Natalie of Serbia
Natalija Obrenović, née Keschko, known as Natalie of Serbia, was the Princess consort of Serbia from 1875 to 1882 and Queen consort of Serbia from 1882 to 1889, as the wife of Milan I of Serbia. Of ethnic Romanian origin, she was the daughter of Russian colonel Petre Keşco and Romanian noblewoman Pulcheria Sturdza. A celebrated beauty during her youth, she was regarded as one of the most beautiful queens in Europe, she was born in 1859 in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, as the first child of Russian colonel Petre Keșco of Bessarabia, member of the collateral branch of Wassilko von Serecki family and Moldavian Princess Pulcheria Sturdza. Her father was the son of Ioan Keșco, a Marshal of Nobility of Bessarabia, Romanian noblewoman Natalia Balș. Natalie grew up in United Romania, she had two sisters and one brother: Maria, who married on 13 April 1886 Prince Grigore Ghica-Brigadier. Ecaterina, who married on 5 February 1883 their relative Prince Eugen Ghica-Comănești. Ioniță, only brother. After she became orphaned by both parents, she was taken into the care by her maternal aunt, Princess Ekaterina Moruzi.
She married her second cousin, Prince Milan Obrenović I of Serbia on 17 October 1875. A delegation from Romania, which included members of the Romanian noble families Moruzi and Catargi, attended her wedding ceremony, she had two sons with him, the future King Alexander, born 1876, whose godfather was Tsar Alexander II of Russia, his younger brother Sergei, who died just a few days after his birth in 1878. When Prince Milan proclaimed the Kingdom of Serbia in 1882 after securing international recognition, Princess Natalie assumed the title and rank of a queen. At the Easter reception of 1886, Queen Natalie publicly slapped the wife of the Greek ambassador; the Greek woman was rumored to have an affair with King Milan. The relationship of the royal couple reached a critical level in 1887, following not only many affairs of the King with other women, but political differences between King and Queen; the King pursued a pro-Austrian foreign policy which the Russian-born and slavophile Queen would not tolerate.
These conflict developed into a public scandal when the Queen - accompanied by her child, the eleven-year-old Crown Prince Alexander - left Serbia and settled in the Russian Crimea in May 1887. Slavophile public in Russia honoured the Serbian Queen demonstratively. Rumours spread about a royal divorce in the near future, there was public talk about the King's abdication in favour of his son; these rumours proved to be premature - the divorce occurred one year the abdication followed in 1889. In July 1887, the Queen and her son returned to Belgrade, in August the Queen left her country again for Austria-Hungary. In October, the King and Queen met in Budapest for a formal reconciliation, with the King's approval the Queen and the Crown Prince left for another foreign travel to Italy until November. In 1888, Queen Natalie and her son left for another long foreign stay in Wiesbaden - without intention to return to Belgrade; the public private scandal turned into politics when the King used the German police in July 1888 to bring the young Crown Prince back to his kingdom.
Soon afterwards King Milan opened the ecclesiastical procedures of divorce. The development of these procedures put a shadow on the royal reputation; the Holy Synod of the Serbian Orthodox Church met in Belgrade and declared itself incompetent in the royal divorce. When the consistorium of Belgrade took over the case the Queen rejected the King's wish for divorce and advocated the several attempts to reconcile the couple according to ecclesiastical law; when the King managed to get his divorce by a single decision of the Metropolite of the Serbian church, the Queen rejected that decision in public and declared to consider herself still the wife of the King. An immediate political consequence of these dynastic conflicts was the new right of succession to the throne proclaimed during the parliamentary sessions regarding the new constitution of Serbia; the new constitution declared Crown Prince Alexander and his future children to be single legal heirs of the Serbian crown. Possible children of a second marriage of King Milan should be excluded from succession in the case that King Alexander's line should become extinct.
A clear votum of mistrust for the former king in the handling of his family affairs that foreshadowed his following abdication in March 1889. On 6 March 1889, as consequence of the surprising abdication of her husband, Natalie's son Alexander I became King of Serbia; until 1893, when Alexander assumed government himself, he was put under a regency council led by former prime minister Jovan Ristic. The former King Milan secured the educational rights for his son for himself and ordered the regency council not to allow the Queen Mother a permanent stay in Serbia during the minority of King Alexander. Short meetings between mother and son in foreign countries should be possible with permission of the regency. Queen Natalie did not accept these restricted conditions. In August 1889, she announced publicly to visit her son in the royal palace in Belgrade; when Ex-king Milan modified his restrictions to her favor she was not prepared to be restricted at all and insisted on her maternal right to visit her son whenever it should please her, regardless of the government's consent or refusal.
