Kherson, Russian pronunciation: ) is a city in southern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Kherson Oblast, is designated as a city of oblast significance. Kherson is an important port on the Black Sea and Dnieper River, the home of a major ship-building industry, its population was 294,941 . Since the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014, Kherson houses the office of the Presidential representative of Ukraine in Crimea, headed by Nataliya Popovych; until 1774, the region belonged to the Crimean Khanate. Kherson was founded in 1778 by Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin, on the orders of Catherine the Great; the city was built under the supervision of General Ivan Gannibal on the site of a small fortress called Aleksanderschanz. The name Kherson is a contraction of Chersonesos, an ancient Greek colony founded 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea. One of the first buildings in the Kherson Fort was the Church of St. Catherine where Potemkin was buried; the last tarpan was caught near Kherson in 1866.
During World War II, Kherson was occupied by the German Army from 21 August 1941 to 13 March 1944. During the Ukrainian revolution of 2014 the city was the scene of riots against president Yanukovich during which the main Lenin statue of the city was toppled by protesters. After the revolution the city became calm; as of Ukrainian National Census, the ethnic groups living within Kherson were: Ukrainians – 76.6% Russians – 20.0% Other – 3.4%The ethnic groups living within Kherson as of the 1926 Census: Ukrainians – 36% Russians – 36% Jews – 25% Belorussians – 0.2% Germans – 0.4% There are three city raions. Suvorov Raion and oldest district of the city, named after the Russian General Suvorov. Includes department's: Mlini. Dnipro Raion, named after the Dnieper river. Includes departments: HBK, Tekstil'nij, Slobіdka, Skhіdnij. Korabelnyi Raion. Includes department's: Shumens'kij, Zabalka, Zhitloselishche, Selishche — 4, Selishche — 5. Under the Köppen climate classification, Kherson has a humid continental climate.
Kherson is connected to the national railroad network of Ukraine. There are daily long-distance services to Kiev and other cities. Kherson is served by Kherson International Airport providing both passport and customs control, it operates a 2,500 x 42-meter concrete runway, accommodating Boeing 737, Airbus 319/320 aircraft, helicopters of all series. The official airport website is http://www.airport.kherson.ua and additional info can be found at http://www.aisukraine.net. There are 77 high schools as well as 5 colleges. There are 15 institutions of higher education. Kherson State University of Agriculture Kherson State University Kherson National Technical University International University of Business and Law The Church of St. Catherine – was built in the 1780s to Ivan Starov's designs, contains the tomb of Prince Potemkin. Jewish cemetery – Kershon has a large Jewish community, established in the mid-nineteenth century. From 1959 until 1990 there was no synagogue in Kherson. Since both Jewish life and Kherson have grown and developed in an atmosphere of peace.
The Jewish cemetery has suffered from acts of vandalism. The graves have been covered with trash and the tombstones destroyed and desecrated. On 6 April 2012, an act of vandalism, at the Jewish cemetery, occurred on the most important festival in the Jewish calendar, the festival of Passover; the fire, set spread over an area of about 700 square meters and caused severe damage to the graves and tombstones. Kherson TV Tower – a famous construction located in the city. Adziogol Lighthouse – a hyperboloid structure designed by V. G. Shukhov, 1911 Georgy Arbatov, political scientist. Maximilian Bern and editor Sergei Bondarchuk, Ukrainian-born film director and actor. Lev Davidovitch Bronstein, better known as Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist was born in Kherson in 1879. Ivan Abramovich Gannibal, founder of the city Yefim Golïshev and composer associated with the Dada movement in Berlin. Nikolai Grinko, Ukrainian Soviet-era film actor Kateryna Handziuk, Ukrainian civil rights and anti-corruption activist John Howard Mircea Ionescu-Quintus, Romanian politician and jurist Pavlo Ishchenko, Ukrainian-Israeli boxer Oleksandr Karavayev, Ukrainian football player Evgeny Kucherevsky, Ukrainian football coach of Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk Larisa Latynina, Soviet gymnast, the first female athlete to win nine Olympic gold medals Tatiana Lysenko and Ukrainian gymnast who won the gold medal on the balance beam at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.
