click links in text for more info

Alexander Danilovich Menshikov

Prince Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimus, Prince of the Russian Empire and Duke of Izhora, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Cosel. A appreciated associate and friend of Tsar Peter the Great, he was the de facto ruler of Russia for two years. Menshikov was born on 16 November 1673 in Moscow. Historian Paul Bushkovitch argues that Menshikov was not an aristocrat and was most descended from servants of the palace stables, who among others made up the first soldiers of Peter's'toy armies.' As the legend goes, he was making a living on the streets of Moscow as a vendor of stuffed buns known as pirozhki at the age of twenty. His fine appearance and witty character caught the attention of Franz Lefort, Peter's first favourite, who took him into his service and transferred him to the tsar. On the death of Lefort in 1699, Menshikov succeeded him as confidant, he took an active part in the Azov campaigns against the Ottoman Empire.

During the tsar's first foreign tour in the next year, Menshikov worked by his side in the dockyard of Amsterdam, acquired a thorough knowledge of shipbuilding and colloquial Dutch and German. He acted as subordinate to Boris Sheremetev, commander-in-chief during the retreat before Charles XII in 1708, subsequently participating in the battle of Holowczyn, the reduction of Mazepa, the crowning victory of Poltava, where he won his field-marshal's baton. Around 1706 he had a conflict with Andrew Vinius. From 1709 to 1714 he served during the Courland and Pomeranian campaigns, but as governor-general of Ingria, with unlimited powers, was entrusted with a leading part in the civil administration. Menshikov understood the principles on which Peter's reforms were conducted and was the right hand of the tsar in all his gigantic undertakings, but he abused his powerful position, his corrupt practices brought him to the verge of ruin. Every time the tsar returned to Russia he received fresh accusations of plunder against "his Serene Highness."Peter's first serious outburst of indignation was due to the prince's looting in Poland.

On his return to Russia in 1712, Peter discovered that Menshikov had turned a blind eye to wholesale corruption in his own governor-generalship. Peter warned him "for the last time" to change his ways. Yet, in 1713, he was implicated in the "Solovey process", in the course of which it was demonstrated that he had defrauded the government of 100,000 roubles, he only owed his life on this occasion to a sudden illness. On his recovery Peter's fondness for his friend overcame his sense of justice. In 1714 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In the last year of Peter's reign new allegations of fraud by Menshikov came to light, he was obliged to appeal for protection to the empress Catherine, it was chiefly through the efforts of Menshikov and his colleague Tolstoi that, on the death of Peter, in 1725, Catherine was raised to the throne. Menshikov was committed to the Petrine system, he recognised that, if that system were to continue, Catherine was, at that particular time, the only possible candidate.

Her name was a watchword for the progressive faction. The placing of her on the throne meant a final victory over ancient prejudices, a vindication of the new ideas of progress, not least security for Menshikov and his ill-gotten fortune. During Catherine's short reign, Menshikov was the absolute ruler of Russia, he promoted himself to the unprecedented rank of Generalissimus, was the only Russian to bear a ducal title. Upon finishing the construction of the Menshikov Palace on the Neva Embankment in St Petersburg, Menshikov intended to make Oranienbaum a capital of his ephemeral duchy. Pushkin in one of his poems alluded to Menshikov as "half-tsar". On the whole he ruled well, his difficult position serving as some restraint upon his natural inclinations, he contrived to prolong his power after Catherine's death by means of a forged will and a coup d'état. While his colleague Peter Tolstoi would have raised Elizabeth Petrovna to the throne, Menshikov set up the youthful Peter II, son of the tsarevich Alexei, with himself as dictator during the prince's minority.

