SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Alexander II of Russia

Alexander II was the emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881. He was the king of Poland and the grand duke of Finland. Alexander's most significant reform as emperor was emancipation of Russia's serfs in 1861, for which he is known as Alexander the Liberator; the tsar was responsible for other reforms, including reorganizing the judicial system, setting up elected local judges, abolishing corporal punishment, promoting local self-government through the zemstvo system, imposing universal military service, ending some privileges of the nobility, promoting university education. After an assassination attempt in 1866, Alexander adopted a somewhat more reactionary stance until his death. Alexander pivoted towards foreign policy and sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, fearing the remote colony would fall into British hands if there were another war, he sought peace, moved away from bellicose France when Napoleon III fell in 1871, in 1872 joined with Germany and Austria in the League of the Three Emperors that stabilized the European situation.

Despite his otherwise pacifist foreign policy, he fought a brief war with the Ottoman Empire in 1877–78, pursued further expansion into Siberia and the Caucasus, conquered Turkestan. Although disappointed by the results of the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Alexander abided by that agreement. Among his greatest domestic challenges was an uprising in Poland in 1863, to which he responded by stripping that land of its separate constitution and incorporating it directly into Russia. Alexander was proposing additional parliamentary reforms to counter the rise of nascent revolutionary and anarchistic movements when he was assassinated in 1881. Born in Moscow, Alexander Nikolaevich was the eldest son of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia, his early life gave little indication of his ultimate potential. In the period of his life as heir apparent, the intellectual atmosphere of Saint Petersburg did not favour any kind of change: freedom of thought and all forms of private initiative were suppressed vigorously by the order of his father.

Personal and official censorship was rife. The education of the Tsesarevich as future emperor took place under the supervision of the liberal romantic poet and gifted translator Vasily Zhukovsky, grasping a smattering of a great many subjects and becoming familiar with the chief modern European languages. Alexander's alleged lack of interest in military affairs resulted from his reaction to the effects of the unsavoury Crimean War of 1853–1856 on his own family and on the whole country. Unusually for the time, the young Alexander was taken on a six-month tour of Russia, visiting 20 provinces in the country, he visited many prominent Western European countries in 1838 and 1839. As Tsesarevich, Alexander became the first Romanov heir to visit Siberia. While touring Russia, he befriended the exiled poet Alexander Herzen and pardoned him, it was through Herzen's influence that the tsarevich abolished serfdom in Russia. In 1839, when his parents sent him on a tour of Europe, he met twenty-year-old Queen Victoria and both were enamored of each other.

Simon Sebag Montefiore speculates. Such a marriage, would not work, as Alexander was not a minor prince of Europe and was in line to inherit a throne himself. In 1847, Alexander donated money to Ireland during the Great Famine, he has been described as looking like a German, somewhat of a pacifist, a heavy smoker and card player. Encouraged by public opinion, Alexander began a period of radical reforms, including an attempt not to depend on landed aristocracy controlling the poor, an effort to develop Russia's natural resources, to reform all branches of the administration. Boris Chicherin was a political philosopher who believed that Russia needed a strong, authoritative government by Alexander to make possible his reforms, he praised Alexander for the range of his fundamental reforms, arguing that the tsar was: called upon to execute one of the hardest tasks which can confront an autocratic ruler: to remodel the enormous state, entrusted to his care, to abolish an age-old order founded on slavery, to replace it with civic decency and freedom, to establish justice in a country which it never known the meaning of legality, to redesign the entire administration, to introduce freedom of the press in the context of untrammeled authority, to call new forces to life at every turn and set them on firm legal foundations, to put a repressed and humiliated society on its feet and to give at the chance to flex its muscles.

Alexander II succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father in 1855. As Crown Prince, he had been an enthusiastic supporter of his father's reactionary policies; that is, he always obeyed the autocratic ruler. But now he was the autocratic ruler himself, intended to rule according to what he thought best, he rejected any moves to set up a parliamentary system. He inherited a large mess, wrought by his father's fear of progress during his reign. Many of the other royal families of Europe had disliked Nicholas I, which e

English ship Ark Royal (1587)

Ark Royal was an English galleon ordered for Sir Walter Raleigh and purchased by the crown for service in the Tudor navy. She was used as the English flagship in a number of engagements, including the battles that resulted in the defeat of the Spanish Armada, had a long career spanning over 50 years, her fame led to a number of warships of the Royal Navy being named Ark Royal in her honour, including a number of flagships of the fleet. Ark Royal was built to order by the shipbuilder R. Chapman, of Deptford, for Sir Walter Raleigh, 32 years of age at the time; the ship was to be called Ark, which became Ark Raleigh, following the convention at the time where the ship bore the name of her owner. The Crown, in the person of Queen Elizabeth I, purchased the ship from Raleigh in January 1587 for the sum of £5,000, her new commander, Lord High Admiral of England Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, known as Lord Howard of Effingham, described the sum as "money well given". She was henceforth to be known as Ark Royal.

