The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Alexander Dennis Enviro400
The Alexander Dennis Enviro400 is a twin-axle double-decker bus built by Alexander Dennis since 2005 in Guildford, England. The second generation Enviro400 MMC was launched in 2014 followed by the Enviro400H City for the London market in 2015, all variants of the Enviro400 are offered as a diesel-electric hybrid bus, known as the Enviro400H. The Enviro400 is available both as a bus and as a standalone bodywork and chassis. Sometimes the Enviro400 can be made as a closed top bus or an open-top double-decker bus. The Enviro400 was originally launched as an integral product, soon after launch, the Enviro400 chassis became available with East Lancs Myllennium Lolyne and Optare Olympus bodywork. As well as a bus, the Enviro400 body was available on Scania N-series chassis. The vast majority of N-series Enviro400s built were of the N230UD variant, two N-series Enviro400s were built on the more powerful N280UD variant of the chassis - CY12EMS and CX14EMS, both for Express Motors of Porthmadog. As well as the Scania N-series, a single Enviro400 was constructed on Volvo B7TL chassis before this chassis was succeeded by the Volvo B9TL, the facelift coincided with the introduction of a Euro 5 compliant drivetrain for the Enviro400.
On 1 May 2014, the second-generation Enviro400 was announced by Alexander Dennis, with including a complete body redesign. Amongst the first operators to order Enviro400 MMC were Go-Ahead, the Enviro400 MMC is available on Scania N-series chassis, as with the previous model, although the N230UD chassis variant has now been phased out in favour of the N250UD. Stagecoach became the first customer to operate the Enviro400 MMC on N250UD chassis in 2016, an overhauled version of the Enviro400 MMC, named the Enviro400H City, was unveiled at Bus and Coach Expo in October 2015. It is aimed at the London market, and has styling cues from the New Routemaster, Arriva London were the first to operator to operate the Enviro400H City, on route 78. The Enviro400H City is only sold as a hybrid and is mainly offered in the London market. Globally, more than 8,500 integral Enviro400s have been sold as of January 2016, London operator Metroline was the first company to order the Enviro400, with the first of 28 entering service in January 2006.
Both prototypes were exhibited at Coach & Bus Live 2005 in the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham, UK, the Enviro400 had sold well in London with a number of operators, such as Travel London and London General, operating these buses. It is popular with Stagecoach, who placed its first order of 130 low-height models in February 2006, on 13 October 2006, Solent Blue Line received a Volvo B7TL/Enviro400 meeting the Euro III emission standard, with the interior in Wilts & Dorset livery. This remains a one-off as all subsequent Enviro400s on Volvo chassis were built on the B9TL chassis, an Arriva demonstrator was shown at Euro Bus Expo in 2006 to the latter standard. East Yorkshire Motor Services took delivery of 5 Enviro400-bodied Volvo B9TL in December 2007, Stagecoach announced on 28 February 2007 that it had ordered 25 Enviro400s with Scania N230UD chassis, which were subsequently delivered in early 2008
Dennis Specialist Vehicles
Dennis Specialist Vehicles Limited was a major British manufacturer of specialised commercial vehicles based in Guildford, England. The company was best known as the manufacturer of engines, although its other major product lines were buses, dustcarts. They made their first motor vehicle in 1898, and in 1899, their first car, though shown at the National Cycle Show and they entered car production around 1900. Larger models followed with a 35 hp model in 1906 powered by a White and Poppe engine, commercial vehicle activity was increasing with the first bus being made in 1903 and fire engine in 1908. Cars soon took place and it is doubtful if any were made after about 1915. In 1913 Dennis Brothers moved to a new larger building of almost four acres on a twelve acre site at Woodbridge on the outskirts of Guildford leaving Onslow Street solely for repairs. The rate of expansion of the business may be gauged from the expansions at Woodbridge in 1907,1910. In mid-1913 an offer of shares to the made the business owner a public listed company.
