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Alexander Dubček

Alexander Dubček was a Czechoslovak and Slovak politician who served as the First Secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from January 1968 to April 1969. He attempted to reform the communist government during the Prague Spring but was forced to resign following the Warsaw Pact invasion in August 1968. During his leadership, under the slogan "Socialism with a human face", Czechoslovakia lifted censorship on the media and liberalized Czechoslovak society, fuelling the so-called New Wave in Czechoslovak filmography. However, he was put under pressure by Stalinist voices inside the party as well as the Soviet leadership, who disliked the direction the country was taking and feared that Czechoslovakia could loosen ties with the Soviet Union and become more westernized; as a result, the country was invaded by the other Warsaw Pact countries on 20–21 August 1968 ending the process known as the Prague Spring. Dubček was succeeded by Gustáv Husák, who initiated normalization.

Dubček was expelled from the Communist Party in 1970. After the overthrow of the communist regime in 1989, he was Chairman of the federal Czechoslovak parliament. In 1989, the European Parliament awarded Dubček the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought. Alexander Dubček was born in Uhrovec, Czechoslovakia on 27 November 1921; when he was three, the family moved to the Soviet Union, in part to help build socialism and in part because jobs were scarce in Czechoslovakia. In 1933, the family moved to Gorky, now Nizhny Novgorod, in 1938 returned to Czechoslovakia. During the Second World War, Dubček joined the underground resistance against the wartime pro-German Slovak state headed by Jozef Tiso. In August 1944, Dubček fought in the Jan Žižka partisan brigade during the Slovak National Uprising and was wounded twice, while his brother, Július, was killed. During the war, Dubček joined the Communist Party of Slovakia, created after the formation of the Slovak state and in 1948 was transformed into the Slovak branch of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.

After the war, he rose through the ranks in Communist Czechoslovakia. From 1951 to 1955 he was a member of the parliament of Czechoslovakia. In 1953, he was sent to the Moscow Political College, where he graduated in 1958. In 1955 he joined the Central Committee of the Slovak branch and in 1962 became a member of the presidium. In 1958 he joined the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, which he served as a secretary from 1960 to 1962 and as a member of the presidium after 1962. From 1960 to 1968 he once more was a member of the federal parliament. In 1963, a power struggle in the leadership of the Slovak branch unseated Karol Bacílek and Pavol David, hard-line allies of Antonín Novotný, First Secretary of the KSČ and President of Czechoslovakia. In their place, a new generation of Slovak Communists took control of party and state organs in Slovakia, led by Dubček, who became First Secretary of the Slovak branch of the party. Under Dubček's leadership, Slovakia began to evolve toward political liberalization.

Because Novotný and his Stalinist predecessors had denigrated Slovak "bourgeois nationalists", most notably Gustáv Husák and Vladimír Clementis, in the 1950s, the Slovak branch worked to promote Slovak identity. This took the form of celebrations and commemorations, such as the 150th birthdays of 19th century leaders of the Slovak National Revival Ľudovít Štúr and Jozef Miloslav Hurban, the centenary of the Matica slovenská in 1963, the twentieth anniversary of the Slovak National Uprising. At the same time, the political and intellectual climate in Slovakia became freer than that in the Czech lands; this was exemplified by the rising readership of Kultúrny život, the weekly newspaper of the Union of Slovak Writers, which published frank discussions of liberalization and democratization, written by the most progressive or controversial writers – both Slovak and Czech. Kultúrny život became the first Slovak publication to gain a wide following among Czechs; the Czechoslovak planned economy in the 1960s was in serious decline and the imposition of central control from Prague disappointed local Communists, while the destalinization program caused further disquiet.

In October 1967, a number of reformers, most notably Ota Šik and Alexander Dubček, took action: they challenged First Secretary Antonín Novotný at a Central Committee meeting. Novotný faced a mutiny in the Central Committee, so he secretly invited Leonid Brezhnev, the Soviet leader, to make a whirlwind visit to Prague in December 1967 in order to shore up his own position; when Brezhnev arrived in Prague and met with the Central Committee members, he was stunned to learn of the extent of the opposition to Novotný, leading Brezhnev to opt for non-interference, paving the way for the Central Committee to force Novotný's resignation. Dubček, with his background and training in Russia, was seen by the USSR as a safe pair of hands. "Our Sasha", as Brezhnev called him, became the new First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia on 5 January 1968. The period following Novotný's downfall became known as the Prague Spring. During this time, Dubček and other reformers sought to liberalize the Communist government—creating "socialism with a human face".

