Alexander Whitelaw Robertson Trocchi was a Scottish novelist. Trocchi was born in Glasgow to Italian father. After working as a seaman on the Murmansk convoys, he attended the University of Glasgow. On graduation he obtained a travelling grant. In the early 1950s he lived in Paris and edited the literary magazine Merlin, which published Henry Miller, Samuel Beckett, Christopher Logue, Pablo Neruda, amongst others. Although not published in Merlin, American writer Terry Southern, who lived in Paris from 1948−1952, became a close friend of both Trocchi and his colleague Richard Seaver, the three co-edited the anthology Writers In Revolt. Though "Merlin" had been established somewhat in rivalry with the Paris Review, George Plimpton had served on the magazine's editorial board. Trocchi claimed that this journal came to an end when the US State Department cancelled its many subscriptions in protest over an article by Jean-Paul Sartre praising the homoeroticism of Jean Genet. Maurice Girodias published most of Trocchi's novels through Olympia Press written under pen names, such as Frances Lengel and Carmencita de las Lunas.
Girodias published My Life and Loves: Fifth Volume, which purported to be the final volume of the autobiography of Irish-American writer Frank Harris. However, though based on autobiographical material by Harris, the book was edited and rewritten by Trocchi. Maurice Girodias commissioned him to write erotica along with his friends and Merlin associates Christopher Logue, John Stevenson, George Plimpton. Under the name Frances Lengel, Trocchi churned out numerous pornographic books including the now classic Helen and Desire and a dirty version of his own book Young Adam. Trocchi and his friends published Samuel Beckett's War and Memory and Jean Genet's Thief’s journal in English for the first time. Trocchi acquired his lifelong heroin addiction in Paris, he left Paris for the United States and spent time in Taos, New Mexico, before settling in New York City, where he worked on a stone scow on the Hudson River. This time is chronicled in the novel Cain's Book, which at the time became something of a sensation, being an honest study of heroin addiction with descriptions of sex and drug use that got it banned in Britain, where the book was the subject of an obscenity trial.
In the United States, however, it received favorable reviews. Trocchi was deep in the throes of heroin addiction, his wife Lyn prostituted herself on the streets of the Lower East Side. He injected himself on camera during a live television debate on drug abuse, despite being on bail at the time, he had been charged with supplying heroin to a minor, an offence punishable by death. A jail term seemed certain, but with the help of friends, Trocchi was smuggled over the Canada–US border where he was given refuge in Montreal by poet Irving Layton and met up with Leonard Cohen, his wife Lyn was arrested and son Marc detained, but joined Trocchi in London. In the late 1950s he lived in Venice, California the centre of the Southern California Beat scene. In October 1955, he became involved with the Lettrist International and the Situationist International, his text "Invisible Insurrection of a Million Minds" was published in the Scottish journal New Saltire in 1962 and subsequently as "Technique du Coup du Monde" in Internationale Situationniste, number 8.
It proposed an international "spontaneous university" as a cultural force and marked the beginning of his movement towards his sigma project, which played a formative part in the UK Underground. Trocchi appeared at the 1962 Edinburgh Writers Festival where he claimed "sodomy" as a basis for his writing. During the festival, Hugh MacDiarmid denounced him as "cosmopolitan scum." However, while this incident is well known, it is little remarked upon that the two men subsequently engaged in correspondence, became friends. Trocchi moved to London, where he remained for the rest of his life, he began The Long Book, which he did not finish. Much of his sporadic work of the 1960s was collected as The Sigma Portfolio. In March 1966 the Internationale Situationniste, issue number 10, announced "Upon the appearance in London of the first publications of the'Project Sigma' initiated by Alexander Trocchi, it was mutually agreed that the SI could not involve itself in such a loose cultural venture... It is therefore no longer as a member of the SI that our friend Alexander Trocchi has since developed an activity of which we approve of several aspects."
