Stalin's lieutenants. Several major leaders among the Red Army commanders, such as Marshal Georgy Zhukov and his loyal officers, had some serious tensions with Stalin's secret service. On the surface, the Red Army and the Soviet leadership seemed united after their victory in World War II. However, the hidden ambitions of the top people around Stalin, as well as Stalin's own suspicions, had prompted Khrushchev that he could rely only on those few.
That power struggle was surreptitiously prepared by Khrushchev while Stalin was alive, came to surface after Stalin's death in March 1953. By that time, Khrushchev's people were planted everywhere in the Soviet hierarchy, which allowed Khrushchev to execute, or remove his main opponents, introduce some changes in the rigid Soviet ideology and hierarchy. Stalin's leadership had reached new extremes in ruling people at all levels, such as the deportations of nationalities, the Leningrad Affair, the Doctors' plot, official criticisms of writers and other intellectuals. At the same time, millions of soldiers and officers had seen Europe after World War II, had become aware of different ways of life which existed outside the Soviet Union. Upon Stalin's orders many were arrested and punished again, including the attacks on the popular Marshal Georgy Zhukov and other top generals, who had exceeded the limits on taking trophies when they looted the defeated nation of Germany; the loot was confiscated by Stalin's security apparatus, Marshal Zhukov was demoted and exiled.
Zhukov waited until the death of Stalin, which allowed Khrushchev to bring Zhukov back for a new political battle. The temporary union between Nikita Khrushchev and Marshal Georgy Zhukov was founded on their similar backgrounds and weaknesses: both were peasants, both were ambitious, both were abused by Stalin, both feared the Stalinists, both wanted to change these things. Khrushchev and Zhukov needed one another to eliminate their mutual enemies in the Soviet political elite. In 1953, Zhukov helped Khrushchev to eliminate Lavrenty Beria a First Vice-Premier, promptly executed in Moscow, as well as several other figures of Stalin's circle. Soon Khrushchev ordered the release of millions of political prisoners from the Gulag camps. Under Khrushchev's rule the number of prisoners in the Soviet Union was decreased, according to some writers, from 13 million to 5 million people. Khrushchev promoted and groomed Leonid Brezhnev, whom he brought to the Kremlin and introduced to Stalin in 1952. Khrushchev promoted Brezhnev to Presidium and made him the Head of Political Directorate of the Red Army and Navy, moved him up to several other powerful positions.
Brezhnev in return helped Khrushchev by tipping the balance of power during several critical confrontations with the conservative hard-liners, including the ouster of pro-Stalinists headed by Molotov and Malenkov. Khrushchev denounced Stalin in his speech On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, delivered at the closed session of the 20th Party Congress, behind closed doors, after midnight on 25 February 1956. In this speech, Khrushchev described the damages done by Joseph Stalin's cult of personality, the repressions, known as the Great Purge that killed millions and traumatized many people in the Soviet Union. After the delivery o
People's Artist of the USSR
People's Artist of the USSR sometimes translated as National Artist of the USSR, was an honorary title granted to artists of the Soviet Union. The term is confusingly used to translate two Russian language titles: Народный артист СССР, awarded in performing arts and Народный художник СССР, granted in some visual arts; each Soviet Republic, as well as the Autonomous Republics, had a similar award held by every receiver of the higher title of People's Artist of the USSR. As this title was granted by the government, honorees were afforded certain privileges and would receive commissions from the Minister of Culture of the Soviet Union. Accordingly and authors who expressed criticism of the Communist Party were granted such recognition, if not outright censored; the title was bestowed for exceptional achievements in the performing arts in the Soviet Union. Its recipients included many of the most-acclaimed composers, singers and theatre directors and actors of every Soviet republic. In all, there were 1010 recipients of the award.
The title was introduced in 1936, replacing the earlier title of "People's Artist of the Republic". The first recipients of the title were Konstantin Stanislavski, Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, Ivan Moskvin, Antonina Nezhdanova, Boris Shchukin, Kulyash Baiseitova and some other actors; the last persons to be honoured with the title were Oleg Yankovsky. The title was bestowed on theatre actors, ballet dancers, opera singers only, it came to be bestowed upon film actors, violinist, pop singers and circus performers such as Natalya Durova and Oleg Popov. A person was named the People's Artist of the USSR after 40 years of age. Exceptions were made for dancers, e.g. Nadezhda Pavlova, a ballet artist, received the title at the age of 28, Malika Kalantarova, a famous Bukharian Jewish folk dancer from Tajikistan, received the title at the age of 34; the youngest female persons to receive this title were Kazakh opera singers Kulyash Baiseitova and Halima Nasyrova. The youngest male person was pop singer Muslim Magomayev.
