A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
The Bernese Alps are a mountain range of the Alps, located in western Switzerland. The highest mountain in the range, the Finsteraarhorn, is the highest point in the canton of Bern, the Bernese Alps are drained by the river Aare and its tributary the Saane in the north, the Rhône in the south, and the Reuss in the east. The principal ridge, a chain that runs 100 kilometres from west to east, whose highest peak is the Finsteraarhorn, except for the westernmost part, it is the watershed between the Rhine and the Rhone. This chain is not centered inside the range but lies close to the Rhone on the south, there the mountains progressively become lower and disappear into the hilly Swiss Plateau. The main chain west of Gemmi Pass consists mainly of a few large prominent summits slightly above 3,000 metres, on the eastern part, the main chain became suddenly wider and the peaks reach over 4,000 metres, in the most glaciated part of the Alps. To the south the same portion of the range is divided from the still higher parallel range whose summits are the Aletschhorn and the Bietschhorn by the Lötschental.
To this again succeeds the deep trench through which the part of the Aletsch Glacier flows down to the Rhone. Since strangers first began to visit the Alps, the names of Grindelwald, but unlike many other Alpine regions, which have been left to be explored by strangers, this region has been long visited by Swiss travellers and men of science. Among them were the brother Meyer of Aarau and Franz Joseph Hugi and they have explored most of the mountain ranges not very difficult of access, further than this, have attained most of the higher summits. The works of Desor and Gottlieb Studer have been followed by other publications that bear testimony to Swiss mountaineering activity. The Jungfrau-Aletsch area is located in the eastern Bernese Alps in the most glaciated region of the Alps and it was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001 and further expanded in 2007. Its name comes from the Aletsch Glacier and the two summits of the Jungfrau and Bietschhorn, which some of the most impressive features of the site.
The actual site includes other large glacier valleys such as the Fiescher Glacier and the Aar Glaciers
The Gross Fiescherhorn is a mountain of the Bernese Alps, located on the border between the cantons of Bern and Valais, halfway between the Mönch and the Finsteraarhorn. At 4,049 metres above sea level, its summit culminates over the whole Fiescherhorn massif, from the north both are well hidden behind other mountains and can only been seen from the village of Grindelwald. The mountain is shared between the municipalities of Grindelwald and Fieschertal, ascents are usually made from one of these three popular routes, one starts from the Mönchsjoch Hut, one from the Konkordia Hut, and the third from the Finsteraarhorn Hut. The summit was first reached on 23 July 1862 by H. B, george and Adolphus Warburton Moore, with guides Christian Almer and Ulrich Kaufmann. They used what is now the route, the south-west ridge. The north side of the mountain was first climbed in 1926, on 13 August, W. Amstutz and P. von Schumacher reached the summit after a 15-hour ascent via the north ridge, which is the northern boundary of the Fiescherwand.
The first direct ascent on the Fiescherwand was made by W. Welzenbach, Welzenbach was an expert climber, who disputed the common idea of his time that an ascent of the Fiescherwand was impossible. The previous year, in 1929, Welzenbach and Tillmann climbed the ridge in only 8.5 hours. The following year started the ascent of the Fiescherwand on the morning of 5 September 1930. They reached the top that evening, after a 12-hour ascent, Gross Fiescherhorn on SummitPost Gross Fiescherhorn
The Bietschhorn is a mountain in canton Wallis to the south of the Bernese Alps in Switzerland. The northeast and southern slopes of the mountain are part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch Protected Area listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site that includes the Jungfrau and the Aletsch Glacier. The Bietschhorn is located on the side of the Lötschental valley and form part of the UNESCO World Heritage Region at the north end of the Bietschtal valley. Most climbers approach the mountain from either the Bietschhornhütte or the Baltschiederklause and it was first climbed on 13 August 1859 by Leslie Stephen, with guides Anton Siegen, Johann Siegen and Joseph Ebener. An account of this first ascent was published by Leslie Stephen in his book The Playground of Europe, List of mountains of Valais List of mountains of Switzerland List of most isolated mountains of Switzerland Bietschhorn on SummitPost Climbing the Bietschhorn Photographs
It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information system onto a 3D globe. It was originally available with three different licenses, but has since reduced to just two, Google Earth and Google Earth Pro, which is now free and is intended for commercial use. The third original option, Google Earth Plus, has been discontinued. The product, re-released as Google Earth in 2005, is available for use on computers running Windows 2000 and above, Mac OS X10.3.9 and above, Linux kernel,2.6 or later. Google Earth is available as a plugin which was released on May 28,2008. It was available for mobile viewers on the iPhone OS on October 28,2008, as a free download from the App Store. In addition to releasing an updated Keyhole based client, Google added the imagery from the Earth database to their web-based mapping software, as of October 2011, Google Earth has been downloaded more than a billion times. Google Earth displays satellite images of varying resolution of the Earths surface, Imagery resolution ranges from 15 meters of resolution to 15 centimeters.