At that time the business was described as manufacturers of motor-vans, motor-lorries, motor-fire-engines, wartime production was reduced to military lorries for the War Office and the Dennis turbine fire engine. New buildings were added to contain the manufacture of munitions and Poppe in Coventry has always supplied engines for Dennis Brothers motor vehicles. It had been under consideration from before the war and it was announced in April 1919 that Dennis Brothers and White, the fact being to give Dennis Brothers a controlling interest in the other company. Mr White and Mr Poppe joined the Dennis Brothers board. the Karnataka Fire and Emergency Services owns a pumper that was built by Dennis Brothers and delivered to the erstwhile Kingdom of Mysore in 1925 from England. In 1972 the company was acquired by Hestair Group and renamed Hestair Dennis after a few years of financial difficulties and it was sold to Trinity Holdings in 1989 and to Mayflower Corporation in October 1998. Dennis Bus - manufacturer of buses and other transport vehicles Dennis Eagle - manufacturer of dustcarts/refuse lorries.
This company incorporated the remains of the Eagle Engineering and Shelvoke, Dennis Group plc owned Duple Metsec, the bus bodywork builder which usually supplied body kits for assembly overseas. Mayflower Corporation sold Dennis Eagle in July 1999 and purchased by Ros Roca in 2006, Dennis Bus and Dennis Fire were incorporated into Transbus International in 2001. Dennis fire engines were noted, from the outset, for their use of a pump or turbine as a water pump. This was more complex to build than the piston pumps
Denis Alexander is the Emeritus Director of the Faraday Institute for Science and Religion at St Edmunds College, Cambridge, a molecular biologist and an author on science and religion. He is an editor of Science and Christian Belief, Alexander was an Open Scholar at Oxford, where he studied Biochemistry. He studied for a PhD in Neurochemistry at the Institute of Psychiatry, Alexander has stated that he believes that the Bible is the inspired Word of God from cover to cover and that this position is consistent with his support for evolution. A renowned critic of intelligent design, Alexander has written that is not science and he gives an overview of his position in his article and Evolution in The Blackwell Companion to Science and Christianity. Science provides us with a narrative as to how may happen. Alexander has been quoted in books as Dawkins God, Memes. He makes an appearance in the documentary film The Trouble with Atheism and he has debated atheist philosophers and scientists such as P. Z.
Myers and Stephen Law on whether belief in God is compatible with modern science. Alexander has contributed to and written articles for the Biologos foundation and he given numerous lectures at the Veritas Forum where he contends that modern science is compatible with Christian belief. Beyond Science, Lion Publishing Rebuilding the Matrix – Science and Faith in the 21st Century, Lion Publishing, Oxford, UK, can We Be Sure About Anything. Science and Postmodernism, Nottingham, UK, Science and Ethics, Grid or Gridlock, Denis Alexander & Robert S. White, Hendrickson, ISBN 978-1-59856-018-3 Creation and Evolution, Do We Have to Choose. Numbers The Language of Genetics – an Introduction, Templeton Foundation Press Creation and Evolution, Do We Have to Choose
It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have called the pound. At various times, the sterling was commodity money or bank notes backed by silver or gold. The pound sterling is the worlds oldest currency still in use, the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and Jersey produce their own local issues of sterling, the Guernsey pound and the Jersey pound. The pound sterling is used in the Isle of Man, the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, and regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Sterling is the fourth most-traded currency in the exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those three currencies it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights, Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves. The full, official name, pound sterling, is used mainly in formal contexts, otherwise the term pound is normally used.
The abbreviations ster. or stg. are sometimes used, the term British pound is commonly used in less formal contexts, although it is not an official name of the currency. The pound sterling is referred to as cable amongst forex traders, the origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the dollar/pound sterling exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex brokers are sometimes referred to as cable dealers, as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived, silver coins known as sterlings were issued in the Saxon kingdoms,240 of them being minted from a pound of silver. Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in pounds of sterlings, in 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection. And because the Leagues money was not frequently debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the Easterlings, and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called Easterlings Hall, or Esterlingeshalle.