When the Queen Mother indeed arrived in Belgrade on 29 August 1889, she was enthusiastically welcomed by the population. But the regency denied he
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans; the urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits. One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco–Dacians inhabited the region and, after 279 BC, Celts settled the city, naming it Singidūn, it was conquered by the Romans under the reign of Augustus and awarded Roman city rights in the mid-2nd century. It was settled by the Slavs in the 520s, changed hands several times between the Byzantine Empire, the Frankish Empire, the Bulgarian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary before it became the seat of the Serbian king Stefan Dragutin. In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo.
It passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. Northern Belgrade remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918. In a fatally strategic position, the city was razed 44 times. Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia from its creation in 1918 to its dissolution in 2006. Belgrade has special administrative status within Serbia and it is one of the five statistical regions that make up the country, its metropolitan territory is divided into each with its own local council. The city of Belgrade covers 3.6% of Serbia's territory, around 24% of the country's population lives within its administrative limits. It is classified as a Beta-Global City. Chipped stone tools found in Zemun show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras; some of these tools are of Mousterian industry—belonging to Neanderthals rather than modern humans.
Aurignacian and Gravettian tools have been discovered near the area, indicating some settlement between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago. The first farming people to settle in the region are associated with the Neolithic Starčevo culture, which flourished between 6200 and 5200 BC. There are several Starčevo sites including the eponymous site of Starčevo; the Starčevo culture was succeeded by the Vinča culture, a more sophisticated farming culture that grew out of the earlier Starčevo settlements and named for a site in the Belgrade region. The Vinča culture is known for its large settlements, one of the earliest settlements by continuous habitation and some of the largest in prehistoric Europe. Associated with the Vinča culture are anthropomorphic figurines such as the Lady of Vinča, the earliest known copper metallurgy in Europe, a proto-writing form developed prior to the Sumerians and Minoans known as the Old European script, which dates back to around 5300 BC. Within the city proper, on Cetinjska Street, a skull of a Paleolithic human was discovered in 1890.
The skull is dated to before 5000 BC. Evidence of early knowledge about Belgrade's geographical location comes from a variety of ancient myths and legends; the ridge overlooking the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, for example, has been identified as one of the places in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. In the time of antiquity, the area was populated by Paleo-Balkan tribes, including the Thracians and the Dacians, who ruled much of Belgrade's surroundings. Belgrade was at one point inhabited by the Thraco-Dacian tribe Singi. In 34–33 BC, the Roman army, led by Silanus, reached Belgrade, it became the romanised Singidunum in the 1st century AD and, by the mid-2nd century, the city was proclaimed a municipium by the Roman authorities, evolving into a full-fledged colonia by the end of the century. While the first Christian Emperor of Rome —Constantine I known as Constantine the Great—was born in the territory of Naissus to the city's south, Roman Christianity's champion, Flavius Iovianus, was born in Singidunum.
Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the site passed to the Eastern Byzantine Empire. Across the Sava from Singidunum was the Celtic city of Taurunum. In 442, the area was ravaged by Attila the Hun. In 471, it was taken by king of the Ostrogoths, who continued into Italy; as the Ostrogoths left, another Germanic tribe, the Gepids, invaded the city. In 539 it was retaken by the Byzantines. In 577, some 100,000 Slavs poured into Thrace and Illyricum, pillaging cities and more permanently settling the region; the Avars, under Bayan I, conquered the whole region and its new Slavic population by 582. Following Byzantine reconquest, the Byzantine chronicle De Administrando Imperio mentions the White Serbs, who had stopped in Belgrade on their way back home, asking the strategos for lands. In 829, Khan Omurtag was able to add its environs to the First Bulgarian Empire.