As built, she had two gun decks, a double forecastle, a quarter deck, a poop deck right aft. She was an effective warship, but tended to roll to the discomfort of the embarked soldiers unused to the motion, her first action came in 1588 during the attack of the Spanish Armada, when Ark Royal, as one of the largest vessels in the English fleet, was the flagship of Lord High Admiral Howard. After the initial defeat of the Armada, Ark Royal led the chase of the fleeing ships into the North Sea and beyond the Firth of Forth, she was used as Howard's flagship during the 1596 raid on Cádiz, which resulted in the destruction of much of the Spanish fleet at harbour. Ark Royal was the flagship once more during 1599. On the accession of James VI and I to the English throne, Ark Royal was renamed Anne Royal, after his consort, Anne of Denmark, she was rebuilt at Woolwich Dockyard in 1608 by Phineas Pett I as a 42-gun royal ship. Under her new name, she was the flagship of Lord Wimbledon in the 1625 raid on Cádiz which ended in disaster due to inadequate preparation.

She remained in service until April 1636, when she was being moved from the River Medway to serve as the flagship of Sir John Penington. While anchored in shallow water, she struck her own anchor and stove in her timbers, sinking in the river, she was raised at a cost greater than her original purchase price, but was found to be damaged beyond repair and was broken up in 1638. Citations Bibliography

Mind the Gap (Scooter album)

Mind the Gap is the tenth album by German hard dance group Scooter. Four singles were taken from it: "Jigga Jigga!", "Shake That!", "One" and "Suavemente". Three different versions of the album were released – Basic and Deluxe; the Basic Version contains no booklet. The Regular Version includes booklet as well as two additional tracks with "Jigga Jigga!" and "Trip to Nowhere". The Deluxe Version includes cardboard packaging, a two-sided poster and an additional CD containing tracks from the live album 10th Anniversary Concert, released as digital download on the Internet. All songs written by H. P. Baxxter, Rick J. Jordan, Jay Frog, Jens Thele, except where noted. M. C. lyrics written by H. P. Baxxter a.k.a. "M. C. M. C. no diggedy H", except "Panties Wanted" lyrics written by Baxxter, Jordan and Thele. "Killer Bees" – 1:30 "One" – 3:46 "Shake That!" – 3:19 "My Eyes Are Dry" – 2:54 "All I Wanna Do" – 4:21 "Jigga Jigga!" – 3:55 "Panties Wanted" – 4:33 "Trance-Atlantic" – 7:53 "Stripped" - 3.29 "Suavemente" – 3:38 "The Chaser" – 4:10 "The Avenger's Back" – 2:59 "Trip to Nowhere" – 5:02 "Intro" – 1:11 "Maria" – 4:02 "Weekend!"

– 3:40 "Friends" – 4:42 "Waiting For Spring" – 2:59 "Let Me Be Your Valentine" – 5:11 "Faster Harder Scooter" – 3:46 "Break It Up" – 3:49 "Frequent Traveller" – 2:35 "How Much Is The Fish?" – 3:50 "Nessaja" – 4:05 "Jigga Jigga!" – 3:58 "Hyper Hyper" – 6:15 "Jigga Jigga!" "Shinjuku" "Jigga Jigga!" "Jigga Jigga!" "Jigga Jigga!" "Shake That!" "Shake That!" "Suffix" "Shake That!" "Shake That!" "One" "Circle of Light" "Suavemente" "Killer Bees" is a cover of "Mind the Gap" by The KLF from the 1987 album 1987. "One" is a cover of "Always Hardcore" by Neophyte, which itself is based again on the chorus refrain of "Alive" by Pearl Jam, taken from the 1991 album Ten. The single version samples melody from the song "Move On Baby" by Cappella. "Shake That!" Samples the song "After Dark" by Tito & Tarantula, taken from the 1996 soundtrack to the film From Dusk Till Dawn, the chorus of the KC & The Sunshine Band song " Shake Your Booty" from the 1976 album Part 3 and the house track'The Opera House' by Jack E Makossa.

"My Eyes Are Dry" is a partial cover of Tuxedomoon's 1978 song "No Tears" "All I Wanna Do" samples the Sheryl Crow song "All I Wanna Do" from the 1993 album Tuesday Night Music Club. "Jigga Jigga!" came 2nd in a vote to choose Germany's entrant in the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest, samples the song "Exile" from the 1988 album Watermark by Enya as well as "L'annonce Des Couleurs" by Mac Zimms, "Creatures" by Alex M. O. R. P. H. and "Symbols" by Fictivision vs. C-Quence. "Panties Wanted" is a cover of the song by Bad City Rockerz. "Trance-Atlantic" - the whole track samples the track "Out Of Our Lives" by Active Sight. On the "20 Years of Hardcore" re-release there is an edited version of the track from the 2005 "Suavemente / Trance-Atlantic" vinyl. "Stripped" is a cover of the Depeche Mode song from the 1986 album Black Celebration. On the "20 Years of Hardcore" re-release it can be heard in a modified version, played live during the 2006 "Who's Got The Last Laugh Now?" tour. "Suavemente", was performed by Elvis Crespo on the 1998 album Suavemente.

On the "20 Years of Hardcore" re-release, it was replaced by the single version. "The Avenger's Back" is a half cover of Eddie Floyd's 1966 song "Knock On Wood", in particular sampling the 1979 disco version by Amii Stewart, taken from her 1979 album Knock On Wood. "Trip to Nowhere" samples the 2002 single "Solarcoaster" by Solarstone as well as "Cristalle" by Viframa