For further discussion of the etymology of sterling, see sterling silver, the currency sign for the pound sign is £, which is usually written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. The ISO4217 currency code is GBP, the abbreviation UKP is used but this is non-standard because the ISO3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes, GGP, JEP, stocks are often traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices. A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, since decimalisation in 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 pence. The symbol for the penny is p, hence an amount such as 50p properly pronounced fifty pence is more colloquially, quite often, pronounced fifty pee /fɪfti, pi and this helped to distinguish between new and old pence amounts during the changeover to the decimal system
A fire engine is a vehicle designed primarily for firefighting operations. In addition, many fire departments/fire services often employ their vehicles for other uses including emergency medical services. The terms fire engine and fire truck are used interchangeably. The primary purposes of an engine include transporting firefighters to an incident scene, providing water with which to fight a fire. Many fire vehicles are based on standard vehicle models and they are normally fitted with audible and visual warnings, as well as communication equipment such as two-way radios and mobile computer technology. The standard fire engine is an apparatus designed primarily for firefighting operations, the tools carried on the fire engine will vary greatly based on many factors including the size of the department and what sort of terrain the department must handle. For example, departments located near bodies of water or rivers are likely to have some sort of water rescue equipment. Standard tools found on all fire engines include ladders, hydraulic rescue tools, fire hose, fire extinguishers, self-contained breathing apparatus.
The exact layout of what is carried on an engine is decided by the needs of the department, some fire engines have a fixed deluge gun, known as a master stream, which directs a heavy stream of water to wherever the operator points it. An additional feature of engines are their preconnected hose lines, commonly referred to as preconnects, the preconnects are attached to the engines onboard water supply and allow firefighters to quickly mount an aggressive attack on the fire as soon as they arrive on scene. The name is derived from the fact that the ladder is mounted on a turntable on the back of a truck chassis. To increase its length, the ladder is telescopic, modern telescopic ladders are either hydraulic or pneumatic. These mechanical features allow the use of ladders which are longer and they may have pre-attached hoses or other equipment. A ladder can be mounted behind the cab and this is sometimes called mid-ship and the arrangement allows a lower travel height for the truck, and can be more stable in certain conditions.
In some cases, there may be a monitor at the top of the ladder for ease of use, other appliances may simply have a track-way which will hold a manually-run hose reel securely, and prevent it from falling to the ground. In the United States, a truck, known as a tractor-drawn aerial, tiller ladder. Unlike a commercial semi, the trailer and tractor are permanently combined and it has two drivers, with separate steering wheels for front and rear wheels. One of the features of the tiller-truck is its enhanced maneuverability
Duple Metsec is a former bus bodywork builder based in West Midlands of England in the United Kingdom. It usually supplied body kits for bus assembly overseas and it was originated from the bus body manufacturing business of Metal Sections, known as TI Metsec in the late 1970s, the present day Metsec plc. Metal Sections, as the name suggests, produced prefabricated sections of metal for customers for a variety of products. In the early days, Metal Sections was not involved in the bus business, after supplying framing sections for other bus body builders. The business was acquired by Duple Coachbuilders in 1980/1981, Duple Metsec became a subsidiary of Hestair Group in 1983 and subsidiary of Trinity Holdings in 1989. When Duple Coachbuilders was closed by Trinity Holdings in 1989, Duple Metsec was not closed, in October 1998, it was acquired by Mayflower Corporation. The factory of Duple Metsec was closed after the formation of TransBus International in 2001, the Duple Metsec R bodywork was built for various types of single-deckers.
The Duple Metsec W bodywork was built for full-front double-deckers, in the late 1970s, the bodywork was modified with rubber mounted windows. Duple Metsec W bodywork was built until circa 1998, the first Duple Metsec W bodywork built for Dennis Dragons/Condors was built in 1982, which was built on one Dennis Condor prototype with China Motor Bus, Hong Kong. But CMB finally chosen the complete MCW Metrobus to meet its demand of 3-axle buses, the W bodywork was modified and supplied to a number of Dennis Dragons for Kowloon Motor Bus, Hong Kong. After the MCW Metrobus ceased production in 1989, CMB began to receive Dennis Condors with Duple Metsec W bodywork, in 1989, the first Duple Metsec W bodywork for air-conditioned Dennis Dragons/Condors was built on a prototype air-conditioned Dennis Dragon for KMB. The body pillars had been re-located and the air ducts for the system were fitted on the ceilings of both saloons, near the side windows. Subsequent non-air-conditioned W bodywork built had similar design and were supplied to CMB, KMB.
