Alexander Nevsky

Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky served as Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir during some of the most difficult times in Kievan Rus' history. Regarded as a key figure of medieval Rus', Alexander – the grandson of Vsevolod the Big Nest – rose to legendary status on account of his military victories over German and Swedish invaders while agreeing to pay tribute to the powerful Golden Horde, he was canonized as a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church by Metropolite Macarius in 1547. From Tales of the Life and Courage of the Pious and Great Prince Alexander found in the Second Pskovian Chronicle, circa 1260–1280, comes one of the first known references to the Great Prince: "By the will of God, prince Alexander was born from the charitable, people-loving, meek the Great Prince Yaroslav, his mother was Theodosia; as it was told by the prophet Isaiah:'Thus sayeth the Lord: I appoint the princes because they are sacred and I direct them.' "... He was taller than others and his voice reached the people as a trumpet, his face was like the face of Joseph, whom the Egyptian Pharaoh placed as next to the king after him of Egypt.

His power was a part of the power of Samson and God gave him the wisdom of Solomon... this Prince Alexander: he used to defeat but was never defeated..." Born in Pereslavl-Zalessky, Alexander was the second son of Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich and Feodosia Igorevna of Ryazan. His maternal grandfather was Igor Glebovich, the second son of Gleb Rostislavich, Prince of Ryazan, his maternal grandmother was Agrafena of daughter of Rostislav I of Kiev. Alexander seemed to have no chance of claiming the throne of Vladimir. In 1236, the Novgorodians summoned him to become knyaz of Novgorod and, as their military leader, to defend their northwest lands from Swedish and German invaders. According to the Novgorod Chronicle written in the 14th century, the Swedish army had landed at the confluence of the rivers Izhora and Neva and his small army attacked the Swedes on 15 July 1240 and defeated them. Battle of the Neva saved Novgorod from a full-scale invasion from the West; because of this battle, 19-year-old Alexander gained the sobriquet "Nevsky".

This victory, coming just three years after the disastrous Mongol invasion of the Rus' lands of the North West, strengthened Alexander's political influence, but at the same time it worsened his relations with the boyars. He would soon have to leave Novgorod because of this conflict. No non-Russian contemporary source mentions this supposed battle; the Chronicle identifies the alleged Swedish commander as "Spiridon" – while names after Saint Spyridon appear in both West and East, it is by far much more common in Orthodox lands than Scandinavia. Furthermore, Sweden had stood on the brink of war with Norway since the Norwegians' infamous Värmland expedition in 1225. Relations improved only after the Treaty of Lödöse in 1249, forged by the new Swedish strongman Birger Jarl. Before the treaty, Norway remained an ally of the Folkungs, giving them refuge and providing men and arms. In this situation, it seems unlikely that Sweden could have been able to organize a major expedition against Novgorod.

Swedes are not known to have carried out any other military campaigns between 1222 and 1249, making the claims about their forceful appearance at the Neva with Norwegians as their allies in 1240 seem questionable. After the Germans and Estonians invaded Pskov, the Novgorod authorities sent for Alexander. In spring of 1241 he returned from exile, gathered an army, drove out the invaders. Alexander and his men faced the Livonian heavy cavalry led by the bishop of Dorpat; the Rus' force met the enemy on the ice of Lake Peipus and defeated the German knights and the Estonian infantry during the Battle of the Ice on 5 April 1242. Alexander's victory marked a significant event in the history of Russia. Foot soldiers of Novgorod had surrounded and defeated an army of knights, mounted on horseback and clad in thick armour. Nevsky's great victory against the Livonian Order involved only a few knights killed rather than the hundreds claimed by the Russian chroniclers. After the Livonian invasion, Nevsky continued to strengthen Russia's Northwest.