Most areas in Google Earth are only shown in 2D aerial imagery, Google Earth uses digital elevation model data collected by NASAs Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This means one can view almost the entire earth in three dimensions, since November 2006, the 3D views of many mountains, including Mount Everest, have been improved by the use of supplementary DEM data to fill the gaps in SRTM coverage. Google Earth allows users to search for addresses for some countries, enter coordinates, some people use the applications to add their own data, making them available through various sources, such as the Bulletin Board Systems or blogs mentioned in the link section below. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is a Web Map Service client, Google Earth supports managing three-dimensional Geospatial data through Keyhole Markup Language. In December 2006, Google Earth added a new layer called Geographic Web that includes integration with Wikipedia, in Wikipedia, entries are scraped for coordinates via the Coord templates.
There is a community-layer from the project Wikipedia-World, More coordinates are used, different types are in the display and different languages are supported than the built-in Wikipedia layer. Google announced on May 30,2007 that it is acquiring Panoramio, in March 2010, Google removed the Geographic Web layer. The Panoramio layer became part of the layers and the Wikipedia layer was placed in the More layer. In Google Earth v4.2 a flight simulator was included as a hidden feature, starting with v4.3 it is no longer hidden. The flight simulator could be accessed by holding down the keys Ctrl, initially the F-16 Fighting Falcon and the Cirrus SR-22 were the only aircraft available, and they could be used with only a few airports
The Eiger is a 3, 970-metre mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais. It is the easternmost peak of a ridge crest that extends across the Mönch to the Jungfrau at 4,158 m, constituting one of the most emblematic sights of the Swiss Alps. The most notable feature of the Eiger is its 1, 800-metre-high north face of rock and ice, named Eigerwand or Nordwand and this huge face towers over the resort of Kleine Scheidegg at its base, on the homonymous pass connecting the two valleys. The first ascent of the Eiger was made by Swiss guides Christian Almer and Peter Bohren and Irishman Charles Barrington, the north face, considered amongst the most challenging and dangerous ascents, was first climbed in 1938 by an Austrian-German expedition. The Eiger has been publicized for the many tragedies involving climbing expeditions. Since 1935, at least sixty-four climbers have died attempting the face, earning it the German nickname Mordwand.
They are both part of the Jungfrau Railway line, running from Kleine Scheidegg to the Jungfraujoch, between the Mönch and the Jungfrau, at the highest railway station in Europe, the two stations within the Eiger are Eigerwand and Eismeer, at around 3,000 metres. The Eiger is mentioned in records dating back to the 13th century, the three mountains of the ridge are commonly referred to as the Virgin, the Monk, and the Ogre. The name has been linked to the Latin term acer, meaning sharp or pointed, the Eiger is located within the Bernese Oberland region of the canton of Bern, between the valleys and municipalities of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald. It is located 2.2 km northeast of the Mönch and 5.6 km northeast of the Jungfrau, the nearest settlements are Grindelwald and Wengen. The Eiger has three faces, north and southeast, the east ridge from the summit to the Ostegg, named Mittellegi, is the longest on the Eiger. The north face overlooks the pass and resort of Kleine Scheidegg, or more precisely the region east of it, the latter mountain pass lies between the valleys of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald and connects the lower Männlichen-Tschuggen range to the Eiger.
All the aforementioned localities are connected to Interlaken via mountain railways, all sides of the mountain feed the same river, the Lütschine, through the Weisse Lütschine on the west side and through the Schwarze Lütschine on the east side. Although the north face of the Eiger is almost free of ice, on the east side, the Eismeer flows from the Mönch down to 1,300 m through the Lower Grindelwald Glacier system, which feeds the Schwarze Lütschine. The massive wall of the Jungfrau, Mönch and Eiger itself constitutes an emblematic sight of the Swiss Alps and is visible from many places on the Swiss Plateau. The higher Finsteraarhorn and Aletschhorn, which are located about 10 km to the south, are less visible. The whole area, the Jungfrau-Aletsch, comprising the highest summits, in July 2006, a piece of the Eiger amounting to approximately 700,000 cubic metres of rock fell from the east face. As it had been noticeably cleaving for several weeks and fell into an area, there were no injuries
In climbing, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with risks, challenges. The person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist, the details of the first ascents of even many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown, sometimes the only evidence of prior summiting is a cairn, artifacts, or inscriptions at the top. Today, first ascents are generally recorded and usually mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a first ascent is a one, especially in places such as Africa. There may be little or no evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents, particularly for difficult routes, involved a mix of free, as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only.
Some other first ascents could be recorded for particular mountains or routes, one is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name easily suggests, the first ascent made during winter season. This is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route, in the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. Also in the Himalayan area, although Nepal and Chinas winter season permits start on December 1, another is the First Solo Ascent, which is the first ascent made by a single climber. This is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or even when climbing without any protection at all, another type of ascent, known as FFA is the first female ascent. The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has changed to such an extent – often because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists.