He published little. He opened a small book store near his Kensington home, he was known in Notting Hill as "Scots Alec". In the 1960s Trocchi lived at 4 Observatory Gardens, London on the two top floors of a 19th-century terrace block comprising six storeys, he had two sons: Nicholas. The elder son, Marc died of cancer at age 19 in 1976, shortly after Alexander's American wife Lyn died of complications from hepatitis, he died of pneumonia in London on 15 April 1984. The final tragedy was the suicide of the younger son, Nicholas who, some years after his father's death, returned to the family's home in London and leapt from the top floor of the five-storey building to his death; when the terrace block was extensively refurbished into luxury apartments in the 1980s the number on Alexander Trocchi's house was removed. Interest in Trocchi and his role in the avant-garde movements of the mid-20th century began to rise soon after his death. Edinburgh Review published a "Trocchi Number" in 1985 and their parent house published the biography
The Minerva class is a series of corvettes of the Italian Navy. They were built in two batches of four units during the 1990s; the ships have good speed and armament, including a 76 mm general-purpose gun, due to their emphasis on anti-submarine warfare, they lack anti-ship missile capabilities. These units are designed to operate in coastal areas, their main missions include sea policing, fisheries protection, naval commando training. Four ships of this class, namely Minerva, Urania and Sibilla, were sold to Bangladesh Coast Guard; these ships were reclassified as Leader-class offshore patrol vessels. Before delivery, each ship's weapons and sensor systems were removed and replaced with one Oerlikon KBA 25 mm gun and modern sensors appropriate to coast guard roles. A helipad was added at the stern of each ship to accommodate a rescue helicopter. Saunders, Stephen. Jane's Fighting Ships 2002–2003. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0710624328
Romanian passport is an international travel document issued to nationals of Romania, may serve as proof of Romanian citizenship. Besides enabling the bearer to travel internationally and serving as indication of Romanian citizenship, the passport facilitates the process of securing assistance from Romanian consular officials abroad or other European Union member states in case a Romanian consular is absent, if needed. According to the 1 January 2020 Henley Visa Restrictions Index, Romanian citizens can visit 172 countries without a visa or with a visa granted on arrival. Romanian citizens can live and work in any country within the EU as a result of the right of free movement and residence granted in Article 21 of the EU Treaty. According to the 2019 The Passport Index, Romanian passport is globally ranked 9th with a score of entering 160 countries without a visa or with a visa granted on arrival; every Romanian citizen is a citizen of the European Union. The passport, along with the national identity card allows for free rights of movement and residence in any of the states of the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland The term for passport – name still in use today, which describe the general document travel under which Romanian travellers can travel beyond the borders of the Danube and the Habsburg Empire – first appears regulated in the Organic Regulations, which came into force in 1830 in Moldavia and 1831 in Wallachia.
According to historical data, travellers were required to show a passport at the border of Wallachia both the consulate, ravaged by road. Foreigners arrived in the country had to have a visa Romanian consulate, present at Agie, where passports are released which could move anywhere in the country. A historic milestone in the evolution of Romanian passport was the promulgation, on 19 March 1912 by King Carol I, the first modern laws related to passports. Thus, the "Law on paspoartelor" Romanian state introduced the first general principles regarding passports and border crossing mandatory for authorities and citizens; the law was structured XI articles, passport thus becoming national legal instruments needed to be used when Romanians travelling abroad. Liberate the Ministry of Interior and county prefects, "paspoartele" were issued in the name of King and had small portable card format "size 9 cm 13 cm, is composed of 20 pages numbered." Each page had framed, a fund composed of national reasons, in light lilac colour, making apparent to stand above the coat of arms and having the word "Romania", below the word "Pasport".
Evolution of the passports continued in the period before and during the Second World War, when new types of ordinary passports and diplomatic were introduced, some distinguished by a special technique of fastening tabs of covers, which create a fan effect. Political and social changes occurring with the proclamation on 30 December 1947 of the Romanian People's Republic led authorities at the time to introduce into circulation passports with a new name of the state and a new heraldic. After the Romanian Revolution of 1989 and the collapse of the communist bloc Romanian authorities opened the country's borders, which led to an exodus of Romanian citizens wishing to travel abroad, it was necessary that the organs with attributions issuing passports to circulate the Romanian travel documents to be aligned with international standards to be similar to those issued by other states. Thus, in accordance with Government Decision no. 757 of 30 December 1993, starting June 1994, was introduced into circulation a new model of Romanian passport simple first Romanian travel document issued in accordance with international standards.
On 21 January 2002, the Romanian government introduced a new type of passport in a decision taken due to exacerbation of migration and the need to ensure greater security of documents, as in use European and international level at the time. Like most countries in Southeast Europe, Romania has committed itself in the process of accession to the EU, assuming certain responsibilities to comply, just as member countries and requirements designed to compete in a safe lifestyle, this signifying and harmonisation of legislation and issuing travel documents to comply with international and European; the adoption on 20 July 2005, Law no. 248 on the free movement of Romanian citizens abroad held in conditions that Romanian citizens could exercise their right of free movement abroad and the limits of this right. In 2019 a new design was introduced for the passport; the new design has the country's 3D amended coat of arms which now contains a crown at the top of the eagle. On page 16, the passport holder must complete the particular details of a relative or friend who can be contacted in case of accident: full name and telephone.
The types of passports are: Diplomatic Business Simple: valid for 10 years for applicants aged 18 or over, 5 years for applicants between 12 and 18 years of age, 3 years for applicants under the age of 12. Romania has begun issuing its biometric passport on 31 December 2008; the Ministry of Internal Affairs, through the Community Public Service of Issuance and Registration of Simple Passports, is responsible for the issuance and renewal of Romanian passports. Regular Romanian EU passports are burgundy red in colour, with the Romania Coat of Arms emblazoned in the centre of the front cover; the words "European Union", "Romania", "passport" are inscribed above and below the coat of arms. The information page identifying the bearer and the issuing authority is on the first page, not numbered (the Romanian passp