He sent his envoys to Norway and, as a result, they signed a first peace treaty between Russia and Norway in 1251. Alexander led his army to Finland and routed the Swedes, who had made another attempt to block the Baltic Sea from the Russians in 1256. Nevsky proved to be a far-sighted politician, he dismissed the Roman Curia’s attempts to cause war between Russia and the Golden Horde, because he understood the uselessness of such war with the Tatars at a time when they were still a powerful force. Historians seem to be unsure about Alexander's behavior, he may have thought that Catholicism presented a more tangible threat to Russian national identity than paying a tribute to the Khan, who had little interest in Slav religion and culture. It is argued that he intentionally kept the North Slav principalities and city states as vassals to the Mongols in order to preserve his own status and counted on the befriended Horde in case someone challenged his authority. Alexander tried to strengthen his authority at the expense of the boyars

Ninetology Vox

The Ninetology Vox is a dual band GSM 900/1800 color mobile phone manufactured by Ninetology with dual SIM capabilities. It was announced in November 2012 via a campaign called VOX G. O. L. D Fund that aimed to raise donations funds for Yayasan Maha Karuna; the Ninetology Vox has a MT 6250 single core processor. Its dimensions are 115.6 mm x 49.6 mm x weighs 88 grams. It possesses a 2.4-inch IPS display screen with a 240 x 320 resolution and is capable of producing up to 65K colors. It is equipped with a 1.3 MP rear-facing camera. The battery has a capacity of Li-Ion 1200 mAh, additional storage is available via a MicroSD card socket, certified to support up to 8 GB of additional storage; the VOX G. O. L. D Fund campaign organized by Ninetology aims to raise donations funds for Yayasan Maha Karuna. Ninetology does this by donating a large percentage of its accumulated sales from its Vox model to the organization. Http://

Density logging

Density logging is a well logging tool that can provide a continuous record of a formation's bulk density along the length of a borehole. In geology, bulk density is a function of the density of the minerals forming a rock and the fluid enclosed in the pore spaces; this is one of three well logging tools that are used to calculate porosity, the other two being sonic logging and neutron porosity logging The tool was developed in the 1950s and was in use throughout the hydrocarbon industry by the 1960s. A type of active nuclear tool, a radioactive source and detector are lowered down the borehole and the source emits medium-energy gamma rays into the formation. Radioactive sources are a directional Cs-137 source; these gamma rays interact with electrons in the formation and are scattered in an interaction known as Compton scattering. The number of scattered gamma rays that reach the detector, placed at a set distance from the emitter, is related to the formation's electron density, which itself is related to the formation's bulk density via ρ e = 2 ρ bulk Z A where Z is the atomic number, A is the molecular weight of the compound.

For most elements Z / A is about 1/2. The electron density in g/cm³ determines the response of the density tool; the tool itself consisted of a radioactive source and a single detector, but this configuration is susceptible to the effects of the drilling fluid. In a similar way to how the sonic logging tool was improved to compensate for borehole effects, density logging now conventionally uses 2 or more detectors. In a 2 detector configuration, the short-spaced detector has a much shallower depth of investigation than the long-spaced detector so it is used to measure the effect that the drilling fluid has on the gamma ray detection; this result is used to correct the long-spaced detector. Assuming that the measured bulk density only depends on matrix density and fluid density, that these values are known along the wellbore, porosity can be inferred by the formula ϕ = ρ matrix − ρ bulk ρ matrix − ρ fluid Common values of matrix density ρ matrix are: Quartz sand - 2.65 Limestone - 2.71 Dolomite - 2.87This method is the most reliable porosity indicator for sandstones and limestones because their density is well known.

On the other hand, the density of clay minerals such as mudstone is variable, depending on depositional environment, overburden pressure, type of clay mineral and many other factors. It can vary from 2.1 to 2.76. A fluid bulk density ρ fluid of 1 g/cm³ is appropriate where the water is fresh but saline water has a higher density and lower values should be used for hydrocarbon reservoirs, depending on the hydrocarbon density and residual saturation. In some applications hydrocarbons are indicated by the presence of abnormally high log porosities. Sonic logging