Samuel Moiseyevich Maykapar, pianist Sergei Polunin, Ukrainian ballet dancer Prince Grigory Potemkin, founder of the city Salomon Rosenblum known as Lieutenant Sidney Reilly, a secret agent and international adventurer and playboy, at one time employed by the British Secret Intelligence Service. He is reputed to be the inspiration for James Bond. Moshe Sharett, the 2nd Prime Minister of Israel Sergei Stanishev, 49th Prime Minister of Bulgaria Prince Alexander Suvorov, founder of the city David Tyshler, Ukrainian/Soviet Olympic bronze medalist fencer Mikhail Yemtsev, science fiction writer Zalaegerszeg Shumen Pictures of Kherson Kherson city administration website Kherson patriots Kherson info&
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
National Art Museum of Ukraine
The National Art Museum of Ukraine is a museum dedicated to Ukrainian art in Kiev, Ukraine. It is located in a building, constructed in 1898 by architect Władysław Horodecki for the Kiev City Museum, it was in fact a remake of the talented Moscow architect Petr Boitsov who failed to receive a government license. The building was designed as a museum for the local society of patrons of arts and antique lovers; the facade of the building conveys a neoclassical architecture form - precise reproduction of a six-column porch of Doric order with entablature, triglyphs and frieze decoration depicting the Triumph of Arts. The architectural composition featuring figures of gryphons and large concrete lions at the top of the stairs were created by an Italian sculptor, Emilio Sala. On the construction of the building was expended 249,000 rubles with only 100,000 paid by the government of Russian Empire. Another 108,000 rubles were paid by the Tereshchenko family who created the Museum of Western and Oriental Art in Kiev.
At first, at the first floor was located exhibition of the Russian archeologist Vikentiy Khvoyka who moved to Kiev from the Kingdom of Bohemia. The museum opened just before Christmas on 23 December 1904 as the Kiev Industrial Arts and Science museum of Emperor Nicholas II; the first director of museum became Mykola Biliashivsky. In 1936 the museum became known as the Kiev State Museum of Ukrainian Arts and in 1964 as the State Museum of Decorative Arts of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Called the Kiev City Museum of Antiques and Art, the founders set out to put together a collection of pieces representative of Ukrainian fine art. Ranging from medieval icons to portraits of military and church leaders during Cossack times, some depicting caricatures of Mamay. Present time famous artist works included those of Taras Shevchenko, Ilya Yefimovich Repin, Vladimir Borovikovsky, Vasily Andreevich Tropinin, Mykola Pimonenko, Mikhail Vrubel, Nikolai Ge, Serhiy Svetoslavsky, Oleksandr Murashko among many others.
After World War I, the museum served as the Museum of History. One of its most memorable expositions displayed an old trophy tank, lent by the Triple Entente to the White Army. After World War II the museum changed its focus back to art; the collection began to grow, with Ukrainian art coming from all areas of Ukraine, from places like Galicia. The directors obtained Ukrainian art from Moscow and St. Petersburg, as well as from Ukrainian artists living abroad in Europe and America. However, during Joseph Stalin's repression, this activity ceased, a large part of the collection was dispersed and hidden. After Ukrainian independence, the museum reached the status of a major international institution. For the first time, its collections traveled outside of the country and were exhibited in The Netherlands, France and Croatia. Today, the museum continues to expand its collection; some new additions include a unique icon relief of St. George and works by the international Kiev born pioneer of Geometric abstract art Kazimir Malevich.