He now aimed at establishing himself by marrying his daughter Mary to Peter II. But the old nobility, represented by the Dolgorukovs and the Galitzines, united to overthrow him, he was deprived of all his dignities and offices and expelled from the capital. Subsequently, he was deprived of his enormous wealth, stripped of the titles, he and his whole family were banished to Beryozovo in Siberia, where he died on 23 November 1729, his wife Darya Mikhailovna died on their way into exile in 1728 near Kazan. According to Simon Sebag Montefiore in his book "The Romanovs 1613–1918" Menshikov was once punched twice by Tsar Peter the Great, once in the nose and once on the side of the head, after Tsar Peter saw Menshikov dancing with his sword still on, considered rude and offensive. In Beryozovo Menshikov built a wooden church, he buried his daughter. Menshikov's younger children survived the exile and were returned to the court. Princess Maria Alexandrovna died of smallpox in exile. Princess Alexandra Alexandrovna (17 Dec

Papyrus 125

Papyrus 125, designated by P 125, is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the First Epistle of Peter. To the present day survived only pieces from one leaf of the codex; the surviving texts of 1 Peter are verses 1:23-25. The manuscript palaeographically has been assigned to the 4th century; the text is written in one column per 30 lines per page. The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Alexandrian text-type, it was published by D. Obdink in 2009; the manuscript is housed at the Papyrology Rooms of the Sackler Library at Oxford with the shelf number P. Oxy. 4934. List of New Testament papyri Oxyrhynchus Papyri Biblical manuscript Obdink D. N. Gonis, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri LXXIII, pp. 17–22, Pl. II-III. Leuven Database of Ancient Books Entry P. Oxy. LXXII 4934 from Papyrology at Oxford's "POxy: Oxyrhynchus Online". "Continuation of the Manuscript List" Institute for New Testament Textual Research, University of Münster. Retrieved September 9, 2009

Quiet Time

Quiet time stated as heart-to-heart time, or one-on-one time with the creator, is a regular individual session of Christian spiritual activities, such as prayer, private meditation, worship of God or study of the Bible. The term "quiet time" or "sacred time" is used by 20th-century Protestants evangelical Christians, it is called "personal Bible study" or "personal devotions". Rick Warren points out that it has been called "morning watch" and "appointment with God". Practices vary according to denominational tradition: Anglican devotions, for example, will include the use of prayer beads, while Catholics use the term mental prayer and the practice was discussed in the works of John Cassian in the 5th century. Billy Graham suggested that quiet time consists of three main elements: prayer, Bible reading, meditation, he mentioned that many Christians accompany these three elements with journaling. Proponents of the concept point out that Jesus spent time alone in prayer: Luke 5:16 says that "Jesus withdrew to lonely places and prayed".

Leslie Hardin suggests that this was Jesus' Quiet Time: spending time in prayer and fellowship with God. The first mention of the term "quiet time" was in the late nineteenth century. By the 1940s, the quiet time had supplanted the Keswick concept of the morning watch as the most promoted pattern for private prayer among evangelical Protestants in England and North America; the concept of the morning watch had viewed prayer as petitionary prayer or prayer requests. The quiet time, in contrast, brought Bible study and meditation into the practice and placed the emphasis on listening to God. There was still time for requests, but they now were accompanied by Bible reading, prayers of praise, confession of sin, prayers of thanksgiving and listening to God; the quiet time was therefore quieter, hence the name. First developed in Christian and Missionary Alliance circles, the quiet time was promoted by modernist Protestants like Harry Fosdick, as well as by the Oxford Group and Samuel Shoemaker, an instrumental figure in the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous.

But the real rise of the quiet time began with InterVarsity Christian Fellowship's 1945 publication of the booklet Quiet Time. Popularized by InterVarsity among evangelical university students, other neo-evangelical campus ministries adopted the practice, including The Navigators and Campus Crusade for Christ. Adopted by Billy Graham in the 1950s, the quiet time became the most popularized evangelical Protestant devotional practice from the middle of the twentieth century to the present. Jerry and Becky Evans argue that the Quiet Time is a time of encouragement and insight to the Christian, "spiritual food" for a person’s soul, they suggest that it is a "time of complete focus on God" that "continues throughout a person’s entire life."Keith Newman suggests that as well as including conscious study and expressive prayer, a quiet time is a time of open-minded listening and waiting for guidance. Rick Warren argues that there is a difference between reading the Bible during quiet time and Bible study.