The first record of the name Belograd appeared on April, 16th, 878, in
National Assembly (Serbia)
The National Assembly is the unicameral legislature of Serbia. The assembly is composed on 4 years term; the assembly elects a president. The current president of the national assembly is Maja Gojković since 23 April 2014; the National Assembly exercise supreme legislative power. It adopts and amends the Constitution, elects Government and dismisses Constitutional Court judges, president of the Supreme Court of Cassation, Governor of the National Bank of Serbia and other state officials. All decisions are made by majority vote of deputies at the session at which a majority of deputies are present, except for amending the Constitution, when a two thirds majority is needed; the assembly convenes in the House of the National Assembly in Belgrade. The competencies the National Assembly are defined by the Constitution of Serbia, articles 98-110: adopts and amends the Constitution. Elects the Government, supervises its work and decides on expiry of term of office of the government and ministers. Performs other functions stipulated by the Law.
Parliamentary elections are regulated by the Constitution. The elections are held after the four-year term of the previous assembly has expired, but can be held before that if the Assembly dismisses the Government or the Government resigns and no majority can be reached to elect new Government. Elections are called by the President of Serbia 90 days before the end of the term of office of the National Assembly, so that elections are finished within the following 60 days. Elections are closed party-list proportional; the whole country is one electoral district. 250 seats are distributed between the lists using d'Hondt method. There is a minimum voting threshold of 5%, so that only the party lists which get more than 5% of the votes are awarded the seats. There is no threshold for the ethnic minority lists. After the elections, the first session of the new Assembly is convened by the Speaker from the previous convocation, so that the session is held not than 30 days from the day of declaring the final election results.
The assembly is composed of 250 deputies. At least 30% of the deputies are women. Deputies may not hold dual functions. Deputies enjoy parliamentary immunity. By means of majority votes of all deputies, the National Assembly elects the President of the Assembly and one or more Vice-Presidents one vice-president from each parliamentary group; the President of the National Assembly represents the National Assembly, convokes its sessions, presides over them and performs other official activities. The vice-presidents assist the President in performing the duties within his/her purview. In case the President is temporarily absent, one of the Vice-Presidents designated by him/her stands in for him/her. If the President does not designate any of the Vice-Presidents to stand in for him/her, the oldest Vice-President shall stand in for him/her; the Secretary of the National Assembly is appointed by the National Assembly. Secretary of the National Assembly assists the President and Vice-Presidents in preparing and chairing sittings.
His/her term of office is terminated upon the constitution of a newly elected National Assembly, while he/she shall continue discharging his/her duties until the appointment of a new Secretary. Secretary is not elected from the deputies, is not member of the Assembly. Parliamentary groups in the National Assembly must be formed no than seven days following the election of the President. Any grouping of five or more deputies can be recognised as a parliamentary group, with each deputies permitted to be members of only a single group at any one time. Although groups are based on electoral lists from the previous election to the Assembly, groups are a diverse collection of different parties as well as independents; this is due to Serbia's complex multi-party system, with many parties having a presence in the legislature. An example of such a group includes the LDP-LSV-SDA group; the parliamentary groups are each led by a president, who are assisted by a number of vice presidents. The presidents of the groups meet with the President of the Assembly to discuss and arrange the agenda for future meetings.
Serbia's Law on the Election of Representatives indicated that
Nicholas II of Russia
Nicholas II or Nikolai II, known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse, he was given the nickname Nicholas the Bloody or Vile Nicholas by his political adversaries due to the Khodynka Tragedy, anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, the violent suppression of the 1905 Russian Revolution, the execution of political opponents, his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War. Soviet historians portrayed Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects. Russia was defeated in the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War, which saw the annihilation of the reinforcing Russian Baltic Fleet after being sent on its round-the-world cruise at the naval Battle of Tsushima, off the coasts of Korea and Japan, the loss of Russian influence over Manchuria and Korea, the Japanese annexation to the north of South Sakhalin Island.
The Anglo-Russian Entente was designed to counter the German Empire's attempts to gain influence in the Middle East, but it ended the Great Game of confrontation between Russia and the United Kingdom. When all Russian diplomatic efforts to prevent the First World War failed, Nicholas approved the Imperial Russian Army mobilization on 30 July 1914, which gave Imperial Germany formal grounds to declare war on Russia on 1 August 1914. An estimated 3.3 million Russians were killed in the First World War. The Imperial Russian Army's severe losses, the High Command's incompetent management of the war efforts, lack of food and supplies on the home front were all leading causes of the fall of the House of Romanov. Following the February Revolution of 1917, Nicholas abdicated on behalf of himself and his son and heir, the Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich, he and his family were imprisoned and transferred to Tobolsk in late summer 1917. On 30 April 1918, Nicholas and their daughter Maria were handed over to the local Ural Soviet council in Ekaterinburg.
