Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
The Guadiana River, or Odiana, is an international river defining a long stretch of the Portugal-Spain border, separating Extremadura and Andalucia from Alentejo and Algarve. With a course that covers a distance of 829 kilometres, it is the fourth-longest in the Iberian peninsula, the Romans referred to the river as the Flumen Anas, the river of ducks. During the Moorish occupation and settlement, the name was extended and referred to as Wadi Ana, passed on to Portuguese and Spanish settlers as the Ouadiana, and just Odiana. It is 818 kilometres long, of which 578 kilometres are within Spanish territory,140 kilometres within Portugal, about 82 percent,55,444 square kilometres, of its basin is in Spain, while about 17 percent,11,560 square kilometres is in Portugal. This legend developed from a belief that the river appeared and disappeared over time. In fact, no subterranean course exists, and the belief that the Lagunas de Ruidera is the source is controversial and traditionally the Upper Guadiana, which runs from Viveros until Argamasilla de Alba had been identified as the main branch of the Guadiana.
But even hydro-geological characteristics indicate that the Upper Guadiana may not be the river within the system. Another of the theories, postulated that the Cigüela and Záncara rivers were the sources of the Guadiana. Today, they are considered parts of the rivers headwaters and important tributaries. The Ciguelas source is in Altos de Cabreras and pertains to the Sistema Ibérico and its course is 225 kilometres long, receiving contributions from the rivers Jualón, Torrejón, Riánsares, Amarguillo and Záncara. From its origin/spring runs from the southern Iberian plain in a direction east to west, to near the town of Badajoz, where it begins to track south leading to the Gulf of Cádiz. The Guadiana marks the border of Spain and Portugal twice as it runs to the ocean, for the most part, the Guadiana is navigable from the Atlantic ocean until Mértola, a distance of 68 kilometres. North of Mértola on the Guadiana is the highest waterfall is Southern Portugal called Pulo do Lobo, the ecosystem has Mediterranean hydrological characteristics, including high variation in intra- and inter-annual discharge, large floods and severe droughts.
This variability is a consequence of variation in rainwater supply averaging around an annual mean of 400 to 600 millimetres. The climate is semiarid with an annual temperature of 14 to 16 °C. The estuary has a width of 550 metres, and its depth ranges from 5 to 17 metres. Tides are semi-diurnal, ranging from 0.8 to 3.5 metres, in Spain, three autonomous communities, Castilla-La Mancha and Andalusia) are crossed by the Guadiana. Meanwhile, in Portugal the river crosses the regions of Alentejo and Algarve, there are over 30 dams on the river basin
Elvas is a Portuguese municipality, an episcopal city and frontier fortress of Portugal, located in the district of Portalegre in Alentejo. It is situated about 230 kilometres east of Lisbon, and about 15 kilometres west of the Spanish fortress of Badajoz, the municipality population as of 2011 was 23,078, in an area of 631.29 square kilometres. The city itself had a population of 16,640 as of 2011, Elvas is among the finest examples of intensive usage of the trace italienne in military architecture, and has been a World Heritage Site since 30 June 2012. The inscribed site name is Garrison Border Town of Elvas and its Fortifications, Elvas lies on a hill 8 kilometres northwest of the Guadiana river. An aqueduct 6 kilometres long supplies the city with water, it was begun early in the 15th century. For some distance it includes four tiers of superimposed arches, with a height of 40 metres. The surrounding lowlands are very fertile, and Elvas is known for its olives and plums, brandy is distilled and pottery manufactured in the city.