The current exhibition includes over 20 thousand pieces. Among many are works by a now world-renowned constructivist Vasiliy Yermilov, Cubo-Futurist Alexander Bogomazov; the Ukrainian side is represented by works of famous Ukrainian and Russian artists such as David Burliuk, Aleksandra Ekster, Vadim Meller, Kliment Red'ko, Solomon Nikritin, Victor Palmov, Maria Sinyakova, Mikhail Boichuk, Mykola Pymonenko, Ilya Shtilman and many others. On 26 April 2014, Art retrieved from the ex-president Victor Yanukovich's home is being exhibited at the museum. Www.kiev.info Kyiv Sightseeing Guide ISBN 966-7022-29-3. Kiev Tourbook Google Books National Art Museum of Ukraine at the Museum World of Ukraine. National Art Museum of Ukraine, at Museums of Ukraine Oleg Pasichny National Art Museum of Ukraine, Welcome to Ukraine. Mykola Skyba, "The classical Ukrainian art: new format", Zerkalo Nedeli, August 19–25, 2006. Національний художній музей України: Альбом/ Уклад. Авт. ст.: Т.Рязанова, Л.Членова, О.Жбанкова та ін.- К.: Артанія Нова, 2003.- 416 с.
Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin was a Russian and Soviet painter and architect. With Kazimir Malevich he was one of the two most important figures in the Soviet avant-garde art movement of the 1920s, he became an important artist in the Constructivist movement, he is most famous for his design for The Monument to the Third International, more known as Tatlin's Tower, which he began in 1919. Tatlin was born in Moscow, his father, Evgraph Nikiforovich Tatlin, was a hereditary nobleman from Oryol, a mechanical engineer graduated from the Technological Institute in St. Petersburg and employed by the Moscow-Brest Railway in Moscow, his mother, Nadezhda Nikolaevna Tatlina, was a poet symphatizing the Narodnaya Volya revolutionary movement. After she died in 1887, his father resettled to Kharkiv, his father, by whom he lived after having failed to study in Moscow School of Painting and Architecture died in 1904, so young Vladimir had to interrupt his studies at the Kharkov Arts School and to leave for Odessa to become a merchant sea cadet.
According to his own memories and distant lands gave him both means of subsistence and source of inspiration. In 1905 he starts and in 1910 completes his studies at N. Selivestrov Penza Art School in Penza. During the summer vacations he travels to Moscow and St. Petersburg to participate in various art events. In 1911 he began his art career as an icon painter, he sang in Ukrainian and was a professional musician-bandurist, performed as such abroad. Tatlin became familiar with the work of Pablo Picasso during a trip to Paris in 1913. Tatlin achieved fame as the architect who designed the huge Monument to the Third International known as Tatlin's Tower. Planned from 1919, the monument was to be a tall tower in iron and steel which would have dwarfed the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Inside the iron-and-steel structure of twin spirals, the design envisaged three building blocks, covered with glass windows, which would rotate at different speeds. For financial and practical reasons, the tower was never built.
Tatlin was regarded as a progenitor of Soviet post-Revolutionary Constructivist art with his pre-Revolutionary counter-reliefs, three-dimensional constructions made of wood and metal, some placed in corners and others more conventionally. Tatlin conceived these sculptures in order to question the traditional ideas of art, though he did not regard himself as a Constructivist and objected to many of the movement's ideas. Prominent constructivists included Varvara Stepanova, Alexander Rodchenko, Manuel Rendón Seminario, Joaquín Torres García, László Moholy-Nagy, Antoine Pevsner and Naum Gabo. Although colleagues at the beginning of their careers and Malevich quarrelled fiercely and publicly at the time of the 0.10 Exhibition in 1915 called "the last futurist exhibition" over the'suprematist' works Malevich exhibited there. This led Malevich to develop his ideas further in the city of Vitebsk, where he found a school called UNOVIS. Tatlin dedicated himself to the study of clothes, objects and so on.