Though this loosened the party's influence on the country, Dubček remained a devot

Olav Rytter

Olav Rytter was a Norwegian newspaper editor, radio personality, foreign correspondent and translator. He was born in Kristiansund as the son of writer Henrik Rytter, he took his philological education at the University of Oslo and the University of Prague, having specialized in Slavic and Indic languages. He would translate several works written in such languages. After working as a teacher in the Norwegian language in Prague and Warsaw, from 1928 to 1935, he returned to Norway in 1935 to edit the newspaper Norsk Tidend, he became a member of the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights in 1936. From 1938 to 1946 he was a programme secretary in the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation; when Norway was invaded by Germany in April 1940, Rytter fled the country together with the Norwegian royal family and cabinet. After a short period in Stockholm he reunited with the Norwegian authorities-in-exile in London, where he worked for the NRK and BBC until 1944, he received basic military training, in Scotland.

He has been credited with suggesting Martin Linge as an SOE agent in the fall of 1940. In 1944 Rytter travelled to Finnmark to oversee the liberation of Northern Norway as an officer of information. Norway was liberated on 8 May 1945. From 1948 to 1963 Rytter worked with information for the United Nations, he headed their Prague information office from 1948 to 1953, helped establishing new offices in Jakarta and Afghanistan over the next years, before heading the Cairo office from 1959 to 1963. In 1963 he returned to Norway to edit the newspaper Dag og Tid, he stepped down from this position after short time, but continued working from 1964 to 1974 as a foreign correspondent. Rytter died in June 1992, he donated his entire literature collection to the University of Oslo

Southeast Chicago Observer

Southeast Chicago Observer was a semi-monthly newspaper published on Wednesdays by the Southeast Chicago Development Commission, a community development organization operating in the Southeast Side of Chicago. The newspaper covered South Chicago, East Side and Hegewisch neighborhoods. SEDCOM established the newspaper to advertise area businesses, alert residents about local services and provide local perspective on area events. With the demise of its parent organization, Southeast Chicago Observer ceased publication on October 2012, leaving Our Neighborhood Times as the Calumet region's sole newspaper. An average issue of the Observer features community news, regular columns and occasional editorials and feature stories; the Southeast HD, SEDCOM's community health initiative, puts together the Southeast HD Lifestyle section that includes health-related articles and a community calendar. For the most part, the Observer is written in English, but Lifestyle articles are written in both English and Spanish.

As of the January 28, 2012 issue, the Observer features the following regular columns: Dining Detective - features reviews of area restaurants by the pseudonymous M. Garza. Mad Money - a financial advice column by Carla Madison of Mad Money Financial. Urban Housecall - a medical advice column by Dr Karla Robinson of Urban Housecall magazine. Joe Mulac, a former president of the Southeast Chicago Historical Society, wrote a regular column called “A Look Back..." from August 8, 2001 until a few weeks before his death in June 2005. The column discussed various facets of the area history. Southeast Chicago Observer is delivered throughout the Bush, South Chicago, East Side and Hegewisch, with most copies distributed on the East Side. Out of 13,000 copies distributed each week 3,460 copies are delivered to apartment buildings and other residences – the rest are delivered to local businesses and other high-traffic locations. Observer page at SEDCOM's official website

Chaminade-Madonna College Preparatory School

Chaminade-Madonna College Preparatory is a private Marianist school located in Hollywood, United States, on Chaminade Drive, in front of Nativity Catholic School in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Miami. Covering high school and college preparatory curricula, it runs from 9th grade to 12th grade; the school has been accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools since 1921 and is a Blue Ribbon School of Excellence. In response to the growing population and the need for quality schools, the Archdiocese of Miami invited the Marianists and the School Sisters of Notre Dame to establish a school for boys, Chaminade High School, a school for girls, Madonna Academy. Under the direction of Bro. Joseph Spehar, S. M. and Sister Eugene Marie, SSND, Chaminade High School and Madonna Academy opened their doors to the South Broward and North Miami-Dade communities in 1960. In 1963, Bro. Donald Gaskill, S. M. was appointed principal of Chaminade High School to continue to establish the Marianist traditions of education, as well as reach out to the local communities.

