A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Kintyre is a peninsula in western Scotland, in the southwest of Argyll and Bute. The peninsula stretches about 30 miles, from the Mull of Kintyre in the south to East Loch Tarbert in the north, the area immediately north of Kintyre is known as Knapdale. Kintyre is long and narrow, at no point more than 11 miles from west coast to east coast, the east side of the Kintyre Peninsula is bounded by Kilbrannan Sound, with a number of coastal peaks such as Torr Mor. The central spine of the peninsula is mostly hilly moorland, the coastal areas and hinterland, are rich and fertile. The principal town of the area is Campbeltown, which has been a royal burgh since the mid-18th century, the areas economy has long relied on fishing and farming, although Campbeltown has a reputation as a producer of some of the worlds finest single malt whisky. Campbeltown Single Malts include the multi-award-winning Springbank, Kintyre Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary, one of the officers of arms at the Court of the Lord Lyon, is named after this peninsula.
Information on all forms of transport is available from Traveline Scotland. From 1876 until 1931 the Campbeltown and Machrihanish Light Railway operated, duke of Kintyre Marquess of Kintyre and Lorne The Mull of Kintyre test is said to be an unofficial guideline of the British Board of Film Classification for the censorship of adult films and images. Kildonald Bay The best known of these is Paul McCartneys 1977 track Mull of Kintyre, the song was written in tribute to the picturesque peninsula, where McCartney has owned High Park Farm since 1966, and its headland or Mull of Kintyre. The song was Wings biggest hit in the United Kingdom where it became Christmas number one, and was the first single to sell over two million copies in the United Kingdom
Knapdale forms a rural district of Argyll and Bute in the Scottish Highlands, adjoining Kintyre to the south, and divided from the rest of Argyll to the north by the Crinan Canal. It includes two parishes, North Knapdale and South Knapdale, Knapdale Forest, planted in the 1930s, covers much of the region. During the 1930s, the Ministry of Labour supplied the men from among the unemployed, many coming from the crisis-hit mining and heavy industry communities of the Central Belt. They were housed in one of a number of Instructional Centres created by the Ministry, most of them on Forestry Commission property, by 1938, the camp was used to hold enemy prisoners during the Second World War. The hutted camp in Knapdale was located at Cairnbaan, just south of the Crinan Canal, local attractions include the Chapel of Keills. A grave-slab in the chapel has a carving of a similar to the Queen Mary Harp currently at the Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. West Highland grave slabs from the Argyll area suggest that Knapdale is where this harp originated, the village has the thirteenth-century Kilmory Chapel and the late twelfth-century Castle Sween.
A 173-acre estate in the area belongs to former executive of Network Rail. Named Iainland, the property was purchased by Coucher in 2010 following his departure from the company. Census figures for the 19th and 20th centuries show a continuing and steady decline of population in North Knapdale, Knapdale has a designation as a National Scenic Area. In 2005, the Scottish Government turned down an application for unfenced reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver in Knapdale. However, in late 2007 a successful application was made for a release project, the trial was to be run over five years by the Scottish Wildlife Trust and the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, with Scottish Natural Heritage monitoring the project. The first beavers were released in May 2009 and this initial release into the wild of 11 animals received a setback during the first year with the disappearance of two animals and the unproven allegation of the illegal shooting of a third. However, the population was increased in 2010 by further releases.
Field, J. Learning Through Labour, unemployment, - Information on the Knapdale Beaver Trial Introduction. - Visitor information for Inveraray, Knapdale and Lochgilphead
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East and forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the English Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, the regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, the city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conquerors eldest son. The city grew as an important centre for the trade in the 14th century. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the worlds largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastles economy includes corporate headquarters, digital technology, retail and cultural centres, among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge.
Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year. The first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius and it was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD. This rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain, Pons Aelius population at this period was estimated at 2,000. Fragments of Hadrians Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle, particularly along the West Road, the course of the Roman Wall can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the walls end—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields. After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, conflicts with the Danes in 876 left the river Tyne and its settlements in ruin. After the conflicts with the Danes, and following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all, because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080.