It was wrested from the Moors by Afonso I of Portugal in 1166 but was recaptured before its final occupation by the Portuguese in 1226. In 1570 it became a see, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Elvas. Its late Gothic cathedral, which has many traces of Moorish influence in its architecture. It is defended by seven bastions and the two forts of Santa Luzia and Nossa Senhora da Graça, from 1642 until modern times it was the chief frontier fortress south of the Tagus, which withstood sieges by the Spanish in 1659,1711 and 1801. Elvas was the site of the Battle of the Lines of Elvas in 1659, during which the garrison, the Napoleonic French under Marshal Junot took it in March 1808 during the Peninsular War, but evacuated it in August after the conclusion of the Convention of Sintra. The Garrison Border Town of Elvas and its Fortifications were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2012
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume, it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans and it is a key geographical term. Population density is population divided by land area or water volume. Low densities may cause a vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it, commonly this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory, or the entire world. The worlds population is around 7,000,000,000, the worldwide human population density is around 7,000,000,000 ÷510,000,000 =13.7 per km2. If only the Earths land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account and this includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded, population density rises to over 50 people per km2, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources.
Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo, for instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded. Arithmetic density, The total number of people / area of land, physiological density, The total population / area of arable land. Agricultural density, The total rural population / area of arable land, residential density, The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land. Urban density, The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land, ecological optimum, The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources. S. States by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density
Extremadura is an autonomous community of western Spain whose capital city is Mérida. Its component provinces are Cáceres and Badajoz and it is bordered by Portugal to the west. To the north it borders Castile and León, to the south, it borders Andalusia and it is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park. The government of Extremadura is called Gobierno de Extremadura, Extremadura is contained between 37° 57′ and 40° 85′ N latitude, and 4° 39′ and 7° 33′ W longitude. The area of Extremadura is 41,633 km2, making it the fifth largest of the Spanish autonomous communities and it is located in the Southern Plateau. In the north is the Sistema Central with the highest point in Extremadura,2,401 m high Calvitero, the main subranges of the Sistema Central in Extremadura are the Sierra de Gata and Sierra de Béjar. In the centre is the Sierra de las Villuercas which reaches an altitude of 1,603 m on the Pico de las Villuercas, other notable ranges are Sierra de Montánchez and the Sierra de San Pedro, which form part of the greater Montes de Toledo system.
To the south rises the Sierra Morena which separates Extremadura from Andalusia with Sierra de Tentudía where the highest altitude of mountains in Extremadura is Pico Tentudía at 1,104 m. There are four different hydrographic basins, The basin of the Tagus, with two tributaries, on the right, the Tiétar and the Alagón, and on the left, the Almonte, Salor. The tributaries on the right edge carry a quantity of water, which feed the gorges of the Sistema Central where the rainfall is abundant. The basin of the Guadiana, which has tributaries, to the right and Ruecas to the left, Zújar River which is its plentiful tributary. The basin of the Guadalquivir with only 1,411 km2 in Extremadura, the basin of the Douro with only 35 km2 in Extremadura. The climate of Extremadura is Mediterranean, except to the north, where it is continental, and to the west, the yearly temperature fluctuates between an average minimum of 4 °C and an average maximum of 33 °C. In the north of Extremadura, the temperatures are lower than those in the south, with temperatures gradually rising south towards the Sierra Morena.
During the summer, the temperature in July is greater than 26 °C. The winters are mild with the lowest temperatures being registered in the mountainous regions, the average snowfall is 40 cm, mainly occurring in January and February. As of January 1,2012, the population of Extremadura is 1,109,367 inhabitants, the population density is very low—25/km2 —compared to Spain as a whole. The most populous province is that of Badajoz, with a population of 691,715, with an area of 21,766 km2, it is the largest province in Spain
The Algarve is the southernmost region of continental Portugal. It has an area of 4,997 square kilometres with 451,006 permanent inhabitants, the region has as its administrative centre in the city of Faro, where both the regions international airport and public university, University of Algarve, are located. Tourism and related activities are extensive and make up the bulk of the Algarves summer economy, production of food, which includes fish and other seafood, oranges, carob beans and almonds, is economically important in the region. The Algarve is the most popular tourist destination in Portugal, and its population triples to nearly 1.5 million people in the peak holiday season thanks to seasonal residents, and receives an average of 7 million foreign tourists each year. In total, including visitors, almost 10 million people visit the Algarve annually. The Algarve is currently the third richest region in Portugal, after Lisbon and Madeira, human presence in southern Portugal dates back to the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods.
