Alexander Dennis Enviro400

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Alexander Dennis Enviro400
Tower Transit electric Enviro400 MMC on route 69 at Canning Town station in December 2015
Lower deck interior of an Arriva North West first generation Enviro400
ManufacturerAlexander Dennis
Body and chassis
DoorsSingle or dual door
Floor typeLow floor
ChassisAlexander Dennis Enviro400
Scania N230UD
Scania N250UD
Scania N280UD
Volvo B5LH
Volvo B7TL
Volvo B9TL
Volvo B8L
EngineCummins ISBe/ISCe/ISLe (Enviro400)
MAN D0836 (Enviro400)
Volvo D7C (Volvo B7TL)
Volvo D5K (Volvo B5LH)
Volvo D9B (Volvo B9TL)
Volvo D8K (Volvo B8L)
Scania DC9 (Scania N-series)
Electric motor2 x BYD 150kW In-Wheel (EV)
Capacity64–90 seated
Battery320kWh Lithium Iron Phosphate (EV)
Range303km (EV)
Length10.1 m (33 ft 2 in) to
11.4 m (37 ft 5 in),13.4 m (44 ft 0 in) (XLB Tri-Axle)
Width2.55 m (8 ft 4 in)
Height4.2 m (13 ft 9 in) to
4.3 m (14 ft 1 in)
Curb weight11 tonnes (10.8 long tons; 12.1 short tons)
PredecessorAlexander ALX400,
Dennis Trident 2,
Plaxton President

The Alexander Dennis Enviro400 is a twin-axle or three-axle double-decker bus built by the British bus manufacturer Alexander Dennis since 2005 in Guildford, England. The second generation Enviro400 MMC was launched in 2014 followed by the Enviro400H City for the London market in 2015. All variants of the Enviro400 are also offered as a diesel-electric hybrid bus, known as the Enviro400H. In 2018 Alexander Dennis launched the Enviro400EV electric variant using a powertrain and battery from BYD[1], and the three-axle Enviro400XLB on the Volvo B8L chassis.

The Enviro400 is available both as an integral bus and as a standalone bodywork and chassis. The Enviro400 chassis replaced the Dennis Trident 2 (and continued to be badged as the Trident for a time) and was formerly available with East Lancs Myllennium Lolyne and Optare Olympus bodywork; the Enviro400 body replaced the Alexander ALX400 and Plaxton President designs and is sold on Scania N-series, Volvo B5LH, and the three-axle Volvo B8L chassis, as well as formerly the Volvo B7TL and B9TL chassis.

First generation (2005–2015)[edit]

The first production Enviro400, Stagecoach 19000 Spirit of London, new in 2005, photographed in 2014

The first Enviro400 was delivered to Stagecoach London in December 2005 to replace the Alexander ALX400-bodied Dennis Trident 2 that was destroyed in the 7 July 2005 bombings, with the replacement bus being named the "Spirit of London" as a result.

The Enviro400 was originally launched as an integral product. Soon after launch, the Enviro400 chassis became available with East Lancs Myllennium Lolyne and Optare Olympus bodywork.

As well as an integral bus, the Enviro400 body was available on Scania N-series chassis. The vast majority of N-series Enviro400s built were of the N230UD variant, which sold well with Stagecoach Group. Additionally, two N-series Enviro400s were built on the more powerful N280UD variant of the chassis, both for Express Motors of Porthmadog.[2]

As well as the Scania N-series, a single Enviro400 was constructed on Volvo B7TL chassis before this chassis was succeeded by the Volvo B9TL, on which more examples of the Enviro400 were bodied.

2009 facelift[edit]

A facelifted first generation Enviro400 operated by First Greater Manchester

Alexander Dennis released a facelifted version of the first generation Enviro400 at Coach & Bus Live in 2009, with the main external visual differences being the incorporation of a line of white LED daytime running lights underneath the headlights in the main front light clusters, redesigned front bumpers and the relocation of the offside emergency exit door. The facelift coincided with the introduction of a Euro 5 compliant drivetrain for the Enviro400.

The facelifted first generation Enviro400 was sold alongside the original first generation Enviro400 until 2015, when both were discontinued in favour of the second generation Enviro400 MMC, Enviro400H MMC and Enviro400H City.

Second generation (2014–present)[edit]

On 1 May 2014, the second-generation Enviro400 (also known as the Enviro400 MMC) was announced by Alexander Dennis, with changes including a complete body redesign and Euro VI engines as standard.[3]

The Oxford Bus Company was the first company to operate the Enviro400 MMC, followed by Go-Ahead, Stagecoach and Reading Buses.[4]

The Enviro400 MMC is also available on Scania N-series chassis, as with the previous model, although the N230UD chassis variant has now been phased out in favour of the N250UD. Stagecoach became the first customer to operate the Enviro400 MMC on N250UD chassis in 2016. Additionally, the Enviro400 MMC body is also offered on a gas-powered version of the N280UD chassis, as the first gas-powered double-decker bus offered in the United Kingdom market; Reading Buses has announced an order for an unconfirmed number of these.