The town was known as Novum Castellum or New Castle. The wooden structure was replaced by a castle in 1087. The castle was again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city dates from this period. Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was Englands northern fortress, incorporated first by Henry II, the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589
Joan of England, Queen of Scotland
Joan of England, was Queen consort of Scotland from 1221 until her death. She was the child of John, King of England. Joan was sought of as a bride by Philip II of France for his son, in 1214, her father King John promised her in marriage to Hugh X of Lusignan, as compensation for him being jilted by her mother Isabella. She was promised Saintes and the Isle of Oléron as dowry, Hugh X laid claim on her dowry already prior to their marriage, but when this did not succeed, he reportedly became less eager to marry her. On the death of John of England in 1216, queen dowager Isabella decided she should marry Hugh X herself, Hugh X kept Joan with him in an attempt to keep her dowry as well as having the dowry of her mother Isabella released from the English. On 15 May 1220, after an intervention from the Pope, Alexander had been in England in 1212, where he had been knighted by her father. It is alleged that King John had promised to give him Joan as a bride, on 18 June 1221, Alexander officially settled the lands Jedburgh, Hassendean and Crail to Joan as her personal income.
She and Alexander married on 21 June 1221, at York Minster and this fact was a matter of concern, but an annulment of the marriage was regarded as risky as it could provoke war with England. Queen Joan did not have a position at the Scottish court. Her English connections nevertheless made her important regardless of her personal qualities, Joan accompanied Alexander to England in September 1236 at Newcastle, and in September 1237 at York, during the negotiations with her brother King Henry over disputed northern territories. In York and her sister-in-law Eleanor of Provence agreed to make pilgrimage to Thomas Becket’s shrine in Canterbury. Joan died in the arms of her brothers King Henry and Richard of Cornwall at Havering-atte-Bower in 1238, Henry III continued to honour Joan’s memory for the rest of his life. Most dramatically, in late 1252, almost fourteen years after her death, Henry ordered the production of the image of a queen in marble for Joan’s tomb, nothing now remains of this church, the last mention of it is before the Reformation.
It is said that she is now buried in a coffin in the graveyard
The Outer Hebrides, known as the Western Isles, Innse Gall or the Long Isle or Long Island, is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland. The islands are geographically coextensive with Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, one of the 32 unitary council areas of Scotland. They form part of the Hebrides, separated from the Scottish mainland and from the Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch, the Little Minch, Scottish Gaelic is the predominant spoken language, although in a few areas English speakers form a majority. Most of the islands have a formed from ancient metamorphic rocks. The 15 inhabited islands have a population of 27,100. From Barra Head to the Butt of Lewis is roughly 210 kilometres, There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman and Greek authors. The Western Isles became part of the Norse kingdom of the Suðreyjar, control of the islands was held by clan chiefs, principal of whom were the MacLeods, MacDonalds and MacNeils.
The Highland Clearances of the 19th century had an effect on many communities. Much of the land is now under control and commercial activity is based on tourism, fishing. Sea transport is crucial and a variety of services operate between the islands and to mainland Scotland. Modern navigation systems now minimise the dangers but in the past the stormy seas have claimed many ships, religion and sport are important aspects of local culture, and there are numerous designated conservation areas to protect the natural environment. The islands form an archipelago whose major islands are Lewis and Harris, North Uist, South Uist, and Barra. Lewis and Harris has an area of 217,898 hectares and is the largest island in Scotland and it incorporates Lewis in the north and Harris in the south, both of which are frequently referred to as individual islands, although they are connected by land. The island does not have a name in either English or Gaelic. The largest islands are deeply indented by arms of the sea such as Loch Ròg, Loch Seaforth, There are more than 7,500 freshwater lochs in the Outer Hebrides, about 24% of the total for the whole of Scotland.
North and South Uist and Lewis in particular have landscapes with a percentage of fresh water. Harris has fewer large bodies of water but has innumerable small lochans, Loch Langavat on Lewis is 11 kilometres long, and has several large islands in its midst, including Eilean Mòr. Although Loch Suaineabhal has only 25% of Loch Langavats surface area, of Loch Sgadabhagh on North Uist it has been said that there is probably no other loch in Britain which approaches Loch Scadavay in irregularity and complexity of outline
Pope Celestine IV
Pope Celestine IV, born Goffredo da Castiglione, was Pope from 25 October 1241 to his death on 10 November of the same year. Born in Milan, Goffredo or Godfrey is often referred to as son of a sister of Pope Urban III, nothing is known of his early life until he became chancellor of the church of Milan. He was dispatched in an attempt to bring these territories around to the papal side, in 1238 he was made cardinal bishop of Sabina. The papal election of 1241 that elevated Celestine to the chair was held under stringent conditions that hastened his death. The papal curia was disunited over the violent struggle to bring the Emperor, one group of cardinals favored the ambitious schemes of the Gregorian Reform and aimed to humble Frederick as a papal vassal. One of the cardinals fell ill and died, one group of cardinals, which included Sinibaldo de Fieschi backed a candidate from the inner circle of Pope Gregory IX expected to pursue the hard line with Frederick II. Another group advocated a moderated middle course, not allies of the Hohenstaufen, Matteo Orsinis candidate, Romano da Porto, who had persecuted scholars at the University of Paris, was considered unacceptable.