Nicholas and his family were executed by their Bolshevik guards on the night of 16/17 July 1918. The remains of the imperial family were found, identified and re-interred with elaborate State and Church ceremony in St. Petersburg on 17 July 1998. In 1981, his wife, their children were recognized as martyrs by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia in New York City. On 15 August 2000, they were canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church as passion bearers, commemorating believers who face death in a Christ-like manner. Nicholas was born in the Alexander Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, the eldest child of Emperor Alexander III and Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia, he had five younger siblings: Alexander, Xenia and Olga. Nicholas referred to his father nostalgically in letters after Alexander's death in 1894, he was very close to his mother, as revealed in their published letters to each other. His paternal grandparents were Empress Maria Alexandrovna, his maternal grandparents were King Christian Queen Louise of Denmark.
Nicholas was of German and Danish descent, his last ethnically Russian ancestor being Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, daughter of Peter the Great. Nicholas was related to several monarchs in Europe, his mother's siblings included Kings Frederick VIII of Denmark and George I of Greece, as well as the United Kingdom's Queen Alexandra. Nicholas, his wife Alexandra, German Emperor Wilhelm II were all first cousins of King George V of the United Kingdom. Nicholas was a first cousin of both King Haakon VII and Queen Maud of Norway, as well as King Christian X of Denmark and King Constantine I of Greece. Nicholas and Wilhelm II were in turn second cousins-once-removed, as each descended from King Frederick William III of Prussia, as well as third cousins, as they were both great-great-grandsons of Tsar Paul I of Russia. In addition to being second cousins through descent from Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse and his wife Princess Wilhelmine of Baden and Alexandra were third cousins-once-removed, as they were both descendants of King Frederick William II of Prussia.
Tsar Nicholas II was the first cousin-once-removed of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich. To distinguish between them the Grand Duke was known within the imperial family as "Nikolasha" and "Nicholas the Tall", while the Tsar was "Nicholas the Short". In his childhood, his parents and siblings made annual visits to the Danish royal palaces of Fredensborg and Bernstorff to visit his grandparents, the king and queen; the visits served as family reunions, as his mother's siblings would come from the United Kingdom and Greece with their respective families. It was there in 1883, that he had a flirtation with one of his English first cousins, Princess Victoria. In 1873, Nicholas accompanied his parents and younger brother, two-year-old George, on a two-month, semi-official visit to England. In London and his family stayed at Marlborough House, as guests of his "Uncle Bertie" and "Aunt Alix", the Prince and Princess of Wales, where he was spoiled by his uncle. On 1 March 1881, following the assassination of his grandfather, Tsar Alexander II, Nicho
Draginja "Draga" Obrenović Mašin, was the Queen consort of King Aleksandar Obrenović of the Kingdom of Serbia. She was a lady-in-waiting to Aleksandar's mother, Queen Natalija. Draga was the fourth daughter of Panta Lunjevica, a prefect of the Aranđelovac area, wife Anđelija. Draga was the sixth of seven siblings, she had two brothers and Nikodije, four sisters, Hristina, Đina and Vojka. Draga's mother was her father died in a lunatic asylum. Draga was the granddaughter of Nikola Lunjevica, a close comrade of Prince Miloš, Aleksandar's great-granduncle, her paternal grandmother was Đurđija Čarapić, a relative of vojvoda Ilija Čarapić, husband of Karađorđe Petrović's daughter Stamenka Karađorđević. At the time of her second marriage, she was the widow of Svetozar Mašin, a Czech civil engineer, was twelve years older than Aleksandar; the couple married on 5 August 1900 in a formal ceremony. When Aleksandar announced their engagement, public opinion turned against him, he was viewed as a besotted young fool in the power of a wicked seductress.
