click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Alexander Dallas Bache

Alexander Dallas Bache was an American physicist and surveyor who erected coastal fortifications and conducted a detailed survey to map the mideastern United States coastline. An army engineer, he became Superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey, built it into the foremost scientific institution in the country before the Civil War. Alexander Bache was born in Philadelphia, the son of Richard Bache, Jr. and Sophia Burrell Dallas Bache. He came from a prominent family as he was the nephew of Vice-President George M. Dallas and naval hero Alexander J. Dallas, he was the grandson of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Dallas and was the great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin. After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1825, as first in his class, he was an assistant professor of engineering there for some time; as a second lieutenant in the United States Army Corps of Engineers, he was engaged in the construction of Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island. Bache resigned from the Army on June 1, 1829.

Bache was a professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania from 1828 to 1841 and again from 1842 to 1843. He spent 1836 -- 1838 in Europe on behalf of the trustees of. Abroad, he examined European education systems, on his return he published a valuable report. From 1839 to 1842, he served as the first president of Central High School of Philadelphia, one of the oldest public high schools in the United States. In 1843, on the death of Professor Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler, Bache was appointed superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, he convinced the United States Congress of the value of this work and, by means of the liberal aid it granted, he completed the mapping of the whole coast by a skillful division of labor and the erection of numerous observing stations. In addition and meteorological data were collected. Bache served as head of the Coast Survey for 24 years, he was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1845.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh on March 15, 1858, a Foreign Member of the Royal Society on May 24, 1860. After the Civil War, Bache was elected a 3rd Class Companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States in consideration of his contributions to the war effort, he married Nancy Clark Fowler on September 30, 1838, at Rhode Island. She died on January 13, 1870, in Philadelphia, she assisted in the publication of much of his work. They were the parents of Henry Wood Bache, he died at Newport, Rhode Island, on February 17, 1867, from "softening of the brain". He was buried in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D. C. under a monument designed by architect Henry Hobson Richardson. Two survey ships were named for him, the A. D. Bache of 1871 and its successor in 1901; the cydippid ctenophore Pleurobrachia bachei A. Agassiz, 1860 was named for him. Loma Prieta peak in the Santa Cruz mountains once bore his name - Mount Bache; the name is no longer in use.

Alexander Dallas Bache Monument – Bache's tomb in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D. C.. Alexander Dallas Bache School, Philadelphia Alexander Bache U. S. Coast Survey Line Richard Bache – Bache's paternal grandfather. S. ed. "Alexander Dallas Bache", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 196 Jansen, Alexander Dallas Bache: Building the American Nation through Science and Education in the Nineteenth Century Book, New York / Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, p. 352, ISBN 978-3-593-39355-1 Slotten, Hugh Richard, Patronage and the Culture of American Science: Alexander Dallas Bache and the U. S. Coast Survey, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43395-9 J. C. "Obituary: Alexander Dallas Bache", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 28: 72–75, retrieved March 5, 2008 Reingold, Nathan, "Alexander Dallas Bache", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 1, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 363–365, ISBN 0-684-10114-9 Heyl, PR, "The One Hundredth Anniversary Of The Establishment Of The Alexander Dallas Bache Magnetic Observatory", Science, 93: 272–273, Bibcode:1941Sci....93..272H, doi:10.1126/science.93.2412.272, PMID 17834787 Odgers, Merle M. Alexander Dallas Bache: Scientist and Educator, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press Gould, Benjamin Apthorp, An Address in Commemoration of Alexander Dallas Bache: Delivered August 6, 1868, Before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Mass.: Essex Institute PressAttribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Bache, Alexander Dallas", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3, Cambridge University Press, pp. 131–132 Finding Aid to Alexander Dallas Bache Papers, 1821–1869 National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir The Bache Years Alexander Dallas Bache: Leader of American Science and Second Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey (National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Free City of Danzig Government in Exile

The Free City of Danzig Government in Exile or the Free State of Danzig, is a self-declared government in exile which claims sovereignty over the territory of the defunct Free City of Danzig. The Free City of Danzig was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig and nearly 200 towns in the surrounding areas, it was created on 15 November 1920 in accordance with the 1919 Treaty of Versailles after the end of World War I and was under League of Nations protection. The Free City was inhabited by ethnic Germans but the majority fled or were expelled when the territory was incorporated into Poland at the conclusion of World War II. On 13 November 1947, W. Richter, the chairman of the Association of Nationals of Danzig Free State, announced the formation of a government-in-exile for the Free City of Danzig; the government made pleas to the United Nations, calling for official recognition, the deportation of Poles from its claimed territory, assistance in reestablishing the Free City.