CMB was the first to buy air-conditioned Dennis Condors with Duple Metsec W bodywork due to competition from Citybus, the specification of these remained the same for subsequent batches until the chief engineer in 1996 managed to specify gasket glazing without opening vents in them. The order for the year went further and specified bonded glazing. KMB started to acquire air-conditioned Dennis Dragons with Duple Metsec W bodywork, starting from 1993, KMB acquired the unique 9. 98-metre Dragons with Duple Metsec W bodywork. After Citybus took over 28 routes from China Motor Bus in 1993, however Citybus had slightly different needs compared to the other two operators, and they had no space or inclination to assemble their own vehicles. Duple Metsec therefore had to find a party who would be willing to assemble their body kits on the Dennis Dragon chassis and eventually Salvador Caetano in Porto
The Alexander ALX400 is a 2-axle double-decker bus body built by Walter Alexander Coachbuilders. Released in 1997, it replaced the aging Alexander R-series bodies and was fitted to chassis, including the Dennis/TransBus Trident, the DAF/VDL DB250LF. It proved a big success with national operators, huge numbers serve London, from its introduction until 2006, it had been the favoured 2-axle double-decker bus model for the Stagecoach Group. The ALX400 was a big hit with Dublin Bus of Ireland,648 of them were fitted on Volvo B7TL chassis, AV 1-448 were Volvo B7TL chassis, and AX 449-648 were on B7TL MKII chassis. During 2003 an order was placed for 10 TransBus Trident/ALX400 versions known as DT 1-10 to compare against the AV class with a view to splitting future orders. Most of these featured 76 seat single door bodies although there were various seating capacities for on a minority used. Summerhill based AV 116-130 were built with dual door bodies for use on the Airlink services, various seating configurations were available, with Transport for London specification models fitted with a central exit door.
There are typically 45 seats on the deck, and between 17 and 22 seats on the lower deck. Longer models for use elsewhere have up to 47 seats on the upper deck, Stagecoach subsidiaries outside London have ALX400s on long-wheelbase Dennis Trident chassis, fitted with 51 seats upstairs and 28 downstairs. In late 2005 Alexander Dennis launched the Enviro400 model, intended as a replacement for the ALX400, but in 2006, new ALX400s were still entering service with Stagecoach and Arriva. Production of the ALX400 bodywork ceased after the delivery of these 100 ALX400-bodied Volvo B7TL in late 2006, list of buses ALX400 flickr gallery
Stagecoach Group plc is an international transport group operating buses, trains and express coaches. The group was founded in 1980 by current chairman Brian Souter, his sister Ann Gloag, the group is headquartered in Perth and operates subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, United States and Canada. Stagecoach operates around 8,100 vehicles and covers over 90 major towns and cities in the United Kingdom, Stagecoach UK Bus employs 18,000 people. In North America, Stagecoach owns the Coach USA and Coach Canada brands, previous operations in Australia, Hong Kong, Malawi, New Zealand and Sweden have been sold. The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the FTSE250 Index, anns accountant brother Brian Souter joined the firm and expanded the business into bus hire. Robin Gloag subsequently sold his shareholding in the business and ceased any involvement in 1982 with the collapse of his marriage to Ann, for a while, they offered a very personal service with Brian Souter doing the driving and Ann Gloag making up sandwiches and snacks for the passengers.
Its early success allowed Stagecoach to take advantage of the privatisation of the national bus groups, several firms were purchased from the National Bus Company, Scottish Bus Group, London Buses and various city councils. The company consolidated its operations during the 1990s by purchasing ex NBC and SBG bus companies that had purchased by management. Stagecoach left the long distance coach market in 1988 when it sold its operations to National Express. It was sold to a management buyout before being purchased by Stagecoach in August 1996, in April 2000 Stagecoach sold Porterbrook to Abbey National for £773 million. In 1997 Stagecoach won the franchise to operate the Sheffield Supertram system, from the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive, when Stagecoach took over the system, it was struggling, both financially and in terms of attracting passengers, but it is now an extremely popular and successful operation. Stagecoach took another turn in 1998, when it purchased Scotlands Prestwick Airport for £41 million, by the summer of 1999, the company was rumoured to have been offered some £80 million for Prestwick.