The Enviro400 MMC is also offered on Volvo B5LH hybrid chassis, which has so far sold in higher quantities than the previous model on the B7TL and B9TL combined, particularly with larger groups like Stagecoach.

Enviro400H City[edit]

Arriva London Enviro400H City on route 78 in Shoreditch in December 2015

An overhauled version of the Enviro400 MMC, named the Enviro400H City, was unveiled at Bus and Coach Expo in October 2015. It is aimed at the London market, and has styling cues from the New Routemaster and Enviro200 MMC. Arriva London was the first to operator to operate the Enviro400H City, on route 78.[5] The Enviro400H City is only sold as an integral hybrid and is mainly offered in the London market, to directly compete with the New Routemaster.

Blackpool Transport became the first operator outside London to order the Enviro400 City in January 2016 for the 9 service, to be upgraded to high-specification Palladium standard with the arrival of the new buses.[6]

Nottingham City Transport ordered 53 of these buses to be powered by gas. It was part of the OLEV bidding and the buses entered service in Summer 2017.


In 2018 Alexander Dennis launched the Enviro400EV electric variant using a powertrain and battery from BYD.[7] This 10.9 meter long variant is due to enter service in 2019 with Metroline in London[8] and is the 2nd EV bus model from Alexander Dennis following 2016's launch of the Enviro200EV.[9] The chassis, motor and battery are adapted from BYD's K10 10.2 meter RHD doubledecker (in service with Metroline in London since 2015[10]) which achieves a 303km service range from a 320kWh lithium iron phosphate battery and two 150kW motors.[11]


Alexander Dennis also launched the three-axle Enviro400XLB in 2018, on the Volvo B8L chassis, with an initial order of 42 vehicles for Lothian Buses. These 100-seat vehicles are intended for British and Irish operators who benefit from the XLB's high degree of commonality with other Enviro400 variants - the Enviro500 has a different body structure and is intended for international markets.[12]


Globally, more than 6,000 integral Enviro400s have been sold as of January 2016.[2]

United Kingdom[edit]

London operator Metroline was the first company to order the Enviro400, with the first of 28 entering service in January 2006. One dual door demonstrator, named "Spirit of London", was delivered to Stagecoach London to replace the Dennis Trident destroyed during 7 July 2005 London bombings[13] and a single door demonstrator was delivered to the then Travel West Midlands for evaluation. Both prototypes were exhibited at Coach & Bus Live 2005 in the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham, UK and then entered service in January 2006.

The Enviro400 had sold well in London with a number of operators, such as Travel London and London General (which received the first Euro IV-engined Enviro400 in May 2006), operating these buses. It is also popular with Stagecoach, which placed its first order of 130 low-height models in February 2006, later followed by another 389 buses with Euro IV/V engine. Arriva also received Enviro400s for its UK operations, Arriva Merseyside relaunched its Wirral - Liverpool 'Cross River' services with a batch of 23 in January 2009. A further batch of 12 was allocated to Bootle depot in September 2009 originally for the cross-Liverpool trunk service 60 linking Bootle with Aigburth. However a much larger order of 128 Enviro400s was placed by Arriva for its Merseyside division from the Autumn of 2014 onwards with significant numbers in service at Bootle, Green Lane, St Helens, Southport and Speke depots and including five MMC examples delivered to Bootle in the Spring of 2017.

On 13 October 2006, Solent Blue Line received a Volvo B7TL/Enviro400 meeting the Euro III emission standard, with the interior in Wilts & Dorset livery. This remains a one-off as all subsequent Enviro400s on Volvo chassis were built on the B9TL chassis. An Arriva demonstrator was shown at Euro Bus Expo in 2006 to the latter standard.

East Yorkshire Motor Services took delivery of five Enviro400-bodied Volvo B9TL in December 2007, which entered service in January 2008. London General also received three Enviro400-bodied Volvo B9TLs in October 2008, which are being evaluated against integral Enviro400s and Wright Eclipse Gemini-bodied Volvo B7TL/B9TLs that are extensively featured in Go-Ahead's London Central/General fleets.

Stagecoach announced on 28 February 2007 that it had ordered 25 Enviro400s with Scania N230UD chassis, which were subsequently delivered in early 2008. These were followed by another 56 for delivery in 2009, 100 for 2009/10, 100 for 2010/11, 91 for 2011/12 and 57 for 2012/13. Oxford Bus Company and Wilts & Dorset also received some examples.

A hybrid version, the Enviro400H, entered service with a number of operators including Metroline, East Yorkshire Motor Services, Reading Buses, Stagecoach London, Lothian and First Glasgow.

In 2008, one Enviro400 was built for the 2008 Summer Olympics and 2008 Paralympic Games as a handover bus.

In 2012, Southern Vectis received 20 for school contracts on the Isle of Wight. These were delivered during late December 2012 and early January 2013 and entered service on a wide variety of school services on the island from 7 January 2013. Southern Vectis then proceeded to order another 16 Enviro400s to be used on public routes, mostly route 9, with the first six going to Oxford Bus Company for a few months. Ten of these buses have been delivered and on 3 January 2014, they commenced operating.

