Aleppo is a city in Syria, which serves as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 4.6 million in 2010, Aleppo was the largest Syrian city before the Syrian Civil War. Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Excavations at Tell as-Sawda and Tell al-Ansari, just south of the old city of Aleppo, show that the area was occupied by Amorites by the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC; that is the time at which Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla and Mesopotamia, which speak of it as part of the Amorite state of Yamhad, note its commercial and military proficiency. Such a long history is attributed to its strategic location as a trading center midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia. For centuries, Aleppo was the largest city in the Syrian region, the Ottoman Empire's third-largest after Constantinople and Cairo; the city's significance in history has been its location at one end of the Silk Road, which passed through Central Asia and Mesopotamia.

When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, much trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. At the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Aleppo lost its northern hinterland to modern Turkey, as well as the important Baghdad Railway connecting it to Mosul. In the 1940s it lost its main access to the sea, Antakya and İskenderun to Turkey; the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation. This decline may have helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage, it won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", has had a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks. The Battle of Aleppo occurred in the city during the Syrian Civil War, many parts of the city suffered massive destruction. Affected parts of the city are undergoing reconstruction. While the exact numbers of the civilian death toll in Syria between 2012 and 2016 are unclear, because the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights was restricted in its monitoring, the United Nations estimated that thousands of people were killed.

Modern-day English-speakers refer to the city as Aleppo. It was known in antiquity as Khalpe, to the Greeks and Romans as Beroea. During the Crusades, again during the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon of 1923–1946, the name Alep was used. Aleppo represents the Italianised version of this; the original ancient name, has survived as the current Arabic name of the city. It is of obscure origin. However, the term Ḥalab might be derived from related to a folktale of Abraham, who milked his sheep to feed the poor. Others have proposed that Ḥalab means "iron" or "copper" in Amorite languages, since the area served as a major source of these metals in antiquity. Another possibility is that Ḥalab means'white', as this is the word for'white' in Aramaic, the local language which preceded regional Arabization; this may explain how Ḥalab became the Hebrew word for'milk' or vice versa, as well as offers a possible explanation for the modern-day Arabic nickname of the city, ash-Shahbaa, which means "the white-colored mixed with black" and derives from the white marble found at Aleppo.

Additionally, Abraham is said to have camped on the acropolis which, long before his time, served as the foundation of a fortress where the Aleppo citadel now stands, to have milked his grey cow there. From the 11th century it was common Rabbinic usage to apply the term "Aram-Zobah" to the area of Aleppo, many Syrian Jews continue to do so. Aleppo has scarcely been touched by archaeologists; the earliest occupation of the site was around 5000 BC. Aleppo appears in historical records as an important city much earlier than Damascus; the first record of Aleppo comes from the third millennium BC, in the Ebla tablets when Aleppo was referred to as Ha-lam. Some historians, such as Wayne Horowitz, identify Aleppo with the capital of an independent kingdom related to Ebla, known as Armi, although this identification is contested; the main temple of the storm god Hadad was located on the citadel hill in the center of the city, when the city was known as the city of Hadad. Naram-Sin of Akkad mention his destruction of Ebla and Armani/Armanum, in the 23rd century BC. but the identification of Armani in the inscription of Naram-Sim as Armi in the Eblaite tablets is debated, as there was no Akkadian annexation of Ebla or northern Syria.

In the Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian Empire period, Aleppo's name appears in its original form as Ḥalab for the first time. Aleppo was the capital of the important Amorite dynasty of Yamḥad; the kingdom of Yamḥad, alternatively known as the'land of Ḥalab,' was one of the most powerful in the Near East during the reign of Yarim-Lim I, who formed an alliance with Hammurabi of Babylonia against Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria. Yamḥad was devastated by the Hittites under Mursilis I in the 16th century BC. However, it soon resumed its leading role in the Levant when the Hittite power in the region waned due to internal strife. Taking advantage of the power vacuum in the region, king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni instigated a rebellion that ended the life of Yamhad last king Ilim-Ilimma I in c. 1525 BC, Parshatatar conquered

Penicillium nodositatum

Penicillium nodositatum is an anamorph, biverticillate species of the genus Penicillium which induce the growth of the myconodules in the species Alnus incana. Valla, G.. "Penicillium nodositatum Valla, a new species inducing myconodules on Alnus roots". Plant and Soil. 114: 142–146. Doi:10.1007/BF02203093. Faure-Raynaud, M.. "Intraspecific variability of isozymes in Penicillium nodositatum Valla, a fungus inducing?myconodules? On the root-system of Alnus sp". Plant and Soil. 137: 285. Doi:10.1007/BF00011207. Cérémonie, H. L. N.. "Structural and functional comparison of Frankiaroot hair deforming factor and rhizobia Nod factor". Canadian Journal of Botany. 77: 1293. Doi:10.1139/b99-060. Sequerra, J.. "Taxonomic position and intraspecific variability of the nodule forming Penicillium nodositatum inferred from RFLP analysis of the ribosomal intergenic spacer and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA". Mycological Research. 101: 465. Doi:10.1017/S0953756296002857. Charles W. Bacon, James White. Microbial Endophytes.

CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-8831-5

Steven Pope

Steven Charles Pope is a former South African cricketer. Pope was a right-handed batsman who bowled leg break and played as a wicketkeeper. Pope was born at Cape Province. In a career that lasted 14 seasons, he represented Eastern Cape, Border B, Huntingdonshire, Eastern Province and Eastern Province B. Something of a journeyman within South Africa, Pope did play 9 List-A matches for Cornwall, where his family originate, one for Huntingdonshire in English county cricket. In his 14-year career, he forged a if inconsistent first-class career, he played 93 first-class matches, where he scored 5,958 runs at a batting average of 32.91, with 27 half centuries and 12 centuries. His highest score in first-class cricket was 156*. With the ball he took 48 wickets at a bowling average of 31.27, with 2 five wicket hauls and best figures of 7/62. In List-A cricket, he played a total of 106 matches, where he scored 2,660 runs at an average of 31.29. In the process, he made 21 half centuries, but no centuries, with a high score of 98*.

He took 29 wickets in List-A cricket, at a bowling average of 22.55 apiece, with best figures of 4/38. Toward the end of his career, Twenty20 cricket was introduced, with Pope playing 6 matches each in the format for Eastern Cape and Warriors. In his 12 matches he scored 116 runs at an average of 12.88, with a high score of 34. His father Charles Pope played List-A cricket for Border, his uncle Ken McEwan played first-class and List-A cricket. Steven Pope at Cricinfo Steven Pope at CricketArchive]