At the end of his life he started to research bird flight, in order to pursue one of the great dreams of humanity: to fly. In the year of 1930 he taught in Kiev. From 1930-ties Tatlin works for the different theatres in Moscow and during the Great Patriotic War, in Gorkiy. In 1948 he was criticized for his anti-communist stance and lost his job, but was not repressed. Tatlin was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery. Юнаков, О.. Архитектор Иосиф Каракис. Алмаз. ISBN 978-1-68082-000-3. Media related to Vladimir Tatlin at Wikimedia Commons Tatlin Playing The Bandura. Special Project of the Library of Ukrainian Art. Exhibition of Russian-Soviet artist Vladimir Tatlin in Basel — Tatlin’s “new art for a new world”
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians
Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasised speed, youth and objects such as the car, the airplane, the industrial city, its key figures were the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, Luigi Russolo. It aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of its past. Cubism contributed to the formation of Italian Futurism's artistic style. Important Futurist works included Marinetti's Manifesto of Futurism, Boccioni's sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Balla's painting Abstract Speed + Sound, Russolo's The Art of Noises. Although it was an Italian phenomenon, there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere; the Futurists practiced in every medium of art, including painting, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, urban design, film, textiles, music and cooking. To some extent Futurism influenced the art movements Art Deco, Surrealism, to a greater degree Precisionism and Vorticism.
Futurism is an avant-garde movement founded in Milan in 1909 by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Marinetti launched the movement in his Manifesto of Futurism, which he published for the first time on 5 February 1909 in La gazzetta dell'Emilia, an article reproduced in the French daily newspaper Le Figaro on Saturday 20 February 1909, he was soon joined by the painters Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini and the composer Luigi Russolo. Marinetti expressed a passionate loathing of everything old political and artistic tradition. "We want no part of it, the past", he wrote, "we the young and strong Futurists!" The Futurists admired speed, technology and violence, the car, the airplane and the industrial city, all that represented the technological triumph of humanity over nature, they were passionate nationalists. They repudiated the cult of the past and all imitation, praised originality, "however daring, however violent", bore proudly "the smear of madness", dismissed art critics as useless, rebelled against harmony and good taste, swept away all the themes and subjects of all previous art, gloried in science.
Publishing manifestos was a feature of Futurism, the Futurists wrote them on many topics, including painting, religion and cooking. The founding manifesto did not contain a positive artistic programme, which the Futurists attempted to create in their subsequent Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting; this committed them to a "universal dynamism", to be directly represented in painting. Objects in reality were not separate from one another or from their surroundings: "The sixteen people around you in a rolling motor bus are in turn and at the same time one, ten four three; the motor bus rushes into the houses which it passes, in their turn the houses throw themselves upon the motor bus and are blended with it."The Futurist painters were slow to develop a distinctive style and subject matter. In 1910 and 1911 they used the techniques of Divisionism, breaking light and color down into a field of stippled dots and stripes, adopted from Divisionism by Giovanni Segantini and others. Severini, who lived in Paris, attributed their backwardness in style and method at this time to their distance from Paris, the centre of avant-garde art.
Severini was the first to come into contact with Cubism and following a visit to Paris in 1911 the Futurist painters adopted the methods of the Cubists. Cubism offered them a means of expressing dynamism, they painted modern urban scenes. Carrà's Funeral of the Anarchist Galli is a large canvas representing events that the artist had himself been involved in, in 1904; the action of a police attack and riot is rendered energetically with broken planes. His Leaving the Theatre uses a Divisionist technique to render isolated and faceless figures trudging home at night under street lights. Boccioni's The City Rises represents scenes of construction and manual labour with a huge, rearing red horse in the centre foreground, which workmen struggle to control, his States of Mind, in three large panels, The Farewell, Those who Go, Those Who Stay, "made his first great statement of Futurist painting, bringing his interests in Bergson and the individual's complex experience of the modern world together in what has been described as one of the'minor masterpieces' of early twentieth century painting."
The work attempts to convey feelings and sensations experienced in time, using new means of expression, including "lines of force", which were intended to convey the directional tendencies of objects through space, "simultaneity", which combined memories, present impressions and anticipation of future events, "emotional ambience" in which the artist seeks by intuition to link sympathies between the exterior scene and interior emotion. Boccioni's intentions in art were influenced by the ideas of Bergson, including the idea of intuition, which Bergson defined as a simple, indivisible experience of sympathy through which one is moved into the inner being of an object to grasp what is unique and ineffable within it; the Futurists aimed through their art thus to enable the viewer to apprehend the inner being of what they depicted. Boccioni developed these ideas at length in his book, Pittura scultura Futuriste: Dinamismo plastico. Balla's Dynamism of a Do