Between 2014 and 2015 Arriva North West received a total of 128 integral Enviro400s for a number of services on Merseyside - with 28 arriving in 2014 and the remainder being delivered between January and July 2015. Arriva Buses Wales received a total of 29 high specification Enviro400s between June 2014 and March 2015 for deployment on two new Sapphire services between Rhyl and Llandudno and Chester and Connah's Quay respectively.

Stagecoach is currently receiving a total of 76 Enviro400s for services with Stagecoach London, Stagecoach North West and Stagecoach South West.

Enviro400 MMC[edit]

An Enviro 400 MMC operated by Stagecoach Merseyside

In 2015, National Express West Midlands took delivery of 106 Enviro400 MMC, 58 of which for its new Platinum range of services.[14] Stagecoach is currently in the process of receiving a total of 136 examples for services with Stagecoach London, Stagecoach Manchester, Stagecoach South East, Stagecoach East Scotland and Stagecoach in Oxfordshire as well as a single demonstrator vehicle whilst Cardiff Bus has received 10 examples. It is only available in United Kingdom.

In 2016, National Express West Midlands took delivery of a further 96 examples for its expanding Platinum range of services; they were launched on routes 126, 529, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X14 and X61 (now withdrawn).

In 2017, Southern Vectis took delivery of the MMC version to launch at the same time as its new ticket machines. National Express West Midlands again purchased a further 38 examples for its Platinum range. They were delivered throughout December 2017. All 38 were intended for the Harborne corridor in Birmingham.


Irish state run operator Dublin Bus was the first bus operator to order the Volvo B9TL-based Enviro400, ordering 50 with the first of these entering service on 14 August 2007, later followed by another 50.

Hong Kong[edit]

A Kowloon Motor Bus Enviro400 in Mong Kok, Hong Kong.

In 2009, Kowloon Motor Bus and Citybus of Hong Kong received two (one for each operator) air-conditioned Enviro400 for evaluation, both of which entered service in February 2010. Citybus introduced one more in July 2010.

In November 2010, Alexander Dennis had confirmed an extra order of 38 Enviro400s from Citybus at the press conference of Euro Bus Expo 2010 held in Birmingham, UK; these buses entered service in 2011. A further order of 20 Enviro400s had been placed and these buses started to enter service in 2013.

MTR Corporation also ordered nine Enviro400s for MTR Bus service, these buses entering service in 2012. Two more Enviro400s are entered service in 2018.

Kowloon Motor Bus received a further 50 Enviro400s between 2012 and 2013.

New World First Bus ordered 60 Enviro 400s with Facelift body (similar to Enviro400 MMC), they entered service in 2016/2017.

New Lantao Bus ordered 14 Enviro 400s with Facelift body, which similar with New World First Bus's batch. They are expected to enter service route 3M in 2018.

North America[edit]

The Enviro400 was introduced to North America exclusively as an open-top bus for sightseeing purposes. It is not available as a public transport vehicle, unlike the similar Alexander Dennis Enviro500.

On 11 November 2010, Alexander Dennis announced it had received an order for 10 Enviro400s from Coach USA subsidiary Twin America, in New York.[15]


Internal layout[edit]

Upper deck of the Enviro400

The Enviro400 features an innovative seating layout that maximises use of seating space on the lower deck by placing two forward-facing moulded seats onto the front nearside wheelarch box with a small luggage shelf on the rear half, and also (on full-height models) a single forward-facing moulded seat on the front off-side wheelarch hub between the driver's partition and the staircase.


The engine is a six-cylinder Cummins driving through a Voith or ZF automatic transmission. The maximum speed is 80 mph (129 kph). Hybrid-electric and full-electric versions of the powertrain are also available.[16]

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b "Bus Lists on the Web". Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  3. ^ "The all-new Enviro400 – designed by the industry for the industry". Alexander Dennis. 1 May 2014. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  4. ^ "£80m FLYING START FOR ENVIRO400 AS ADL ALSO CONFIRMS £175m EXPORT WINS". Alexander Dennis. Alexander Dennis. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  5. ^ "Arriva London to be the first operator of the New ADL Enviro400H City Bus". Arriva London. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  6. ^ Blackpool to take first single-door Enviro400 City Bus & Coach Professional 22 January 2016
  7. ^ "BYD ADL partnership continues the electric revolution in London with biggest part of London's first order for pure electric double deckers | Alexander Dennis". Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  8. ^ "News Center-BYD". (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  9. ^ Peterborough, Brave Creative (22 November 2016). "Alexander Dennis – Enviro200EV - Bus & Coach Buyer". Bus & Coach Buyer. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  10. ^ "World's First Zero Emission Electric Double Decker | Metroline News". Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  11. ^ "BYD Product Pages - 10.2M Double Decker for UK" (PDF).
  12. ^
  13. ^ "Mayor of London unveils 'Spirit of London' bus". Greater London Authority. 3 October 2005. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  14. ^ "Platinum Premium Bus Service - National Express West Midlands". Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  15. ^ "ADL gears up for export drive with diesel and hybrid models". Alexander Dennis. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  16. ^ "Enviro400 - Innovation with Style". Alexander Dennis. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2015.

External links[edit]