He would remain with the appointment of Bro. Michael Galvin, S. M.. He was responsible for obtaining accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Chaminade High School was accredited for the first time in 1973. In 1973, Fr. Richard Knuge, S. M. was appointed principal. Under his administration, construction of a school chapel and library was completed; the school's Bro. Donald Winfree, S. M. supervised the construction of the Strickroth Classroom building, named in honor of Bro. John Strickroth, S. M. In 1982, Fr. Chris Conlon, S. M. was appointed principal. This same year, Bro. John Campbell, S. M. was appointed the school's first President. His primary responsibility was the spiritual well being of the school. In 1986, Bro. Raymond Purcell, S. M. succeeded Fr. Conlon as the leader of the school. Facing declining enrollment and financial difficulties, in 1988, the Archdiocese of Miami, the Superior General of the Marianists and the School Sisters of Notre Dame agreed to merge Chaminade High School and Madonna Academy.

In August 1988, Chaminade-Madonna College Preparatory was established as a coed high school. Longtime Chaminade High School teacher and administrator, Robert Minnaugh, was named principal and charged with forming a new vision. Fr. Dan Doyle, S. M. was named the first president of the new school. Fr. Richard Knuge, S. M. succeeded Fr. Doyle in 1992. In that year, Chaminade-Madonna was honored by the Department of Education with the Blue Ribbon School of Excellence Award. Four years Bro. John Campbell, S. M. was appointed president. During his tenure as president, he worked diligently with Mr. Minnaugh to complete construction of the Einstein Building and the renovation of Marianist Hall. In 1998, Robert Minnaugh announced his retirement. Longtime assistant principal Ann McGrath was named the interim principal through the 1997/1998 school year. Under some criticism, Patrick Snay was appointed principal in the summer of 1999. Under his leadership, the school's focus turned to the development of a sports program.

This included the construction of a multimillion-dollar sports complex, increased scholarship availability and other improvements that led to an award-winning program. In addition, the Learning Center was established to help students suffering from learning disabilities. In 2002, Fr. John Thompson, S. M. was appointed president of the school. His initial focus was the construction of the athletic fields; the newly renovated athletic complex was completed in December 2004. He led the school through its first Capital Campaign, highlighted by the construction of a new Fine Arts Center, a project, proposed in 1998. In July 2003, the first Hispanic principal of the school, first woman, Gloria Ramos, was appointed. In the fall of 2007, the house system was implemented; this complements the formal system of classroom education by organizing students into small groups to develop leadership skills and foster the Marianist commitment to community. On May 15, 2007, Mark Guandolo resigned as the athletic director and head football coach one year after his son graduated from C-M.

Guandolo had success as the football coach with a record of 81-13 and two state championships over seven years. In July 2008, Father Larry Doersching, S. M. was appointed President. In 2009, the Chaminade-Madonna Football team created controversy over a violation of Florida's "Mercy Rule" after defeating Pompano Beach High School's football team 83-0. Quarterback Jerrard Randall and Junior Curtis Evans led the team to the controversial victory but all the starters were taken out after the first half; the Lions Football Team finished the 2009 regular season undefeated and were District and Regional 2B Champions. Florida's mercy rule requires agreement from both head coaches to move to a running clock to begin the third quarter, moves automatically to a running clock if the margin is still 35 or more at the start of the fourth quarter. Under the adopted proposal, the running clock begins at the start of the third quarter without needing the approval of either head coach and only stops for timeouts or injuries, bringing football in line with other team sports.

This was not done in the Chaminade-Pompano Beach game. The 2009-2010 school year marked Chaminade-Madonna's 50th anniversary, it began in August 2009 with a cake cutting ceremony, an aerial photograph of students and staff forming a "50." C-M traditions and events throughout the school year continued to commemorate the rich history of Chaminade High School, Madonna Academy, C

Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Manufacturing Company

Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power & Manufacturing Company was an American company, based in Niagara Falls, New York, the first company to generate hydroelectric power from Niagara Falls in 1882. The company built upon several predecessor companies efforts to construct a canal used for hydraulic mill power. In 1918, the company merged with Niagara Falls Power Company, which became Niagara Mohawk and in 2002 was acquired by National Grid plc. In 1805, "Porter, Barton & Company," which comprised Augustus Porter, Peter Porter, Benjamin Barton, Joseph Anim, purchased the Niagara River and the American Falls from New York at a public auction; the purchase included the water rights from above the upper rapids to below the Falls. The company portaged goods by land from Lake Erie to Lewiston on the Niagara River shipped them east on Lake Ontario; when the Erie Canal opened in 1825, it made the portage obsolete and plans to develop Niagara Falls suffered. Augustus proposed a hydraulic mill canal in 1847 and offered the right of way for the canal to any person ready to build it, but the Porter brothers died before interest in the project led to construction.

