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Alexander Kolchak

Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak KB was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy and fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War. During the Russian Civil War, he established an anti-communist government in Siberia—later the Provisional All-Russian Government—and was recognised as the "Supreme Leader and Commander-in-Chief of All Russian Land and Sea Forces" by the other leaders of the White movement from 1918 to 1920, his government was based in southwestern Siberia. For nearly two years, Kolchak was Russia's internationally recognized head of state. However, his effort to unite the White Movement failed; this served only to boost the Reds morale, as it allowed them to label Kolchak as a "Western Puppet". As his White forces fell apart, he was betrayed and captured by the Czechoslovak Legion who handed him over to local Socialists-Revolutionaries, he was soon after executed by the Bolsheviks in Irkutsk. Kolchak was born in Saint Petersburg in 1874 to a family of minor Russian nobility of Moldovan origin.

Both his parents were from Odessa. His father was a retired major-general of the Marine Artillery and a veteran of the 1854 siege of Sevastopol, who after retirement worked as an engineer in ordnance works near St. Petersburg. Kolchak was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval Cadet Corps in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion, he was soon transferred to the Russian Far East, serving in Vladivostok from 1895 to 1899. He returned to western Russia and was based at Kronstadt, joining the Russian Polar expedition of Eduard Toll on the ship Zarya in 1900 as a hydrologist. After considerable hardship, Kolchak returned in December 1902. Kolchak took part in two Arctic expeditions to look for the lost explorers and for a while was nicknamed "Kolchak-Poliarnyi". For his explorations Kolchak received the Constantine Medal, the highest award of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. In December 1903, Kolchak was en route to St. Petersburg to marry his fiancée, Sophia Omirova, not far from Irkutsk, he received notice of the start of war with the Empire of Japan and hastily summoned his bride and her father to Siberia by telegram for a wedding, before heading directly to Port Arthur.

In the early stages of the Russo-Japanese War, he served as watch officer on the cruiser Askold, commanded the destroyer Serdityi. He made several night sorties to lay naval mines, one of which succeeded in sinking the Japanese cruiser Takasago, he was decorated with the Order of St. Anna 4th class for the exploit; as the blockade of the port tightened and the Siege of Port Arthur intensified, he was given command of a coastal artillery battery. He was wounded in the final battle for Port Arthur and taken as a prisoner of war to Nagasaki, where he spent four months, his poor health led to his repatriation before the end of the war. Kolchak was awarded the Golden Sword of St. George with the inscription "For Bravery" on his return to Russia. Returning to Saint Petersburg in April 1905, Kolchak was promoted to lieutenant commander and took part in the rebuilding of the Imperial Russian Navy, completely destroyed during the war, he served on the Naval General Staff from 1906, helping draft a shipbuilding program, a training program, developing a new protection plan for St. Petersburg and the Gulf of Finland.

Kolchak took part in designing the special icebreakers Taimyr and Vaigach, launched in 1909 and spring of 1910. Based in Vladivostok, these vessels were sent on cartographic expedition to the Bering Strait and Cape Dezhnev. Kolchak commanded the Vaigach during this expedition and worked at the Academy of Sciences with the materials collected by him during expeditions, his study, Ice of the Kara and Siberian Seas, was printed in the Proceedings of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences and is considered the most important work on this subject. Extracts from it were published under the title "The Arctic Pack and the Polynya" in the volume issued in 1929 by the American Geographical Society, Problems of Polar Research. In 1910 he returned to the Naval General Staff, in 1912 he was assigned to the Russian Baltic Fleet; the onset of the First World War found him on the flagship Pogranichnik, where Kolchak oversaw the laying of extensive coastal defensive minefields and commanded the naval forces in the Gulf of Riga.

Commanding Admiral Essen was not satisfied to remain on the defensive and ordered Kolchak to prepare a scheme for attacking the approaches of the German naval bases. During the autumn and winter of 1914–1915, Russian destroyers and cruisers started a series of dangerous night operations, laying mines at the approaches to Kiel and Danzig. Kolchak, feeling that the man responsible for planning operations should take part in their execution, was always on board those ships which carried out the operations and at times took direct command of the destroyer flotillas, he was promoted to vice-admiral in August 1916, the youngest man at that rank, was made commander of the Black Sea Fleet, replacing Admiral Eberhardt. Kolchak's primary mission was to support General Yudenich in his operations against the Ottoman Empire, he was tasked with countering the U-boat threat and planning the invasion of the Bosphorus. Kolchak's fleet was successful at sinking Turkish colliers; because there was no railroad linking the

Lord Archibald Edward Douglas

Reverend Lord Archibald Edward Douglas was the son of Archibald Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry and his wife Caroline Margaret Clayton, daughter of General Sir William Clayton, 5th Baronet. Reverend Lord Archibald Douglas was a Roman Catholic priest who arranged the emigration of children to Canada as part of the child migration movement, whose stated goal was to place these children on farms, in sparsely settled parts of the world where they would receive training, be able to start farms of their own; the movement was controversial from its inception, being accused of forcing the children to emigrate, of breaking up families, of placing the children in a situation hardly different from slavery. Douglas sent children to the Ottawa area, to Manitoba, into Quebec. In 1874, Father Lord Archibald Douglas became Head of St Vincent's Home for Destitute Boys, in Brook Green Lane, London. There he started a printing bakery to provide work for the boys; the home moved to 333/339 Harrow Road, London, in 1876.