The presence of stones in the area of Vila do Bispo attests to this presence. The Cynetes, influenced by Tartessos, were established by the sixth century BC in the region of the Algarve and they would be strongly influenced by the Celtici. Those indo-european tribes, celtic or pre-celtic, founded the city of Lagos, the Phoenicians had established trading ports along the coast circa 1000 BC. Some sources claim that the Carthaginians founded Portus Hanibalis – known today as Portimão – in about 550 BC, much of the Iberian Peninsula was absorbed into the Roman Republic in the second century BC, and the Algarve region similarly came under Roman control. Many Roman ruins can still be seen, notably in Lagos, Roman bath complexes and fish salting tanks have been found near the shore in several locations, for example the ones near Vilamoura and Praia da Luz. In the 5th century the Visigoths took control of the Algarve until the beginning of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711, when the Moors conquered Lagos in 716, it was named Zawaia.
Faro, which the Christian residents had called Santa Maria, was renamed Faraon, due to the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the region was called Gharb Al-Andalus, Gharb means the west, while al-Andalus is the Arabic name for the Iberian Peninsula. For several years, the town of Silves was the capital of the region, in the mid-13th century, during the Reconquista, the Kingdom of Portugal conquered the region in a series of successful military campaigns against the Moors. Al-Gharb became the Kingdom of the Algarve, and the moors were expelled and it was not until the early 14th century that the Portuguese finally secured the region against the subsequent Muslim attempts to recapture the area. King Afonso III of Portugal started calling himself King of Portugal, prior to the independence of Brazil, the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves was an official designation for Portugal which alluded to the Algarve. Portuguese monarchs continued used this title until the proclamation of the First Portuguese Republic in 1910, between 1595 and 1808, the Algarve was a semi-autonomous area of Portugal with its own governor, as well as a separate taxation system.
In the 15th century, Prince Henry the Navigator based himself near Lagos and it was from Lagos that Gil Eanes set sail in 1434 to become the first seafarer to round Cape Bojador in West Africa
Estremoz is a municipality in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 14,318, in an area of 513.80 km², the city Estremoz itself had a population of 7,682 in 2001. It is located in the Alentejo region, the region around Estremoz has been inhabited since pre-historic times. There are vestiges of Roman and Muslim occupation, during the Reconquista, Estremoz was captured in the 12th century by the army of knight Geraldo Sem Pavor, who had conquered neighbouring Évora. However, Estremoz was soon retaken by the Moors and only in the century was it reconquered by the Portuguese King Sancho II. King Dinis rebuilt the castle as a palace, further promoting the area. Her grandson Pedro I of Portugal died in the Franciscan monastery at Estremoz in 1367, during the 1383–1385 Crisis, Nuno Álvares Pereira established his headquarters in Estremoz, defeated the Castilian forces at the Battle of Atoleiros. During the Portuguese Restoration War, Portuguese forces defeated the Castilians in the nearby and decisive Battles of Ameixial, especially the pink marble is in high demand.
This marble has been used since Antiquity as a material for sculpture and architecture, the first exports in Roman times were probably for the construction of the Circus Maximus of Emerita Augusta, in modern day Spain. The Portuguese navigators exported this marble to Africa and Brazil, the marble from this region was used in famed locations such as the Monastery of Jerónimos, the Monastery of Batalha, the Monastery of Alcobaça and the Tower of Belém. There is so much marble around Estremoz that it is used everywhere, even the doorsteps and this marble is even converted into whitewash for painting the houses. Portugal is the second largest exporter of marble in the world, about 85% of this marble is produced around Estremoz. In the quarries marble blocks are cut from the rock with a wire saw. The initial conduit for the wire is made by drilling a horizontal hole, the wire saw may need a day to cut through the marble
Portalegre is a municipality in Portugal. The population as of 2011 was 24,930, in an area of 447.14 square kilometres, the municipality is located by the Serra de São Mamede in the Portalegre District. The current Mayor is Adelaide Teixeira, elected as an independent and its name comes from the Latin Portus Alacer. The municipal holiday is 23 May, according to the 2001 census the city of Portalegre had 15,768 inhabitants in its two parishes. These two parishes plus the eight rural parishes had a total of 25,608 inhabitants, Portalegre was founded in the reign of Afonso III, in 1259. It was to be given to his bastard son Afonso Sanchez, during the reign of Denis I, a foral issued on 18 November 1299 it was determined that Portalegre would be donated to the king and to his first born and heir. Portalegre was elevated to the status of city on 23 May 1550, at this time, the city was regarded as an important administrative and economic centre. In the 15th century, it was recognized for its cloth manufacturing.