Dowager Queen Natalija bitterly opposed the marriage, was exiled by her son, in part because of it. His many arbitrary and unpopular acts were blamed on Draga's influence. There were rumors that Aleksandar would name Draga's elder brother as heir-presumptive to the throne. Both brothers were serving as army officers at the time of the marriage and appear to have been unpopular with their peers; this last rumour led to the royal couple's assassination. On the night of 10–11 June 1903, a group of army officers invaded the royal palace, led by Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević and others. Troops led by other officers involved in the conspiracy were deployed near the palace, the royal guards did not offer effective resistance in the confusion after the electric lighting of the building was turned off; the conspirators were unable to find Aleksandar and Draga. However an aide of the king was captured and, either out of sympathy for the conspiracy or out of fear for his own life, revealed that they were hiding in a large built-in wardrobe off their bedroom.
Another account says. Emerging dressed, the couple were murdered with sword thrusts and pistol shots by the officers, some of whom were drunk; the bodies were afterwards thrown from a palace balcony onto piles of garden manure. Draga's two brothers and Nikola, were executed by firing squad on the same day, she was played by Magda Sonja in the 1920 Austrian silent film Queen Draga. In the 1932 American film A Woman Commands. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Miloš the Great. Краљица Драга Обреновић. Zavod za Udžbenike. 2009. ISBN 978-86-17-16133-8
St. Mark's Church, Belgrade
St. Mark's Church or Church of St. Mark is a Serbian Orthodox church located in the Tašmajdan park in Belgrade, near the Parliament of Serbia, it was built in the Serbo-Byzantine style by the Krstić brothers, completed in 1940, on the site of a previous church dating to 1835. It is one of the largest churches in the country. There is a small Russian church next to St. Mark's; the church, dedicated to Holy Apostle and Evangelist Mark, was built in the Interwar period between 1931 and 1940 in the Tašmajdan Park, in the centre of Belgrade. It was built north of a wooden 19th-century church, destroyed in 1941; the original, wooden church, was built in 1835-36, in the days of Belgrade Metropolitan Petar Jovanović. The main donor was merchant Lazar Panća. Dedicated to St. Mark, it was built within an existing cemetery, it was a rectangular building whose exterior surface area was 11.5 by 21 m and whose interior was 7.75 by 17.46 m. At the same time Prince Miloš Obrenović, a donor to this church, built the palatial church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul in Topčider.
Work on both churches was supervised by architect Nikola Živković. In 1838, Prince Miloš's eldest son Prince Milan and bishop Gavrilo Popović of Šabac were buried directly by the church. After the May Coup, the royal couple, King Alexander Obrenović I and Queen Draga Obrenović, were buried in this church. In ca. 1870, the church was the parish seat of Palilula with 318 homes. It was destroyed during World War I by Austrian troops reconstructed in 1917, it was badly damaged in the 1941 German bombing of Belgrade and the rubble was cleared in 1942. Due to the rapid growth of the city and population increase, it became necessary in the beginning of the 20th century to build a larger church in the Belgrade quarter of Palilula. Frequent wars did not allow this until 1930 when a pair of Belgrade architects, the brothers Petar and Branko Krstić, both professors of the University of Belgrade Faculty of Architecture, designed the plans for the new St. Mark's Church; the present building of St. Mark's Church was built according to their drawings between 1931 and 1940.
The eruption of World War II interrupted the full completion of the church. Only the construction work was finished. Divine service took place in the new church during the war in 1941 and after it until November 14, 1948 in the adapted narthex of the church. On that date the church was consecrated and the church opened for divine service. There were plans to decorate the whole interior with frescoes; the external walls are in two colors of natural materials in the Serbo-Byzantine style. The church bell tower is a part of the church itself on the west side. Due to the urbanized area around it, the construction couldn't follow the strict church canon concerning the east-west position. In order to fit into the existing city grid, Serbian Patriarch Varnava gave a special permit for the new church to deviate for 10 degrees from the canonical rule; that way, the main entrance came in line across it. The Gračanica Monastery was used as a model for the new church; until the Church of Saint Sava surpassed it, St.
