Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra
Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra was a Spanish naval officer born in Lima, Peru. Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra joined the Spanish Naval Academy in Cádiz at 19, in 1773 he was promoted to Ship Ensign, and in 1774 to Ship Lieutenant. Bodega y Quadra was born in Lima, Peru to Tomás de la Bodega y de las Llanas of Biscay and Francisca de Mollinedo y Losada of Lima and his family was of Basque origin. In 1775 under the command of Lieutenant Bruno de Heceta, the Spanish explored the Pacific Northwest and this followed the first Spanish expedition by Juan Pérez in 1774, who had failed to reach and claim the upper northwest coast for Spain. The expedition consisted of two ships, the Santiago, commanded by Hezeta himself, and the schooner Sonora, commanded by his second in command, Bodega y Quadra was given the lesser position of second officer on the Sonora despite the fact that he outranked the others. So he was passed over for promotions, the Spaniards were given orders to explore the coast and to go ashore so that the newly discovered territories would be recognized as Spanish lands.
Most important for the expedition was the identification of colonial Russian settlements, the ships left San Blas, New Spain, on 16 March 1775. Illnesses, poor sailing capacities of the Sonora, on 13 July 1775, they reached the vicinity of Point Grenville and Destruction Island in the present day U. S. state of Washington. While searching for a place for the ships to anchor. He immediately realized his mistake and signaled the Santiago to not follow, the wind direction and changing tide trapped the Sonora between Sonora Reef and Point Grenville. The Santiago anchored a few miles to the south, in Grenville Bay, the Sonora attracted the attention of a nearby Quinault village. Many Quinault visited the schooner, trading with the crew and giving gifts of food, early the next day an armed party from the Santiago went ashore and quickly conducted a possession ceremony, which was observed by some Quinaults. Later that morning, Bodega y Quadra decided to send six sailors ashore to collect water, a large number of Quinaults appeared and killed the shore party.
Bodega y Quadra was unable to help as the party had taken the only boat. At noon he weighed anchor, hoping to escape the shoals at high tide, progress was slow as the wind was low and the crew significantly reduced. Nine large canoes carrying about 30 Quinaults carrying bows and shields followed and they made signs of friendship which Bodega y Quadra rejected. Bodega wanted to avenge his lost sailors, was overruled by Heceta, Quinault ethnologists have come up with theories about the sudden attack, one being that the land-claiming ceremony was understood for what it was. Of particular note was the placement of a cross on the beach
Alaska is a U. S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the 3rd least populous, approximately half of Alaskas residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaskas economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30,1867, the area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11,1912. It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959, the name Alaska was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed, Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere.
Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America and it is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use, Alaska is not part of the contiguous U. S. often called the Lower 48. The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaskas territorial waters touch Russias territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island, Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the area of the next three largest states, Texas and Montana. It is larger than the area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States, as such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase.
The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest and it contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaskas largest city. The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital transportation link throughout the area. The Interior is the largest region of Alaska, much of it is uninhabited wilderness, Fairbanks is the only large city in the region
George III of the United Kingdom
He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britains American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence, further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, although it has since been suggested that he had the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, on George IIIs death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV. Historical analysis of George IIIs life has gone through a kaleidoscope of changing views that have depended heavily on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them.
Until it was reassessed in the half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House and he was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As Prince George was born two months prematurely and he was unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker. One month later, he was baptised at Norfolk House. His godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, George grew into a healthy but reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York, Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight. He was the first British monarch to study science systematically and his religious education was wholly Anglican. At age 10 George took part in a production of Joseph Addisons play Cato and said in the new prologue, What.
It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated. Georges grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, however, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury, and George became heir apparent to the throne. He inherited one of his fathers titles and became the Duke of Edinburgh, now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. Georges mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her moral values
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371.
British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average.