Many devotional books, or "devotionals", are available in shops today. These books contain directed Bible studies incorporating stories or anecdotes that convey Biblical principles, similar to the parables used by Jesus in his ministry. A notable example is My Utmost for His Highest, written by Oswald Chambers. Many Christian stores dedicate an entire section to these types of books, but in some countries they are available at secular stores as well shelved in the "inspirational" section; some Christian communities have Bible reading schedules, like the one suggested in the Bible Companion, for example, as one tool to help them with their study of the Bible. Such schedules take people systematically through the entire Bible, reading four chapters per day, which allows the reader to keep context in their studies through the different books of the Bible, ensures different areas are not neglected. Robert Murray M'Cheyne designed a system for reading through the Bible in one year; the plan entails reading the New Testament and the Psalms through twice a year, the Old Testament through once.

This program was included in For the Love of God by D. A. Carson and is recommended by several Bible publishers, such as the English Standard Version and the New English Translation. More two similar one-year Bible-reading devotionals by Eliot Young, The Word at Work and The Spirit at Work, suggest three psalms per day, thus providing for a minimum of seven psalm-cycles per year; the use of study Bibles is popular. Evangelical theologian Greg Johnson criticizes the way the concept is sometimes treated by evangelicals as a law instead of a means of grace. While advocating a life of prayer and biblical contemplation, his concern is that personal devotions not become a performance treadmill in which Christians feel their daily acceptance with God is based on what they do instead of what Christ did, he emphasizes that the practice of the quiet time is not commanded in the Bible, was not possible for many centuries, until the printing press and certain economic conditions enabled most Christians to own their own copies of the Bible.

The prophet Daniel met with God three times a day to talk to God and listen to Him. In addition, King David mentions his times alone with God throughout the Psalms; the Gospels record that Jesus Himself withdrew to met in a quiet, isolated place with His Father on a regul


Shike-michi is a small historical street in Nishi-ku, Nagoya in central Japan. The district was founded for merchants at the time when Nagoya Castle was constructed as the seat of the Owari lords in 1610 CE, following the move from the town of Kiyosu; the move from Kiyosu to Nagoya was called "Kiyosu goshi". The merchants who lived and worked here traded in rice, sake, salt and wood; the Hori River was used as a transportation commerce began to flourish. A large fire in 1700, called Genroku-no-Taika, destroyed a large number of merchant houses and 15 temples and shrines in Nagoya; as a result, Tokugawa Yoshimichi, the 4th lord of Owari, decided to widen the back street that runs parallel to the Hori Canal. The measurements are four ken, around 7 metres; the warehouses were constructed with plaster walls on the east side as a protection against future fires. It took around 40 years to complete the whole area. Most houses that are standing date to 1740; the city designated the townscape as a historic conservation district on June 10, 1986.

Access by public transport is Marunouchi Station on the Tsurumai Line or Kokusai Center Station on the Sakuradori Line. An interesting feature on a warehouse is the rooftop shrine, called Yanegami; this rooftop deity honours Tsushima and Atsuta Shrines. A small altar erected on the roof is a Nagoya custom, it is a means to ward off disease and disasters, reflects the great devotion of ordinary people. The Gojō bridge over the Hori River is located at the northern end of the street; the name is thought to date back to time of the migration of the seat of government from Kiyosu to Nagoya in 1610 CE. The original bridge was said to have spanned the Gojō River in front of the Kiyosu Castle; the wooden bridge was replaced in 1938 with a concrete one. The inscription on the ornamental metal knobs are inscribed with "Gojō Bridge, Keicho 7, Year of the Tiger, Lucky Day." Located at the southern end of the street is the Shinto Fuji Sengen Shrine. Media related to Shikemichi at Wikimedia Commons Shikemichi

Castelmur Castle (Bondo)

Castelmur Castle is a castle in the village of Bondo in the municipality of Bregaglia of the Canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance; the fortifications at Castelmur may be, after the Three Castles of Bellinzona, the most important example of medieval valley fortifications in modern Switzerland. The castle site has fortified since at least the Roman era; the important trade road over the Septimer Pass runs through the Val Bregaglia. At Bondo the valley narrows leaving a narrow passage between the Maira river and a large rocky outcropping, making the castle site an ideal location for a customs station and fortification; the Romans built a guard station and village named "Murus" according to the 3rd century Itinerarium Antonini. The foundations of several buildings as well as one building's hypocaust and two small votive altars have been excavated from the Roman settlement. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire the Castelmur next appears in 842 as castellum ad Bergalliam.