In 1852, Caleb Smith Woodhull and his associates purchased the land and the water rights from the heirs of the Porter brothers with the intention to build a canal, in 1853 formed the "Niagara Falls Hydraulic Company." A grant was obtained from the owners of a strip of land 100 ft. wide extending from a point above the upper rapids to the high bank below the Falls. The company started with the construction of the canal in 1853 but stopped after sixteen months because construction costs of the canal exceeded estimates and the company went bankrupt. In 1856, Stephen N. Allen bought the company, renamed the "Niagara Falls Water Power Company." The company completed the entrance and river portion of the canal by 1857, with the exception of a narrow extension at the south end of the basin, completed in 1881. In 1860, Horace H. Day purchased the company and renamed it the "Niagara Falls Canal Company." At an investment of $1.5 million, the canal was completed in 1861, but could not be used because of the American Civil War.

After completing the canal project, it was idle until 1875 when the canal's first customer, Charles B. Gaskill's "Cataract City Milling Company", was using the water of the canal to power the milling company's flour grist mill. In 1877, as the company had only attracted one client, it was auctioned off; the company interests were bought for $71,000 by Jacob F. Schoellkopf, who in 1878 formed the "Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Manufacturing Company" to use the canal. After the transfer of the property, Schoellkopf finished the excavating, but the canal remained idle for a few years; the work on the power plant began and the canal was enlarged in 1892. By 1896, power plant number two had been completed and was supplying power to different factories about Niagara Falls. Many additions and extensions were made to the original plant, company began to work on a new plant, called plant number three, that when completed, was separate from the original plant around six or eight hundred feet to the north.

The workings of the Hydraulic company were below the first Upper Steel Arch Bridge. Plant number two, one 100 ft. by 176 ft. in dimensions, generated an average of 34,000 continuous horsepower. The entire fall of the water in the canal from the forebay to the tailrace is 210 ft; the power canal, which taps the river at a point above Port Day, runs throughout the city to a point below the Upper Steel Arch Bridge, furnished a steady supply of water year round. Just below Port Day is the beginning of the rapids, with a fall of more than 50 ft. in three-quarters of a mile. By cutting across a bend in the river the canal comes out at the cliff below the bridge the entire distance being about 4,400 ft. Built before the era of industrial production of alternating current, the electrical plant generated direct-current electricity, only provided it within a range of two miles from the plant. In 1898 the company built the Niagara Junction Railway to encourage industrial expansion in the area. In 1907, the New York Public Service Commission law was passed which regulated the rights of non-electrical corporations from engaging in the development of electric energy and distribution of it.

Therefore, the hydraulic business of "Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Manufacturing Company" became the "Hydraulic Power Company of Niagara Falls" and "Cliff Electrical Distributing Company" was formed to distribute the power. The "Hydraulic Power Company" owned the building itself, the land, the penstocks, the turbines, the water wheels; the company furnished power to many of the largest factories and industrial companies in Niagara Falls, New York. Among the company's larger contracts for power is that for the Niagara Gorge Railroad, the Aluminum Company of America, The National Electrolytic Company, many other large manufacturing interests in Niagara Falls; as of 1908, officers of the company were George B. Mathews, William D. Olmsted Arthur Schoellkopf, Paul A. Schoellkopf, John L. Harper; the board of directors was composed of George B. Mathews, William D. Olmstead, Arthur Schoellkopf, Jacob F. Schoellkopf Jr. and J. L. Romer; the "Cliff Electrical Distributing Company," was an electrical corporation organized for the sole purpose of enabling the "Hydraulic Power Company" lawfully to distribute electric power.

As of 1914, the main consumers of power from the "Hydraulic Power Company" were: Aluminum Company of America – about 70,000 horsepower Cliff E

Fourman Hill

Fourman Hill is a hill located west of Bogniebrae, Scotland. It has an elevation of 1,127 feet. A cairn near the sumit marked the historical boundary of Huntly parishes. A pretty eminent hill so called from the fact that it is the property of four Proprietors all of which, it is said, could dine on one table on the top of the hill and each proprietor seated on his own land. There is a possible site of a Roman Camp on the hill. Suggestions of a Roman road were thought to be unlikely: "There are faint traces of an old road on the Fourman Hill in this Parish, supposed to be the Roman Road which led between the Camp on the Spey and the Camp near Glenmellan in Forgue parish, the traces in this parish resemble rather those of an old bridle road than a Roman Road being only about ten to twenty links wide & crooked, no other traces whatever are visible along its supposed course in Huntly parish."