They sold the airport in January 2001 to concentrate on surface transport, on 21 November 2005 Stagecoach announced the sale of its New Zealand operations to Infratil. On 14 December 2005 Stagecoach purchased Barnsley based Traction Group for £26m, Traction operated 840 buses in South and West Yorkshire and Angus. Traction was the largest remaining privately owned independent bus operator in the UK, in September 2005, following competition with its Megabus coach operation, Stagecoach launched a joint venture with Scottish Citylink coaches. After a competition enquiry, in October 2006 Stagecoach was instructed to sell some of the Scottish coach services, Stagecoach are active in the rail industry, currently operating the South West Trains franchise and having a 49% stake in Virgin Rail Group. In 2007 the group won the right to take over the part of the old Central Trains franchise, in July 2007, Stagecoach commenced operating the Manchester Metrolink tram network. In January 2009, Stagecoach bought Preston Bus, a rival in the Lancashire area
Citybus (Hong Kong)
Citybus Limited is one of the three major bus operators in Hong Kong. It provides both franchised and non-franchised bus service, the franchised route network serves mainly Hong Kong Island, cross-harbour routes, Ocean Park, North Lantau and Hong Kong International Airport. The non-franchised routes serve mainly City One Sha Tin and it provides bus rental services and staff bus services for some large companies such as TVB and China Light and Power. The company is owned by Chow Tai Fook Enterprises and NWS Holdings. From 1984 to 2001 the company offered a service between Hong Kong and China using mainly Leyland Olympians, but this was discontinued due to stiff competition. However, in 2007, Citybus began operating route B3, which goes to Shenzhen Bay Port. Citybus was founded on 5 August 1979 by former China Motor Bus employee Lyndon Rees with one Volvo B55 double deck bus, in 1981 it commenced operating a residential bus route between City One Shatin and Kowloon Tong MTR station. In 1982, the United Transport group purchased a 49% shareholding, in 1985, the company introduced five air-conditioned Olympian coaches.
Since it has continued to expand its fleet of air-conditioned buses, in the late 1980s, Citybus was purchased by Tsui Tsin-tongs CNT Group. It commenced operating bus services with 100 new Olympians linking housing estates to MTR stations. In December 1990, Citybus launched Capital Citybus in London with an all-yellow livery for the routes in North and East London and this was sold to FirstGroup in July 1998 and renamed First Capital. In 1991, the Hong Kong Government awarded Citybus its first franchised route, 12A on Hong Kong Island, in September 1993 Citybus took over 26 franchised routes from China Motor Bus after winning a competitive tender. These were branded as Network 26, to operate these a fleet of 101 Leyland Atlanteans was purchased from Singapore Bus Service. A further 14 franchised routes were awarded to the company in 1995 without tendering, during these years Citybus expanded its penetration of the Hong Kong Island market pushing nearly all China Motor Bus routes into low profitability.
In 1998 the airport Cityflyer service commenced, which is part of Citybus and is used for Airport express routes to the city. The Cityflyer service consisted of a series of four routes, A11, A12, A21 and A22, Citybus operates various Overnight Airport routes and Airport Shuttle Routes. In 1998, following the expiry of the franchise of China Motor Bus, citybuss fleet was up to 1,100 buses. The remaining routes of China Motor Bus were transferred to a new operator and its business was expanded into mainland China with a joint venture operation in Beijing through Citybus Limited
Hong Kong Fire Services Department
Hong Kong Fire Services Department of the Hong Kong Government is an emergency service responsible for fire-fighting and rescue on land and sea. It provides an emergency service for the sick and the injured. The Hong Kong Fire Services Department is under the Secretary for Security who heads the Security Bureau, Headquarters is located at Fire Services Headquarters Building,1 Hong Chong Road, Tsim Sha Tsui East, Kowloon West. The history of the Hong Kong Fire Service began in the Government Gazette dated May 9,1868, Charles May became the first Superintendent of the Fire Brigade. At the time, the Fire Department was part of the Hong Kong Police Force in 1846 and it had a total strength of 62 with a supplement of 100 Chinese volunteers. The fire department expanded to 140 members during the 1920s, during the Japanese Occupation during the World War II, the Service disbanded. The two fire engines were exported to Tokyo to become part of the Imperial Palace Fire Unit and it was only returned after the War.