At that time it was held by Constantius of Sargans. It included. In 960 Emperor Otto I granted the castle and right to collect tolls to the Bishop of Chur to help secure this important alpine trade route. In 988 Emperor Otto III confirmed his grandfather's grant to the Bishop and mentioned both the castle and the nearby Nossa Donna Church; the current tower was built around 1200. Over the following centuries the Bishop of Chur and the town of Chiavenna quarreled over Castelmur and in 1121 or 1122 the town captured the castle. However, Pope Callixtus II forced Chiavenna to return the castle to Chur. In 1190 the Bishop granted the castle to Castelmur, his descendants ruled over the castle until 1264 when Albertus Popus Castelmur stole cattle from the nobles of Chiavenna and Piuro, led to an invasion and the castle being conquered in 1268. These nobles held the Castelmur for four years before returning it to the Castelmurs in 1272. Around 1340 the Bishop reclaimed the castle and mortgaged it to the Planta family for 200 Marks.

To discourage the Planta family from trying to annex the lucrative castle and tolls, in 1410 the Bishop mortgaged it to Jacob Perutt von Castelmur for 150 Gulden. Twenty years the Bishop used a loan from the Salis family to buy out the mortgage and give it to them. In 1490, for the last time, the Bishop gave the castle to Michel Pfannholz. However, he left the castle to fall into ruin; the castle ruins were cleaned in the 19th century by Baron Giovanni de Castelmur. In addition to the castle, he rededicated the nearby church of S. Maria; the church's bell tower is a Romanesque construction, but much of the church itself, including the nave are from this 19th century renovation. The church was first mentioned in 988; the original fortification was a wall or letzi that straddled the valley between the Maira river and the castle hill. This wall, up to 3.7 meters thick, had a gate that could be blocked by logs if needed. The remains of this wall are north-west of the main tower. In the 12th century a square tower with a ring wall were built on top of the steep outcrop.

This tower allowed a noble family to take up residence and changed Castelmur from a toll collecting station into a regional administrative center. The five story square tower was 12 m on a side with 2.4 m walls on the lowest story. Much of this tower is still visible; the castle church was built below the castle hill south of the main tower. At some point, a second tower was added on a tall hill south of the main tower; this building measured about 10 m × 10 m, though little of it still remain. List of castles in Switzerland


Henry Kõrvits, better known by his stagename Genka is an Estonian rapper, record producer and actor. Henry Kõrvits' father is musician Harry Kõrvits and his grandfather was composer and musicologist Harri Kõrvits, he Began rapping in 1996 along with Revo and DJ Paul Oja, Genka's schoolmate. Together they started, their first album The Real Kuhnja Homophobes was released next year. In 1998, Genka and Revo joined another Estonian rap group, A-Rühm, Toe Tag went on vacation. Genka started making his own solo songs; the most famous hit was "Tallinn", rapped along with Droopy in 2001. During the same year Toe Tag started a big Estonian tour. In 2004, Toe Tag released their second studio album Legendaarne; the most famous songs from the album were "Legendaarne" and "Pankrot". In 2006, Genka and A-Rühm released their new album Leegion; the most famous songs from this album were "Palmisaar" and "Tugitooli Gangster". Genka and DJ Paul Oja started Legendaarne Records. Genka and A-Rühm were the warm-up performers for 50 Cent on his 2007 Europe promo tour for the Curtis album in Tallinn.

Legendaarne Records Genka discography at MusicBrainz Henry Kõrvits discography at MusicBrainz Genka on IMDb