Richter announced that the association would accept a settlement from the international community that would grant them an alternative territory in a center of commerce. The legislative body of the government in exile, the Rat der Danziger, was established that year. In 1951 and 1961, it was recognized in secret by Danzig expatriates as the "legal successor of the Senate of the Free City of Danzig." The Free State of Danzig government is based in Germany. It respects the original Constitution of the Free City of Danzig; the official government website is run by the incumbent Head of Foreign Affairs, Senator Ernst F. Kriesner; the government's legislature takes the form of a parliament, the Rat der Danziger, which has 36 members and claims to represent the interests of German Danzigers. Members of the council are elected by Danzig expatriates and their descendants by a mailed-in ballot. A formal letter was sent to the United Nations in 1998 by Senator Kriesner requesting official recognition. Writing on the lack of official German recognition of the Free City of Danzig Government in Exile, Polish Foreign Minister Władysław Bartoszewski stated that the organization and like-minded Danzig cultural associations were seen in the eyes of the German public as revanchist and politically aligned with the far-right National Democratic Party of Germany.

The government lays claims to the entire territory once possessed by the Free City of Danzig. It bases the legitimacy of its assertion upon the notion that the Free City of Danzig was a neutral state and that its annexation by Germany in 1939 was illegal. In addition to this, no formal treaty has altered the status of the Free City of Danzig, its incorporation into Poland has rested upon the general acquiescence of the international community. Free State of Danzig Application for UN Membership Official website campaign for UN Membership EXEKUTIVORGAN DES RATES DER DANZIGER Official Council YouTube channel 2016 Council elections website LEITPOLITIK DES RATES DER DANZIGER/BASIC POLITICS OF THE DANZIG COUNCIL Official taxation law

Symphony No. 3 (Raff)

Symphony No. 3 in F major, Im Walde, was composed by Joachim Raff in Wiesbaden in 1869 and was premiered in 1870 in Weimar. Along with his Fifth Symphony, it was one of his most successful and performed works during his lifetime and it earned him a reputation as a symphonist. An American critic named it "the best symphony of modern times" while Hans von Bülow described the symphony's success as "colossal", it was published in 1871 by Kistner of Leipzig. A typical performance lasts for about 45 minutes; as a Romantic, Raff was inspired by nature. As such, six of his nine programme symphonies are related to nature; the symphony is scored for piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B-flat, 2 bassoons, 4 horns in F, 2 trumpets in F, 3 trombones, timpani and strings. The symphony is structured in three parts and four movements: Part I I. Impressions and Feelings: Allegro Part II II. Dreaming: Largo III. Dance of the Dryads: Allegro assai Part III At Night. Stillness of the night in the forest. Entry and departure of the wild hunt, with Lady Holle and Wotan.

Day-break: Allegro The symphony was enthusiastically received by the audience at that time, spread to England and America and was one of the most played orchestral pieces in the world at the end of the 19th century, which it owed to its dramatic musical pictorialism. At the premiere on Easter Sunday, April 17, 1870 in Weimar, a "whirlwind of enthusiasm went through the concert hall" and Raff was "celebrated with frenetic cheers" by the audience. Hans von Bülow described the success of the Third Symphony as "colossal", an American music critic called Im Walde "the best symphony of modern times. In recent years, the symphony enjoys some popularity again, measured by increasing sales and new recordings. Notes SourcesDearling, Robert. Raff: Symphonies Nos 3 & 4. Hyperion Records. CDH55017. Retrieved 2017-02-25. Fifield, Christopher; the German Symphony between Beethoven and Brahms: The Fall and Rise of a Genre. Routledge. ISBN 9781317030393. Goepp, Philip H.. Symphonies And Their Meaning. Philadelphia: J. B.