The cardinal bishop of Sabina was finally elected Pope Celestine IV by the required majority, seven cardinals out of ten. He occupied the throne for only seventeen days, his only notable papal act being the timely excommunication of Matteo Rosso Orsini and he died of wear and age on 10 November 1241 before coronation and was buried in St Peters. The Deaths of the Popes, Comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places, North Carolina, McFarland & Co. Lexikon der Mittelalters, vol. iii, part 7, cardinali di curia e familiae cardinalizie dal 1227 al 1254
Lorne is an ancient district in the west of Scotland, now part of the Argyll and Bute council area. Lorne bordered Argyll to the south, Lochaber to the north, the Firth of Lorn separates Mull from islands off the Lorne coastline. Oban is the capital of the ancient district of Lorne, the district may have taken its name from Loarn mac Eirc, a brother of Fergus Mór Mac Earca who, around the year 500 AD became ruler of the Scottish Kingdom of Dál Riata. Loarn created his own dynasty in the new kingdom, in the district of Argyll to which he gave his name, from 1470, the Lordship of Lorne was held as a subsidiary title of the earldom and the dukedom of Argyll. The coat of arms of the Lordship features a black lymphad on a silver field, at some point in the Middle Ages the district was combined with Argyll and parts of Lochaber to form the shire or sheriffdom of Argyll. Lorne is now part of the area of Argyll and Bute
Alexander III of Scotland
Alexander III was King of Scots from 1249 to his death. Alexander was born at Roxburgh, the son of Alexander II by his second wife Marie de Coucy. Alexander III was the grandson of William the Lion, Alexanders father died on 8 July 1249 and he became king at the age of seven, inaugurated at Scone on 13 July 1249. The former dominated the years of Alexanders reign. At the marriage of Alexander to Margaret of England in 1251, Henry III of England seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage for the Scottish kingdom, but Alexander did not comply. In 1255 an interview between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso led to Menteith and his party losing to Durwards party. On attaining his majority at the age of 21 in 1262 and he laid a formal claim before the Norwegian king Haakon. Haakon rejected the claim, and in the following year responded with a formidable invasion, sailing around the west coast of Scotland he halted off the Isle of Arran, and negotiations commenced. Alexander artfully prolonged the talks until the autumn storms should begin, at length Haakon, weary of delay, only to encounter a terrific storm which greatly damaged his ships.
The Battle of Largs proved indecisive, but even so, Haakons position was hopeless, baffled, he turned homewards, but died in Orkney on 15 December 1263. The Isles now lay at Alexanders feet, and in 1266 Haakons successor concluded the Treaty of Perth by which he ceded the Isle of Man, Norway retained only Orkney and Shetland in the area. Alexander had married Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence and she died in 1275, after they had three children. Towards the end of Alexanders reign, the death of all three of his children within a few made the question of the succession one of pressing importance. In 1284 he induced the Estates to recognize as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, the need for a male heir led him to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux on 1 November 1285. Alexander died in a fall from his horse riding in the dark to visit the queen at Kinghorn in Fife on 18 March 1286 because it was her birthday the next day. He had spent the evening at Edinburgh Castle celebrating his second marriage and he was advised by them not to make the journey to Fife because of weather conditions, but he travelled anyway.