The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforest
Douglas Island is a tidal island in the U. S. state of Alaska, just west of downtown Juneau and east of Admiralty Island. It is separated from mainland Juneau by the Gastineau Channel, the Juneau-Douglas Bridge, connecting the island with Juneau, provides a two lane road to and from the island and accommodates both vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Recently, there have been plans to build a new bridge from North Douglas to the Mendenhall Valley, Admiralty Island lies to the west and south, across the Stephens Passage. Douglas Island was named for John Douglas, Bishop of Salisbury, joseph Whidbey, master of the HMS Discovery during Vancouvers expedition, was the first to sight it in 1794. Features of the island include remnants of the Treadwell gold mine, Sandy Beach, the sand beach in the Juneau area, Eaglecrest Ski Area, Perseverance Theatre. As a tidal island, Douglas is connected to the mainland at its end when the Gastineau Channel is at low tide. During low tide, Douglas Island is connected with Juneaus Twin Lakes area, the Juneau International Airport as well as other sites.
The island has an area of 76.93 square miles and had a population of 5,297 at the 2000 United States Census. It is part of the City and Borough of Juneau, the islands highest point, Mount Ben Stewart, was named in honor of Benjamin D. Stewart, an early mayor of Juneau. Following the 2012 election of Merrill Sanford, the incumbent mayor of Juneau, Byron Mallott and Dennis Egan live in West Juneau. Sally Smith, who succeeded Egan as mayor, lives in the Lawson Creek neighborhood between Douglas and West Juneau, while her successor Bruce Botelho lives in Douglas. Beth Kerttula, who represented portions of Juneau in the Alaska House of Representatives from 1999 to 2014, lives in North Douglas. Douglas Island, Blocks 1004 thru 1039, Block Group 1, Block Group 2, Block Group 3, Census Tract 6, Juneau City and Borough, Alaska United States Census Bureau Map of Douglas Island
Prince of Wales Island (Alaska)
Prince of Wales Island is one of the islands of the Alexander Archipelago in the Alaska Panhandle. It is the fourth-largest island in the United States and the 97th-largest island in the world. The island is 135 miles long,45 miles wide and has an area of 2,577 sq mi, about 1/10 the size of Ireland, approximately 4,000 people live on the island. Craig is the largest community, founded as a saltery in the early 20th century, some 750 people live in Klawock, a long-established village that grew with the fishing industry. Hollis was a boom and bust mining town from 1900 to about 1915, abandoned, it was re-established as a logging camp in the 50s. It now has a population of 100 and is the location of the ferry terminal, Mountain peaks, all but the tallest of which were buried by Pleistocene glaciation, reach over 3,000 feet. Fjords, steep-sided mountains, and dense forests characterize the island, extensive tracts of limestone include karst features such as El Capitan Pit, at 598.3 feet, possibly the deepest vertical shaft in the United States.
Moist, maritime conditions dominate the weather, the Tongass National Forest covers most of the island. Within the forest and on the island are the Karta River Wilderness, many of its wildlife, such as the Prince of Wales flying squirrel, are found nowhere else. The island is in the Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area, Prince of Wales Island is the homeland of the Kaigani Haida people. Kaigani is a mispronunciation of the Tlingit word xaax aani which translates to crabapple country, the Tlingit name for the island is Taan, meaning sea lion. The island is traditional Tlingit territory with the Haida moving into the area in the late 18th century and it was not until 1774 that Juan Pérez led a Spanish expedition sailing in a 39-foot boat from La Paz, Mexico reached Sumez Island off of Prince of Wales west coast. A British expedition in 1779, under Captain James Cook, passed Prince of Wales Island, comte de La Perouse led a French expedition to the area in 1786. Karta Bay is the site of the first salmon saltery in Alaska, mining of gold and other metals on the island began in the late 19th century.