Lippincott Company. Symphony No.3 in F major, Op.153: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project

Oban railway station

Oban railway station is a railway station serving Oban in Scotland. It is the terminus of one branch of the scenic West Highland Line 101.3 miles north of Glasgow Queen Street. It was the terminus of the Callander and Oban Railway. Services are operated by Abellio ScotRail. Oban station provides interchange with the adjacent ferry terminal, offering connections to a number of destinations in the Inner and Outer Hebrides via ferry services operated by Caledonian MacBrayne. Known as the "Gateway to the Isles", Oban is Cal Mac's busiest ferry terminal, Oban station opened on 1 July 1880. A ticket platform was located on the west side of about 1⁄2 mile to the south. Just south of there, a short branch line diverged to the east, towards a goods yard and engine shed. Two additional platforms were constructed on the west side of the station in 1904, following the opening of the branch from Connel Ferry to Ballachulish. Following closure of the goods yard and engine shed, a rail-connected oil storage depot occupied part of the site for a number of years, although this has itself since closed.

Since 1982, only the 1904-built platforms remain in use. The present small station building was opened on 3 January 1986, the occasion being marked by the naming of two Class 37 locomotives. Despite it being a listed building, the original station building was subsequently demolished. Since its opening on 1 July 1880, the single line between Dalmally and Oban was worked by the electric token system, this being the first application of that system in everyday service. Oban had two signal boxes, namely Oban Station signal box, Oban Goods Junction signal box; the latter was situated about 1⁄4 mile further south, where the line to the goods yard and engine shed diverged from the single line. The original signal boxes contained 5 levers, respectively; the single line between the two boxes was doubled in 1881. In connection with the station's enlargement, Oban Station Signal Box was replaced in 1904; the new box contained a frame of 64 levers, subsequently shortened to 48. Oban Goods Junction S. B. was replaced in 1929.

Oban Goods Junction S. B. closed on 4 May 1969. Oban Station S. B. closed on 5 December 1982, when a'no signalman' system of electric token working was introduced on the section from Taynuilt signal box. The last remaining semaphore signals were removed at that time, including the signal gantry; the Radio Electronic Token Block system was introduced in 1988 and the Train Protection & Warning System was installed in 2003. In 2019, Monday to Saturdays, there are seven trains per day with six trains going onwards to Glasgow Queen Street, one train operating as far as Dalmally on weekday afternoons. On Sundays, there are three trains per day all year round to Glasgow Queen Street. Oban station is located next to Oban ferry terminal. Caledonian MacBrayne ferries sail daily from here to the islands of Lismore, Islay, Tiree, to Craignure on Mull, to Castlebay on Barra and to Lochboisdale on South Uist; the times of connecting trains to/from Glasgow Queen Street are included on Cal Mac timetables. In 2005 a new ferry terminal was opened, in 2007 a second linkspan opened, allowing two vessels to load/unload at the same time.

Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Fryer, Charles; the Callander and Oban Railway. Oxford: Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-8536-1377-X. OCLC 21870958. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137

The Amazing Race 3

The Amazing Race 3 is the third installment of the US reality television show The Amazing Race. This season featured 12 teams of two people with a pre-existing relationship in a race around the world, making it the first season to have 12 teams as opposed to the usual 11, it premiered on October 2, 2002 and ended on December 18, 2002. Friends Flo Pesenti and Zach Behr were the winners of this Race, with Flo becoming the first female winner in the show's history; the third season of The Amazing Race spanned a total of 41,000 miles across four continents and 12 countries. Unlike previous seasons, all of the twelve countries were newly visited to the show. Filming began on August 9, 2002 and finished on September 7, 2002. During Leg 3, Dennis and Andrew won the Fast Forward, yet were eliminated on the same leg—a first in the show's history; this would not happen again until Leg 10 of The Amazing Race 20, 17 seasons later. This team received headlines before the season began due to Dennis being a conservative Southern Baptist and Andrew an gay cheerleader.