Alexander became separated from his guides and it is assumed that in the dark his horse lost its footing, the 44-year-old king was found dead on the shore the following morning with a broken neck. Some texts have said that he fell off a cliff, although there is no cliff at the site where his body was found, there is a very steep rocky embankment, which would have been fatal in the dark
The Inner Hebrides is an archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. Together these two island chains form the Hebrides, which experience a mild oceanic climate, the Inner Hebrides comprise 35 inhabited islands as well as 44 uninhabited islands with an area greater than 30 hectares. The main commercial activities are tourism, crofting and whisky distilling, in modern times the Inner Hebrides have formed part of two separate local government jurisdictions, one to the north and the other to the south. Together, the islands have an area of about 4,130 km2, the population density is therefore about 4.6 per km2. There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman, control of the islands was held by various clan chiefs, principally the MacLeans, MacLeods and MacDonalds. The Highland Clearances of the 19th century had an effect on many communities. Sea transport is crucial and a variety of services operate to mainland Scotland.
The Gaelic language remains strong in areas, the landscapes have inspired a variety of artists. The islands form a disparate archipelago, the largest islands are, from south to north, Jura, Mull, Rùm and Skye. Skye is the largest and most populous of all with an area of 1,656 km2, the southern group are in Argyll, an area roughly corresponding with the heartlands of the ancient kingdom of Dál Riata and incorporated into the modern unitary council area of Argyll and Bute. The northern islands were part of the county of Inverness-shire and are now in the Highland Council area, the ten largest islands are as follows. The geology and geomorphology of the islands is varied, such as Skye and Mull, are mountainous, whilst others like Tiree are relatively low-lying. The highest mountains are the Cuillins of Skye, although peaks over 300 metres are common elsewhere, much of the coastline is machair, a fertile low-lying dune pastureland. Many of the islands are swept by strong tides, and the Corryvreckan tide race between Scarba and Jura is one of the largest whirlpools in the world.
There are various smaller archipelagoes including the Ascrib Islands, Crowlin Islands, Slate Islands, Small Isles, Summer Isles, the inhabited islands of the Inner Hebrides had a population of 18,257 at the 2001 census, and this had grown to 18,948 in 2011. During the same period Scottish island populations as a whole grew by 4% to 103,702, there are a further 44 uninhabited Inner Hebrides with an area greater than 74 acres. Records for the last date of settlement for the islands are incomplete. However, the populations of the islands grew overall by more than 12% from 1981-2001
Berwick-upon-Tweed is a town in the county of Northumberland. It is the northernmost town in England and it is located 2 1⁄2 miles south of the Scottish border, at the mouth of the River Tweed on the east coast. It is about 56 miles east-south east of Edinburgh,65 miles north of Newcastle upon Tyne and 345 miles north of London, the United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded Berwicks population as 12,043. A civil parish and town council were created in 2008, Berwick was founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the Kingdom of Northumbria, which was annexed by England in the 10th century. The area was for more than 400 years central to historic border wars between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, and several times possession of Berwick changed hands between the two kingdoms, the last time it changed hands was when England retook it in 1482. Berwick remains a market town and has some notable architectural features, in particular its medieval town walls, its Elizabethan ramparts. The name Berwick is of Old English origin, and is derived from the term bere-wīc, combining bere, meaning barley, Berwick thus means barley village or barley farm.
In the post-Roman period, the area was inhabited by the Brythons of Bryneich, the region became part of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia. Bernicia united with the kingdom of Deira to form Northumbria, Berwick remained part of the Earldom of Northumbria until control passed to the Scots following the Battle of Carham of 1018. The town itself was founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the Kingdom of Northumbria, between the late 10th and early 11th centuries, the land between the rivers Forth and Tweed came under Scottish control, either through conquest by Scotland or through cession by England. Berwick was made a burgh in the reign of David I. A mint was present in the town by 1153, while under Scottish control, Berwick was referred to as South Berwick in order to differentiate it from the town of North Berwick, East Lothian, near Edinburgh. Berwick had a hospital for the sick and poor which was administered by the Church. Dated at Edinburgh June 8, in the 20th year of his reign, Berwicks strategic position on the Anglo-Scottish border during centuries of war between the two nations and its relatively great wealth led to a succession of raids and takeovers.
William I of Scotland invaded and attempted to capture northern England in 1173-74, after his defeat, Berwick was ceded to Henry II of England. It was back to William by Richard I of England in order to raise funds for his Crusade. Berwick had become a town by the middle of the 13th century. In 1291–92 Berwick was the site of Edward I of Englands arbitration in the contest for the Scottish crown between John Balliol and Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, the decision in favour of Balliol was pronounced in the Great Hall of Berwick Castle on 17 November 1292