Mark's Church was the largest Serbian church. It is considered one of the most beautiful edifices of the sacral architecture in the Serbo-Byzantine Revival style; the Anniversary Day of Operation Storm, held for mourning killed and exiled Serbs from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, is held on August 5 in St. Mark's Church; the interiors of the church cover 1,150 m2. The naos can receive 2,000 people and the choir gallery can accommodate 150 musicians; the church is 45 m wide and 60 m high, excluding the cross. In November 2017 a complete rearrangement of the plateau, which functioned as an extension of the Tašmajdan Park in front of the church, began. Old asphalt pavement which served as a parking lot was removed. Architect Jovan Mitrović designed a leveled combination of granite slabs and green areas; the plateau will be divided in two sections and right, divided by the green island. The right, "ceremonial" side will be shaped, with the granite slabs posted in the horizontal rhythm, interrupted with the thin squares of red Italian granite.
The design is patterned after the façade of the Michelangelo's temples on Capitoline Hill in Rome. The idea is to visually expand the church; the left side will have "disheveled" pattern, made of combined granite slabs. The plateau was finished in February 2018. In June 2018 it was announced that a monument to Patriarch Pavle, head of the Serbian Orthodox Church from 1990 to 2009, will be erected on the green area between the newly finished plateau and the tram stop in Tašmajdan Park; the 1.8 m tall bronze monument was authored by Zoran Maleš. It was placed in the park on 13 November 2018 and dedicated on 15 November, an anniversary of Pavle's death. St. Mark's Church is 62 meters long and 45 meters wide, the height of the main cupola to the base of the cross is 60 meters; the usable interior surface area of the church is about 1,150 square meters, the naos of the church can accommodate over 150 singers. It has been said that more than seventy years after the beginning of its construction, St. Mark's Church has not been completed.
This relates to its interior, fresco painting, appropriate lighting, acoustics and ventilation. After World War II little was done in the church itself for objective reasons. Above the entrance door to the church on the external façade is an icon in mosaic of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist Mark, the work of Veljk
Prime Minister of Serbia
The Prime Minister of Serbia the President of the Government of the Republic of Serbia, is the head of the Government of Serbia. The role of the Prime Minister is to direct the work of the Government, to submit to the National Assembly the Government's Program, including a list of proposed ministers; the resignation of the Prime Minister will cause the fall of the Government. The current Prime Minister, Ana Brnabić, an independent politician, was nominated by the former Prime Minister and newly elected President of the Republic, Aleksandar Vučić and elected and appointed by the National Assembly on 29 June 2017; the first modern Serbian government was established on 27 August 1805 in Voljavča near Stragari, during the First Serbian Uprising, as the Governing Council, while the title of the head of government was President of the Governing Council. The Council had no ministers, just members, but in 1811 modern ministries were created. Government ceased to exist with the collapse of the First Serbian Uprising on 3 October 1813, however continued in exile in Hotin from 1813 until 1814.
Government was restored on 21 November 1815 following the Second Serbian Uprising. Head of government was styled Prince's Representative; the style remained official until 1861 after the establishing of constitutional government in 1835. Prior to that date, the office was of no major importance or influence and depended on the will of the Prince Miloš Obrenović. From 1861 until 1903, the head of government was styled President of the Ministry. From 1903 until the creation of the Kingdom of the Serbs and Slovenes on 1 December 1918, head of government was styled President of the Ministerial Council. Under the communist regime after 1945, Serbia got a sort of separate Tito-appointed government opposed to the German-installed one in September 1941. First, the'head of government' was styled President of the Executive Council of the Supreme National Liberational Council until 7 March 1945. On that day, a ministry for Serbia was created within the government of Yugoslavia, with Minister for Serbia being in charge of creating first one-party government of post-War Serbia, which took place on 9 April 1945.
Governments were headed by President of the Government until 3 February 1953, President of the Executive Council until 15 January 1991 and again President of the Government since but the term Prime Minister is colloquially used since the government of Dragutin Zelenović in 1991. In some articles about the recent history of Serbia, term is retroactively applied to Stanko Radmilović, Desimir Jevtić and back to Ivan Stambolić's government. Non-party Conservative Party Liberal Party Serbian Progressive Party Non-party Serbian Progressive Party Conservative Party Liberal Party People's Radical Party Independent Radical Party Non-party League of Communists of Yugoslavia Socialist Party of Serbia Socialist Party of Serbia Democratic Party Democratic Alternative Social Democratic Union Democratic Party of Serbia Non-party Democratic Party of Serbia Socialist Party of Serbia Serbian Progressive Party Non-party Government of Serbia President of Serbia List of Presidents of Serbia Serbian Government – Prime Minister Serbian ministries, etc. at rulers.org