He used his own private means to purchase and run the Home, was assisted for a time by his sister Gertrude. He changed the policy of the Home, took in boys of greatest need. Under Father Douglas a threefold development took place. Boys from all parts of the country for whom no patron could be found were received. Appeal was made to the public conscience for funds. An extensive program was initiated. Rev. Lord Archibald Douglas edited a monthly magazine called Boys and Girls and published by The Southwark Diocesan Council and Rescue Society, to encourage interest and support for its work. Father Douglas first arrived in Canada on 2 July 1882 aboard the Peruvian. Accompanying him were his first party of children, he accompanied a group of forty boys to Manitoba. When the Southwark Catholic Emigration Society was formed is unclear, but the first formal report of the arrival in Canada of children sent by the Southwark Society dates to 1893 when 45 boys landed at Quebec; the following year there were 17 more.

Over the next three years a further 84 boys were sent, taken either by the Rev. Edward St John or by the Rev. Lord Archibald Douglas, the joint secretaries overseeing the emigration. Lord Archibald Douglas was instrumental in the formation of the Canadian Catholic Emigration Society, headquartered in Westminster, London; the Society absorbed the emigration work of the Southwark Rescue Society which commenced in 1892, the work of emigration of the archdiocese of Westminster. A reception Home was established in Hintonburg, Ottawa, in 1895. In addition, land was obtained in Manitoba in 1895, in 1897 the New Southwark Training Farm was opened in the village of Makinak in the Lake Dauphin district of Manitoba; the Society selected the children from industrial and Poor Law schools, from other sources. It sent them, to Canada; the escorts supervised the work of the agency there. Parties of 40 to 60 children were sent out at intervals. On retirement, by which time he was close to bankruptcy, he returned to his native Scotland, St Vincent was given over to Father Douglas Hope.

Home Children is a common term used to refer to the child migration scheme founded by Annie MacPherson in 1869, under which more than 100,000 children were sent to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa from the United Kingdom

Interstate 670 (Kansas–Missouri)

Interstate 670 is a 2.81 mile connector highway between I-70 in Kansas City, Kansas and I-70 in Kansas City, Missouri. The highway provides a more direct route through downtown Kansas City than the older mainline I-70, avoids the sharp turn of the latter at the west end of the Intercity Viaduct. I-670 is designated Alternate Interstate 70, one of the few interstates to be designated as an alternate. Interstate 670 makes up the south side of Kansas City's downtown freeway loop, where it passes under the southern half of Bartle Hall Convention Center; the road crosses the Kansas River and the West Bottoms, the former location of the Kansas City Stockyards, on the I-670 Viaduct. The leg of the highway west of I-35 has Kansas Department of Transportation signs proclaiming it the Jay B. Dillingham Freeway although maps list it as the Jay B. Dillingham Memorial Highway. Dillingham was a former president of the Stockyards; the freeway begins with ramps from I-70 meeting to form I-670 just before a bridge over the Kansas River, located just south of the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers.

I-70 at that point comprises U. S. Route 24, U. S. Route 40, U. S. Route 169; the freeway crosses the Kansas–Missouri state line and enters Kansas City, Missouri. The road interchanges with Interstate 35 before meeting its terminus at I-70; the freeway continues as I-70. The freeway was not part of the original planned freeways around Kansas City in 1955; the section east of the I-35 interchange was built first and finished in 1968. The western portion was not planned until 1971, was not finished until several years later. By 1987, the freeway was extended westward in the downtown Kansas area, but was not extended to I-70 until 1991, when it was opened. A portion of the highway near downtown Kansas City, Missouri was closed on May 20, 1997, in order to film the music video for the U2 song "Last Night on Earth"; the band reimbursed the Kansas City Police Department for security costs. A permit issued by the Missouri Highway and Transportation Department stated the closure "will enhance and promote the notoriety of...

Kansas City's skyline." Mike Right, vice-president of public affairs for the American Automobile Association Auto Club of Missouri, told the Kansas City Star "I can't believe the stupidity of it. They're going to close down an interstate highway that serves downtown Kansas City for a...music video? I've never heard of such a thing." U. S. Roads portal Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Interstate 670 Kansas/Missouri, Interstate-Guide.com