Owing to its proximity to the border with Spain, over the years Portalegre endured many invasions by foreign troops, in 1847 it was occupied by forces of the Spanish General Concha. The importance of Portalegre would come to be recognized in 1859, the house-museum of José Régio, a famous Portuguese poet, was installed in his home, in which he lived for 34 years. When Régio was accepted at the school of Mouzinho da Silveira, in Portalegre. It was previously an annex of the convent of S. Brás, of which there are some vestiges. It served as a headquarters when the wars were fought. José Régio rented a room and, as he needed more space. So, as time went by, he became the only inhabitant of the hostel. In 1965, he sold his collection to the municipality of Portalegre with the condition of it buying his house, restore it and he lived there until he died, in 1969. The museum opened to public in 1971
Within the context of the Western musical tradition, the term polyphony is usually used to refer to music of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Baroque forms such as fugue, which might be called polyphonic, are usually described instead as contrapuntal. In all cases the conception was probably what Margaret Bent calls dyadic counterpoint, with part being written generally against one other part. The term polyphony is used more broadly, to describe any musical texture that is not monophonic. Such a perspective considers homophony as a sub-type of polyphony, traditional polyphony has a wide, if uneven, distribution among the peoples of the world. Most polyphonic regions of the world are in sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and it is believed that the origins of polyphony in traditional music vastly predate the emergence of polyphony in European professional music. Currently there are two approaches to the problem of the origins of vocal polyphony, the Cultural Model. Although the exact origins of polyphony in the Western church traditions are unknown,900, are usually considered the oldest extant written examples of polyphony.
These treatises provided examples of two-voice note-against-note embellishments of chants using parallel octaves, rather than being fixed works, they indicated ways of improvising polyphony during performance. 1000, is the oldest extant example of notated polyphony for chant performance, European polyphony rose out of melismatic organum, the earliest harmonization of the chant. Twelfth-century composers, such as Léonin and Pérotin developed the organum that was introduced centuries earlier, the lyrics of love poems might be sung above sacred texts in the form of a trope, or the sacred text might be placed within a familiar secular melody. The oldest surviving piece of music is the English rota Sumer is icumen in. These musical innovations appeared in a context of societal change. After the first millennium, European monks decided to start translating the works of Greek philosophers into the vernacular, Western Europeans were aware of Plato and Hippocrates during the Middle Ages. However they had largely lost touch with the content of their surviving works because the use of Greek as a language was restricted to the lands of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Once these ancient works started being translated thus becoming accessible, the philosophies had a impact on the mind of Western Europe. This sparked a number of innovations in medicine, art, European polyphony rose prior to, and during the period of the Western Schism. Avignon, the seat of the antipopes, was a center of secular music-making
Eucalyptus globulus, the Tasmanian bluegum, southern blue-gum or blue gum, is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. They typically grow from 30–55 m tall, the tallest currently known specimen in Tasmania is 90.7 m tall. There are historical claims of even taller trees, the tallest being 101 m, the natural distribution of the species includes Tasmania and southern Victoria. There are isolated occurrences on King Island and Flinders Island in Bass Strait, there are naturalised non-native occurrences in Spain and Portugal, and other parts of southern Europe incl. Cyprus, southern Africa, New Zealand, western United States, Macaronesia, the dEntrecasteaux expedition made immediate use of the species when they discovered it, the timber being used to improve their oared boats. The Tasmanian blue gum was proclaimed as the emblem of Tasmania on 27 November 1962. The species name is from the Latin globulus, a little button, the bark sheds often, peeling in large strips.