Andrew returned to blog on CBS.com's Return of the Racers for seasons 9, 10, 11. During Leg 4, Heather and Eve were the first team to arrive at the Pit Stop in Portugal, but they misread a clue that told them to walk to the Pit Stop rather than take a taxi, they proceeded to walk the rest of the way, but received a seven-minute time penalty for the advantage gained, plus an additional 30 minutes. Since all of the other teams arrived at the Pit Stop less than 37 minutes afterward and Eve became the first team to arrive first at a Pit Stop yet still be eliminated. Heather and Eve stated in interviews that one of the production crew traveling with them told them it was OK to take the cab, though production has stated that this is not true, would be irrelevant in any case because the clues are not open to subjective directions. During Leg 5, teams were required to drive marked vehicles more than 100 miles from Portugal to the port in Algeciras, Spain. Four of the eight teams incorrectly fueled their cars using unleaded gasoline instead of diesel, causing the cars to become inoperable.

The four stricken teams handled the situation differently: Teri and Ian recovered immediately when Ian borrowed a siphoning line from a gas station, drained the tank, refilled with diesel. During Leg 6, Andre and Damon were detained when their taxi took them far out of the way in Morocco and they encountered a local official who wanted to seize their passports. Andre and Damon refused, the show's security team had to come help them out of the situation. During Leg 6, John Vito and Jill's car broke down. Per Race rules, a new car was provided at their request, but no time credit is issued for this circumstance. During the legs in Vietnam, all route markers were colored solid yellow instead of yellow; this was done to avoid confusion with the former South Vietnamese national flag, red and yellow. During post-race interviews for the premiere episode of All-Stars, Ian claimed that they were less than 2 minutes behind Flo & Zach at the Finish Line; the cast of The Amazing Race 3 was increased to 12 teams and included soccer moms, law school graduates, a Vietnam War veteran, a pair of model twins.

Jill and her brother F. T. applied for Season 1, but after F. T was killed on 9/11, John Vito and Jill applied in remembrance of him. John Vito and Jill subsequently hosted a show. Teri and Ian, along with John Vito and Jill were selected to compete in The Amazing Race All-Stars among a cast of returning teams from seasons 1-10. Zach worked on NBC's production crew for the 2004 Summer Olympics, he married Elyse Steinberg in Hopewell Junction, New York and is now a camera operator for MTV. Michael and Kathy are now parents. Aaron accidentally stumbled upon one of the Pit Stops of Season 6 while backpacking in Europe. Flo and Drew got together dated for several years after the Race ended, they declined to race in the All-Stars because Flo thought the Race brought out the worst in her, because she did not want to do the Race without Zach, not asked to join All Stars. Flo is now Dan Abrams's girlfriend and the couple announced in January 2012 that they were expecting their first child; this season featured Singaporean TV star Gurmit Singh, who handed the clues during the Leg 10 Detour.

Miss Singapore Universe 2001 Jaime Teo appeared as the local greeter in the Singapore leg. This season had four official sponsors, Royal Caribbean International, American Express and T-Mobile. Royal Caribbean provided prizes in vacation tours to each team. In 2003, this series of The Amazing Race won the inaugural Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Reality/Competition Program; the complete season was released on DVD on November 22, 2011 on Amazon.com via their CreateSpace program. The following teams participated in the Race, listed along with their respective placements in each leg and relationships as identified by the program. Note that this table is not reflective of al

Childbirth in Benin

Childbirth practices in Benin are influenced by the sociopolitical structure of the country. About 50 cultural groups are represented in Benin, with the most numerous being the Fon, Adja and Batombu/Bariba; the population of Benin is estimated at 9,325,032, with 42% of the population living in urban environments and a 4% rate of urbanization. Benin ranks 163rd out of 177 in the United Nations Human Development Index. Forty-four percent of the population is under age 15, 34.7% is literate. The practice of polygamy persists. Between 1996 and 2006, the percentage of men in polygamous marriages went from 33% to 26%, in women it went from 50% to 42%. On average, women marry by ages 18–19, men marry by age 25. Many languages are spoken in Benin. Fon and Yoruba are most prevalent in the south, while the north has about 6 main indigenous languages. Since independence on August 1, 1960, Benin has provided a model of democracy in West Africa. In December 1990, the constitution that determines the current electoral regime was established.