Among the actors, the youngest recipient was Sergey Bondarchuk. The youngest actress to receive the title was Yuri Andropov's daughter-in-law, Lyudmila Chursina, at age 40. Sofia Rotaru, for example, was named Merited Artist of the Ukrainian SSR in 1973, People's Artist of the Ukrainian SSR in 1976, People's Artist of the Moldavian SSR in 1983, an attained cumulation of People's Artist titles, People's Artist of the Soviet Union in 1988, the first female pop-singer to be honored with this award and the only one with three People's Artists; as of 2018, the earliest living recipient is Ukrainian opera singer Bela Rudenko. The title of People's Painter of the Soviet Union was awarded for exceptional achievements in certain visual arts: painting, sculpture and photography; the lesser title of Meritorious Painter of the Soviet Union was awarded for achievement in these fields. People's Architect of the Soviet Union: Народный архитектор СССР People's Teacher of the Soviet Union: Народный учитель СССР People's Doctor of the Soviet Union: Народный врач СССР Category:People's Artists of the USSR - list of recipients Category:People's Artists of the USSR - list of recipients Hero of Socialist Labour - the highest civilian decoration in the Soviet Union List of People's Artists of Azerbaijan Meritorious Artist People's Artist People's Artist of Russia Russian Academy of Art
Sergei Petrovich Trubetskoy
Prince Sergei Petrovich Trubetskoy was one of the organizers of the Decembrist movement. Close to Nikita Mikhailovich Muravyov in his views, he was declared the group's leader on the eve of the December 26 uprising in 1825 but failed to appear, instead sought refuge in the Austrian embassy. Trubetskoy was born in the noble Trubetskoy family, his father was Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy. His mother, was a daughter of the Georgian prince Alexander Bakarovich Gruzinsky. Troubetzkoy received home education, since 1806 he was attending lectures in the Moscow University. In 1808 he entered Leib Guards Semyonovsky regiment; as a soldier, he participated in all significant battles of Sixth Coalition campaign in 1812-1814 including battle of Borodino, battle of Maloyaroslavets, Battle of Lützen, battle of Bautzen and battle of Kulm and received many orders. In the battle of Leipzig he was badly wounded. After the war he continued military service and in 1821 he was promoted to Colonel. After the war Trubetskoy became a Freemason, a member of the Lodge of the Three Virtues.
He was among the founders of the first proto-Decembrists societies - the Union of Salvation and the Union of Prosperity. The two unions were based on freemasonry, they sought gradual improvement of the Russian Empire, but hadn't adopted some goals the Decembrists did later: complete abolition of serfdom, introduction of constitution and constitutionally secured liberties, abolition of privileges of upper estates of the realm. In 1819 Trubetskoy went abroad for treatment; when he returned in 1821 he found. Trubetskoy was one of the leaders of the Northern Society. Trubestkoy advocated Constitutional monarchy, but other Decembrists desired revolution, to execute the tsar and establish a republic, he was elected "dictator" but did not come to Senate Square, most because he expected the revolt to fail. He was arrested the next day at the apartments of Count Ludwig Lebzeltern, his brother-in-law and the Austrian Empire's minister to St. Petersburg. Trubetskoy was sentenced to death but the sentence was changed to katorga for life in Nerchinsk coal mines.
Trubetskoy's wife Ekaterina Laval went to exile with him. Her feat was subject of a famous poem by Nekrasov. In 1839 his family was allowed to live in exile in Irkutsk, he also received permission. In 1854 his wife died. In 1856 he along with other survived Decembrists was granted amnesty, his children were given their titles, he was able to return to Russia, he wrote memoires. Decembrist revolt Troubetzkoy Trubetskoy House
Lenin Komsomol Prize
Lenin Komsomol Prize was a Soviet annual award for the best works in science, literature or art carried out by young authors of age not exceeding 33 years. Komsomol was the abbreviated name of The Communist Union of Youth; the award was instituted by the Central Committee of VLKSM in March 1966. The reason for the selection of this particular age threshold is unclear; the coincidence of the upper threshold of 33 with the "age of Christ" was a matter of jokes. Symbolically, the first winner of this award in the Soviet Union was writer Nikolay Ostrovsky. In addition to the all-Union prize, Union republics had republican versions of the prize, named e.g. Belarus Lenin Komsomol Prize, awarded by the republican Komsomol branches; the prizes were introduced as follows: In the field of science and technology - 1967. Lenin Prize
Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography
The Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography, a.k.a. VGIK, is a film school in Russia; the institute was founded in 1919 by the film director Vladimir Gardin as the Moscow Film School and is the oldest film school in the world. From 1934 to 1991 the film school was known as the All-Union State Institute of Cinematography. Film directors who have taught at the institute include Lev Kuleshov, Marlen Khutsiev, Aleksey Batalov, Sergei Eisenstein, Mikhail Romm and Vsevolod Pudovkin. Alumni include Sergei Bondarchuk, Elem Klimov, Sergei Parajanov, Alexander Sokurov and Andrei Tarkovsky. Since 1986, the school has been named after actor Sergei Gerasimov. A full member of the international CILECT network of film schools, the Institute became a university in 2008. During the period of the Soviet Union it was a requirement of the state to attend VGIK in order to be allowed to direct a film. Vgik.info, Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography's official website vgik.livejournal.com, Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography's student community
Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present)
In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory. After Euromaidan protests and the fall of Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych, Russian soldiers without insignias took control of strategic positions and infrastructure within the Ukrainian territory of Crimea. Russia annexed Crimea after an unlawful referendum in which Crimeans voted to join the Russian Federation, according to Russian official results. In April, demonstrations by pro-Russian groups in the Donbass area of Ukraine escalated into an armed conflict between the Ukrainian government and the Russia-backed separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics. In August, Russian military vehicles crossed the border in several locations of Donetsk Oblast; the incursion by the Russian military was seen as responsible for the defeat of Ukrainian forces in early September. In November 2014, the Ukrainian military reported intensive movement of troops and equipment from Russia into the separatist-controlled parts of eastern Ukraine.