The broad juvenile leaves are borne in pairs on square stems. They are about 6 to 15 cm long and covered with a blue-grey, waxy bloom, the mature leaves are narrow, sickle-shaped and dark shining green. They are arranged alternately on rounded stems and range from 15–35 cm in length, the buds are top-shaped and warty and have a flattened operculum bearing a central knob. The cream-coloured flowers are borne singly in the axils and produce copious nectar that yields a strongly flavoured honey. The fruits are woody and range from 1. 5–2.5 cm in diameter, numerous small seeds are shed through valves which open on the top of the fruit. It produces roots throughout the profile, rooting several feet deep in some soils. The plant was first described by the French botanist Jacques Labillardière in his publications Relation du Voyage à la Recherche de la Pérouse, the author collected specimens at Recherche Bay during the dEntrecasteaux expedition in 1792. Blue gum is one of the most extensively planted eucalypts and its rapid growth and adaptability to a range of conditions is responsible for its popularity.
It is especially well-suited to countries with a Mediterranean-type climate, and it comprises 65% of all plantation hardwood in Australia with approximately 4,500 km2 planted. The tree is cultivated elsewhere in the world. It is primarily planted as a pulpwood, and as an important fuelwood in many countries, Blue gums have historically been used as street trees but are now regarded as unsuitable by many municipalities due to their rapid growth and mature size
Vitis vinifera is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran. There are currently between 5,000 and 10,000 varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes though only a few are of significance for wine. It is a growing to 35 yards in length, with flaky bark. The leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, 5–20 cm long, the species typically occurs in humid forests and streamsides. The wild grape is classified as V. vinifera subsp. Domesticated vines have hermaphrodite flowers, but subsp, sylvestris is dioecious and pollination is required for fruit to develop. The grape is eaten fresh, processed to make wine or juice, cultivars of Vitis vinifera form the basis of the majority of wines produced around the world. All of the familiar wine varieties belong to Vitis vinifera, which is cultivated on every continent except for Antarctica, humans are known to have interacted with the Vitis vinifera in the Neolithic period.
Wild grapes were harvested by foragers and early farmers, for thousands of years, the fruit has been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value, its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. Changes in pip shape and distribution point to domestication occurring about 3500–3000 BC, in southwest Asia, South Caucasus, or the Western Black Sea shore region. Grape pips dating back to the V-IVth millennia B. C. were found in Shulaveri, others dating back to the IVth millennium B. C. were found in Khizanaant Gora, all in the Republic of Georgia. Cultivation of the grape spread to other parts of the Old World in pre-historic or early historic times. The first written accounts of grapes and wine can be found in the Epic of Gilgamesh, there are numerous hieroglyphic references from ancient Egypt, according to which wine was reserved exclusively for priests, state functionaries and the pharaoh. The ancient Greeks introduced grape growing and wine making to Europe in the Minoan age, hesiod in his Works and Days gives detailed descriptions of grape harvests and wine making techniques, and there are many references in Homer.
Greek colonists introduced these practices in their colonies, especially in southern Italy, the Etruscans improved wine making techniques and developed an export trade even beyond the Mediterranean basin. Between the 5th and 10th centuries, viticulture was sustained almost exclusively by the different religious orders in monasteries, the Benedictines and others extended the grape growing limit northwards and planted new vineyards at higher altitudes than was customary before. Apart from ‘ecclesiastical’ viticulture, there developed, especially in France, grape growing was a significant economic activity in the Middle east up to the 7th century, when the expansion of Islam caused it to decline. Between the Low Middle Ages and the Renaissance, viticulture began to flourish again, much was written during the Renaissance on grape growing and wine production, favouring a more scientific approach