Unlike Canada, UK and some countries, Hong Kongs ambulance service is tied directly with the Fire Department, at that time all emergency ambulance service was provided by the Fire Service while non-emergency was handled by the Medical Corps. In 1953, this policy was changed and all Medical Corps vehicles, leading to the creation to the present Ambulance Command. Over the past 50 years it has grown to accommodate 30 ambulance depots,240 ambulances,35 motorcycles and 2,350 uniformed staff. It is organised into seven commands － three operational commands, a Licensing and Certification Command, a Fire Safety Command, an Ambulance Command and they are supported by an Administration Division. Commanding the department is the Director of Fire Services, fire-fighting and other emergency services are undertaken by the three operational commands － Hong Kong and the New Territories. There are 81 fire stations across Hong Kongs 3 operational commands, in 2004, they responded to 35,092 fire calls and 20,059 special service calls.
Careless handling or disposal of cigarette ends and candles remained the major causes of fires, followed by incidents involving the preparation of food, fires claimed nine lives and 451 injuries in 2004. Of the injured,46 were Fire Services personnel, in 2004,717 people died and 1,995 others were injured in such incidents. One of the dead and 16 of the injured were Fire Services personnel, the department has 835 operational appliances and vehicles fitted with up-to-date fire-fighting and rescue equipment. The services fleet consists of 268 ambulances, four village ambulances, all motorcycles and ambulances are equipped with paramedic facilities to provide paramedic care. In 2004, the Command responded to 574,901 calls, conveying a total of 521,127 patients or casualties to hospitals/clinics, there were 106 cases of ambulance personnel sustaining injury whilst on active duty in 2004
The Dennis Dart is a rear-engined single-decker bus chassis that was manufactured by Dennis in Guildford, England. More than 11,000 were produced during 18 years of production, most were purchased by United Kingdom operators, although examples were sold to the North America, Hong Kong and Singapore. The Dennis Dart was conceived when Hestair Group decided to produce a bus between a minibus and a full-sized single-decker and it was launched in 1988 and was originally offered with the Duple Dartline bodywork. It was 2. 3m wide and was available in the length of 9m. It was powered by a Cummins 6BT engine and coupled to the Allison AT545 gearbox and this model was sold to London Buses and to some operators outside London. Soon after it was launched, Duple was sold to Plaxton, Plaxton decided not to acquire the design rights of the Duple Dartline and it was sold to Carlyle Works, who continued producing the bodywork from 1991. Production passed to Marshall of Cambridge in 1992 who bodied five Darts to this design, in 1993, Marshall updated the design to the C36 and later, the C37.
In 1990, Wadham Stringer became the builder to body the Dart with a body called the Portsdown. In the same year, Wright bodied the Dart with the Handybus, in early 1991, Plaxton launched the Pointer. Later in 1991, East Lancs bodied the Dart with its EL2000, in the latter half of 1991, Alexander launched the Dash. Another contender entering the market at the time was the Northern Counties Paladin. Initially, it was built with a design of a barrel shaped windscreen with quarterlights and it was phased out when Plaxton bought Northern Counties in 1995. In 1995, Dennis launched a version of the Dart, the Dennis Dart SLF. It was 2. 4m wide and initially offered in lengths of 9. 2m, 10m and 10. 6m, the driveline of the step-entrance Dart was retained, although some early examples were fitted with Eaton manual transmission. It was initially offered with the low floor version of the Pointer and it was offered with a wide variety of bodies, namely the East Lancs Spryte, UVG Urbanstar, the Wright Crusader, Alexander ALX200, Marshall Capital, Caetano Nimbus and MCV Evolution.
Some Dart SLFs with Alexander ALX200 bodies were delivered to the North America, in 1997, the Dart SPD was launched with the length of 11. 3m. It has a powerful engine and a more heavy duty Allison World Series B300R gearbox. Originally offered only with Plaxton Pointer 2 bodywork this larger bus was offered with other such as East Lancs, the Alexander ALX200