The constitution ensures universal suffrage. Fifteen departments were recognized in 1999 in an effort to decentralize governing bodies. Agriculture continues to be the primary economic activity in Benin; the country exports cotton and palm products and focuses domestically on corn, manioc, beans and sorghum. Industries such as textiles, food processing, construction materials, cement constitute the greatest portion of the industrial sector. Religions practiced in Benin include the following: Christian, Vodoun, "other". Of the percentage that identify as Christian, 27.1% are Catholic, 5% are Celestial, 3.2% are Methodist, 2.2% are other Protestant. In Benin, people who practice on religion such as Christianity or Islam may have had significant influence from traditional religious beliefs, such as vodoun, practice aspects of vodoun along with Christianity or Islam. Benin is bound by the Atlantic Ocean to the south, Togo to the west, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north, Nigeria to the east; the climate is tropical: heat and humidity persist for most of the year.

The average temperature is 25 °C, with temperatures peaking in dipping in August. July to October marks the rainy season. Health and illness are closely related to spiritual beliefs and practices in Benin; the practices of vodoun and traditional medicine reflect spirituality in illnesses as well as in cures. Among the Bariba in the north of Benin, folk illnesses are identified as those groups of symptoms for which allopathic medicine provides neither an etiology nor a cure. Explanations of such illnesses are spiritual in nature, deriving from the ill will of another person or an interaction with certain elements of nature. With colonialism came the advent of hospitals to treat illnesses and in which women would give birth. Consumers of traditional medicine have expressed skepticism of hospitals because local healers are known to keep secrets well, while providers in hospital settings developed a reputation of non-adherence to patient confidentiality. Traditionally, healers in northern Benin would not ask for money for services, but rather patrons would offer them gifts when treatments were administered.

The advent of hospitals and their associated fees presented a model of health care, counter-intuitive to the Bariba people. The maternal mortality ratio in Benin has been estimated between 473 and 990 deaths per 100,000 live births; the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys maternal mortality estimate for Benin is 498 deaths per 100,000 live births. Infant mortality is estimated at 61.56 deaths per 1,000 live births. Life expectancy at birth is 59.84 years. The fertility rate in Benin is 5.31 children per woman. HIV/AIDS incidence is 1.2%, which means about 60,000 people Benin are living with HIV/AIDS. The under-5 mortality rate decreased from 160 deaths per 1,000 in 2001 to 125 deaths per 1,000 in 2006.<USAID2008/> Between 1982 and 1996, fertility declined only modestly and concentrated in younger women, from 6.4 to 5.2 children per woman in cities and from 7.4 to 7 children per woman in rural areas. The mean ideal family size in 1982 was 7.4 children and in 1996 dropped to 5.8 children. Overall contraceptive use in Benin is estimated at 16%, most of this percentage is due to periodic abstinence and withdrawal.

In 2006 it was estimated that 6% of married women use a modern method of contraception, 30% of married women desire to limit and/or space their pregnancies but do not use a modern contraceptive. Since 2003, female genital mutilation in any form was deemed illegal in Benin; some forms of female genital mutilation continue to be practiced in the north of the country, 13% of women reported in 2006 that they had undergone some form of genital mutilation. Bariba women have the highest percentage of female circumcision, 74%. Other groups in the north still practice forms of genital mutilation, including the Fulas and Yoa/Lokpa. Female circumcision was not reported among the Adja. Of the women who reported having undergone a form of female circumcision, 49% had the procedure done before age 5. Though 76% of people in Benin live within 5 km of the nearest health facility, only 44% of this population use their services. Among the top reasons for visits to the health center are malaria, acute respiratory infections, diarrhea.

These three illnesses are responsible for 70% of visits to health centers and 65% of deaths under age 5. A strong percentage o