Uranium was mined at Bokan Mountain in the 1950s and 1970s, logging was the mainstay of the collective Prince of Wales economy, the recent decline in the industry leaves only a few small-scale sawmills operating. In 1975, the Point Baker Association and others sued the United States Forest Service to prevent logging 400,000 acres on the portion of the island. Zieske v. Butz,406 F. Supp, in March 1976, the United States Congress responded to the suit by passing the National Forest Management Act, which removed the injunction. Still, only half of the timber was cut on the north end of the island
The Haida, historically sometimes spelled Hydah, are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. In British Columbia, the term Haida Nation refers both to the people as a whole and their government, the Council of the Haida Nation, the Kaigani are part of the Central Council Tlingit Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska government. The Haida language has sometimes been classified as one of the Na-Dene group, Haida society continues to produce a robust and highly stylized art form, a leading component of Northwest Coast art. While frequently expressed in large carvings, Chilkat weaving, or ornate jewellery. Haida span the boundary between British Columbia and Alaska and their heartland is the two large and many smaller islands known as Haida Gwaii, which means island of the people in Haida. The name Queen Charlotte Islands was subsequently given back to the Crown in a ceremony between the British Columbia government and the Council of the Haida Nation. Haida live in Southeast Alaska, particularly on the half of Prince of Wales Island in communities such as Hydaburg.
Haida live in cities in mainland British Columbia and the western United States. The Haida are known for their craftsmanship, trading skills, and seamanship and they are thought to have been warlike and to practice slavery. Canadian Museum of Civilization anthropologist Diamond Jenness has compared the tribe to Vikings, oral histories and archaeological evidence indicate that the Haida have occupied Haida Gwaii for over 17,000 years. In that time they have established a connection with the islands lands and oceans, established highly structured societies. The Haida have occupied southern Alaska for over the last 200 years, the Haida were important trading partners with Russian, Spanish and American fur traders and whalers. According to sailing records they diligently maintained strong trade relationships with westerners, coastal people, like other groups on the Northwest Coast, the Haida defended themselves with fortifications, including palisades and platforms. They took to water in large ocean-going canoes, big enough to accommodate as many as 60 paddlers, the aggressive tribe were particularly feared in sea battles, although they did respect rules of engagement in their conflicts.
The Haida took captives from defeated enemies, between 1780 and 1830, the Haida turned their aggression towards European and American traders. Among the half-dozen ships the tribe captured were the Eleanor and the Susan Sturgis, the tribe made use of the weapons they so acquired, utilizing cannons and canoe-mounted swivel guns. In 1856, an expedition in search of a route across Vancouver Island was at the mouth of the Qualicum River when they observed a fleet of Haida canoes approaching. They observed these attackers holding human heads, ebeys scalp was purchased from the Kake by an American trader in 1860
As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,881. In terms of area, it is the largest city-borough in the U. S. with a land area of 2,870.3 square miles. Urban Sitka, the part that is thought of as the city of Sitka, is on the west side of Baranof Island. The current name Sitka means People on the Outside of Baranof Island, Sitkas location was originally settled by the Tlingit people over 10,000 years ago. The Russians settled Old Sitka in 1799, calling it Redoubt Saint Michael, the governor of Russian America, Alexander Baranov, arrived under the auspices of the Russian-American Company, a colonial trading company chartered by Tsar Paul I. In June 1802, Tlingit warriors destroyed the settlement, killing many of the Russians. Baranov was forced to levy 10,000 rubles in ransom for the return of the surviving settlers. Baranov returned to Sitka in August 1804, with a large force, the ship bombarded the Tlingit fort on the 20th, but was not able to cause significant damage. The Russians launched an attack on the fort and were repelled, after two days of bombardment, the Tlingit hung out a white flag on the 22nd, and deserted the fort on the 26th.
Following their victory at the Battle of Sitka, the Russians established New Archangel as a permanent settlement named after Arkhangelsk, the Tlingit re-established a fort on the Chatham Strait side of Peril Strait to enforce a trade embargo with the Russian establishment. In 1808, with Baranov still governor, Sitka was designated the capital of Russian America, bishop Innocent lived in Sitka after 1840. The Cathedral of Saint Michael was built in Sitka in 1848 and became the seat of the Russian Orthodox bishop of Kamchatka, the Kurile and Aleutian Islands, and Alaska. Swedes and other Lutherans worked for the Russian-American Company, Sitka was the site of the transfer ceremony for the Alaska purchase on October 18,1867. Russia was going through economic and political turmoil after it lost the Crimean War to Britain, russia offered to sell it to the United States. Secretary of State William Seward had wanted to purchase Alaska for quite time as he saw it as an integral part of Manifest Destiny.