The Associated Press reported 80 unmarked military vehicles on the move in rebel-controlled areas. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Special Monitoring Mission observed convoys of heavy weapons and tanks in DPR-controlled territory without insignia. OSCE monitors further stated they observed vehicles transporting ammunition and soldiers' dead bodies crossing the Russian-Ukrainian border under the guise of humanitarian aid convoys; as of early August 2015, OSCE observed over 21 such vehicles marked with the Russian military code for soldiers killed in action. According to The Moscow Times, Russia has tried to intimidate and silence human rights workers discussing Russian soldiers' deaths in the conflict. OSCE reported that its observers were denied access to the areas controlled by "combined Russian-separatist forces"; the majority of members of the international community and organizations such as Amnesty International have condemned Russia for its actions in post-revolutionary Ukraine, accusing it of breaking international law and violating Ukrainian sovereignty.
Many countries implemented economic sanctions against Russia, Russian individuals or companies – to which Russia responded in kind. In October 2015, The Washington Post reported that Russia has redeployed some of its elite units from Ukraine to Syria to support Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. In December 2015, Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin admitted that Russian military intelligence officers were operating in Ukraine, insisting though that they were not the same as regular troops. Despite being an independent country since 1991, Ukraine has been perceived by Russia as being part of its sphere of interest. Iulian Chifu and his co-authors claim that in regard to Ukraine, Russia pursues a modernized version of the Brezhnev Doctrine on "limited sovereignty", which dictates that the sovereignty of Ukraine cannot be larger than that of the Warsaw Pact prior to the demise of the Soviet sphere of influence; this claim is based on statements of Russian leaders that possible integration of Ukraine into NATO would jeopardize Russia's national security.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, both nations retained close ties. At the same time, there were several sticking points, most Ukraine's significant nuclear arsenal, which Ukraine agreed to abandon in the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances on the condition that Russia would issue an assurance against threats or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine. In 1999, Russia was one of signatories of Charter for European Security, where it "reaffirmed the inherent right of each and every participating State to be free to choose or change its security arrangements, including treaties of alliance, as they evolve". A second point was the division of the Black Sea Fleet. Ukraine agreed to lease the Sevastopol port so that the Russian Black Sea fleet could continue to occupy it together with Ukraine. Starting in 1993, through the 1990s and 2000s, Ukraine and Russia engaged in several gas disputes. In 2001, along with Georgia and Moldova, formed a group called GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, seen by Russia as a direct challenge to the CIS, the Russian-dominated trade group established after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Russia was further irritated by the Orange Revolution of 2004, which saw the Ukrainian populist Viktor Yushchenko elected president instead of the pro-Russian Viktor Yanukovich. Moreover, Ukraine continued to increase its cooperation with NATO, deploying the third-largest contingent of troops to Iraq in 2004, as well as dedicating peacekeepers to NATO missions such as the ISAF force in Afghanistan and KFOR in Kosovo. A pro-Russian president, Viktor Yanukovich, was elected in 2010 and Russia felt that many ties with Ukraine could be repaired. Prior to this, Ukraine had not renewed the lease of Black Sea Naval base at Sevastopol, meaning that Russian troops would have to leave Crimea by 2017. However, Yanukovich signed a new lease and expanded allowable troop presence as well as allowing troops to train in the Kerch peninsula. Many in Ukraine viewed the extension as unconstitutional because Ukraine's constitution states that no permanent foreign troops shall be stationed in Ukraine after the Sevastopol treaty expired.
Yulia Tymoshenko, the main opposition figure of Yanukovich, was jailed on what many considered trumped up charges, leading to further dissatisfaction with the government. In November 2013, Viktor Yanukovich declined to sign an association agreement with the European Union, a treaty, in development for several years and one that Yanukovich had earlier approved of. Ya