It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb that is so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent partys ordeal. List of first ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimers First Ascent, Issue 17
Naters is a municipality in the district of Brig in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Naters is first mentioned in 1018 as Nares, Naters has an area, as of 2011, of 101.3 square kilometers. Of this area,16. 5% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,1. 8% is settled and 72. 7% is unproductive land. The municipality is located in the Brig district, on the bank of the Rhone river on the gently sloping alluvial country around the Kelchbach. It covers the entire Natischer mountain between Kelchbach and the Mass and it consists of the villages of Naters, Geimen, Mehlbaum and Blatten. The blazon of the coat of arms is Gules, between two Crosiers Or in saltire in chief a Mitre of the same. Naters has a population of 9,808, as of 2008,11. 9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 6. 9% and it has changed at a rate of 5. 7% due to migration and at a rate of -0. 1% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Italian is the second most common, There are 79 people who speak French and 7 people who speak Romansh.
As of 2008, the distribution of the population was 48. 4% male and 51. 6% female. The population was made up of 3,403 Swiss men and 512 non-Swiss men, There were 3,671 Swiss women and 510 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 3,252 or about 43. 3% were born in Naters and lived there in 2000. There were 2,579 or 34. 3% who were born in the canton, while 687 or 9. 1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 24. 1% of the population, while adults make up 59. 9%, as of 2000, there were 3,026 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 3,774 married individuals,451 widows or widowers and 264 individuals who are divorced, as of 2000, there were 3,020 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.4 persons per household. There were 869 households that consist of one person and 198 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 3,100 households that answered this question,28. 0% were households made up of just one person and there were 40 adults who lived with their parents.
Of the rest of the households, there are 885 married couples without children,1,032 married couples with children There were 147 single parents with a child or children
The Pennine Alps, known as the Valais Alps, and formerly called Alpes Poeninae, are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland and Italy, the Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea and Toce, tributaries of the Po. The Swiss side is drained by the Rhône, the Great St Bernard Tunnel, under the Great St Bernard Pass, leads from Martigny, Switzerland to Aosta. The main chain runs from west to east on the border between Italy and Switzerland, from Mont Vélan, the first high summit east of St Bernard Pass, the chain rarely goes below 3000 metres and contains many four-thousanders such as Matterhorn or Monte Rosa. Unlike many other ranges, the higher peaks are often located outside the main chain
Jungfrau-Aletsch protected area
The Jungfrau-Aletsch protected area is located in south-western Switzerland between the cantons of Berne and Valais. The Jungfrau-Aletsch protected area is the first World Natural Heritage site in the Alps, the Jungfrau-Aletsch protected area is located in the Swiss Alps between the Bernese Oberland and north-eastern Valais, about 25 km south of Interlaken and 20 km north of Brig. The site covers the whole Aar massif from the Oeschinensee in the west to the Grimselsee in the east, including the basins of the Aletsch, Fiescher and Grindelwald glaciers. The culminating point is the Finsteraarhorn which, with its 4,270 metres, is the highest mountain in the Bernese Alps. 8 other summits above 4,000 metres are located in the area, Jungfrau, Mönch, Gross Fiescherhorn, the summit ridge separating the cantons of Valais and Berne is the main watersheds of Europe. The southern valleys drain into the southwest running valley of the Rhone which flows into the Mediterranean sea, the climate of the region is strongly influenced by the height of the mountains.
They form a barrier between the wet climate of the north and the dryer climate of the south-facing Valais slopes. On the north side the rainfall exceeds 2,200 mm, most falling in summer, the Valais experiences a subcontinental climate at low and medium altitudes and is markedly semi-arid. Mean annual temperatures range from -8.5 °C at Jungfraujoch to 9.1 °C at Brig, the Jungfrau-Aletsch site is almost untouched, except for trails and mountain huts. About half of the area is higher than 2,600 metres, the total area covered by glacier is 35,000 ha, it constitutes the largest continuous area of ice in the Alps. The largest and longest glacier in the Alps, the Aletsch Glacier is 23 km long and has a thickness of 900 metres at Konkordiaplatz. Glaciers and barren rock constitute 80% of the area, 6% is forested,5. 2% is alpine meadow, altitude is the strongest factor influencing the distribution and diversity of the vegetation. Within the nominated area there are 1,800 species of plants and 700 mosses.
The growing period decreases with altitude, but there are 529 species of phanerogams, broadleaf montane forest extends from 900 m to 1,300 m on north- facing slopes. On south-facing slopes the same zone is approximately 200 m higher, the subalpine zone lies between 1,300 m to 2,000 m, between the broadleaf and alpine zone. Characteristic species are the Swiss Pine and the Norway Spruce on the north and south side respectively, an example of Pinus cembra forest is the Aletsch Forest above the Aletsch Glacier and near the tree line. It developed on the moraine of the glacier after its extension in 1850. The zone directly above the line forms a girdle of moorland vegetation