While the agreement to purchase Alaska was made in April 1867, the cost to purchase Alaska was $7.2 million. Sitka served as the capital of the Alaska Territory until 1906, the Alaska Native Brotherhood was founded in Sitka in 1912 to address racism against Alaska Native people in Alaska. By 1914 the organization had constructed the Alaska Native Brotherhood Hall on Katlian Street, in 1937, the United States Navy established the first seaplane base in Alaska on Japonski Island
The Tlingit are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. Their language is Lingít, meaning People of the Tides, the Russian name Koloshi or the related German name Koulischen may be encountered referring to the people in older historical literature, such as Shelikhovs 1796 map of Russian America. The Tlingit have a kinship system, with children considered born into the mothers clan. Their culture and society developed in the temperate rainforest of the southeast Alaska coast, the Tlingit maintained a complex hunter-gatherer culture based on semi-sedentary management of fisheries. An inland group, known as the Inland Tlingit, inhabits the far part of the province of British Columbia. With regular travel up rivers, the Tlingit developed extensive trade networks with Athabascan tribes of the interior. They overlap in territory with various Athabascan peoples, such as the Tahltan, Kaska, in Canada, the modern communities of Atlin, British Columbia, Teslin and Carcross, Yukon have reserves and are the representative Interior Tlingit populations.
The territory occupied by the modern Tlingit people in Alaska is not restricted to particular reservations, the corporation in the Tlingit region is Sealaska Corporation, which serves the Tlingit as well as the Haida and Tsimshian in Alaska. Tlingit people as a participate in the commercial economy of Alaska. As a consequence, they live in typically American nuclear family households with private ownership of housing, many possess land allotments from Sealaska or from earlier distributions predating ANCSA. Despite the legal and political complexities, the territory occupied by the Tlingit can be reasonably designated as their modern homeland. Tlingit people today consider the land from around Yakutat south through the Alaskan Panhandle, and including the lakes in the Canadian interior, as being Lingít Aaní, the Land of the Tlingit. Northern Tinglit live north of Frederick Sound to Cape Spencer, and including Glacier Bay and their territory can be battered by Pacific storms. These academic classifications are supported by similar self-identification among the Tlingit, the Tlingit culture is multifaceted and complex, a characteristic of Northwest Pacific Coast people with access to easily exploited rich resources.
In Tlingit culture a heavy emphasis is placed upon family and kinship and economic power are important indicators of rank, but so is generosity and proper behavior, all signs of good breeding and ties to aristocracy. Tlingit society is divided into two moieties, the Raven and the Eagle and these in turn are divided into numerous clans, which are subdivided into lineages or house groups. They have a kinship system, with descent and inheritance passed through the mothers line. These groups have heraldic crests, which are displayed on poles, feast dishes, house posts, jewelry
Mitkof Island is an island in the Alexander Archipelago in southeast Alaska, at 56°35′54″N 132°48′33″W. Between Kupreanof Island to the west and the Alaska mainland to the east and it is about 16 km wide and 28 km long with a land area of 539.7 km2, making it the 30th largest island in the United States. Much of the island is managed as part of the Tongass National Forest, the island is relatively flat with numerous muskegs. The highest point is Crystal Mountain 3,317 ft, the city of Petersburg is on the north end of the island. The total population of the island was 3,364 at the 2000 census, the Wrangell Narrows, one of the six Listed Narrows of Southeast Alaska, runs from the south to the north end of Mitkof Island. Bordered by Mitkof Island on one side, and Kuprenof and Woewodski Islands on the other, because of its shallow depths, the largest cruise ships do not pass through these narrows. Spirit Creek is the southern most stream on the island in the Wrangell Narrows, the first European to sight the island was James Johnstone, one of George Vancouvers officers during his 1791-95 expedition, in 1793.
Wrangell Narrows Wrangell Narrows Mitkof Island, Census Tract 2, Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, Alaska United States Census Bureau