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Alexandre Dumas

Alexandre Dumas known as Alexandre Dumas père, was a French writer. His works have been translated into many languages, he is one of the most read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure were published as serials, including The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After, The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later, his novels have been adapted since the early twentieth century into nearly 200 films. Prolific in several genres, Dumas began his career by writing plays, which were produced from the first, he wrote numerous magazine articles and travel books. In the 1840s, Dumas founded the Théâtre Historique in Paris, his father, General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie, was born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue to Alexandre Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, a French nobleman, Marie-Cessette Dumas, a black slave. At age 14 Thomas-Alexandre was taken by his father to France, where he was educated in a military academy and entered the military for what became an illustrious career.

Dumas's father's aristocratic rank helped young Alexandre acquire work with Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans as a writer, finding early success. Decades after the election of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte in 1851, Dumas fell from favour and left France for Belgium, where he stayed for several years moved to Russia for a few years before going to Italy. In 1861, he founded and published the newspaper L'Indépendent, which supported Italian unification, before returning to Paris in 1864. Though married, in the tradition of Frenchmen of higher social class, Dumas had numerous affairs. In his lifetime, he was known to have at least four illegitimate children, although twentieth-century scholars found that Dumas fathered three other children out of wedlock, he acknowledged and assisted his son, Alexandre Dumas, to become a successful novelist and playwright. They are known as Alexandre Dumas Alexandre Dumas fils. Among his affairs, in 1866, Dumas had one with Adah Isaacs Menken, an American actress less than half his age and at the height of her career.

The English playwright Watts Phillips, who knew Dumas in his life, described him as "the most generous, large-hearted being in the world. He was the most delightfully amusing and egotistical creature on the face of the earth, his tongue was like a windmill – once set in motion, you never knew when he would stop if the theme was himself." Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie was born in 1802 in Villers-Cotterêts in the department of Aisne, in Picardy, France. He had two older sisters, Louise-Alexandrine, their parents were Marie-Louise Élisabeth Labouret, the daughter of an innkeeper, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas. Thomas-Alexandre had been born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, the mixed-race, natural son of the marquis Alexandre Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, a French nobleman and général commissaire in the artillery of the colony, Marie-Cessette Dumas, a slave of Afro-Caribbean ancestry. At the time of Thomas-Alexandre's birth, his father was impoverished, it is not known whether his mother was born in Saint-Domingue or in Africa, nor is it known from which African people her ancestors came.

Brought as a boy to France by his father and freed there, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Davy was educated in a military school and joined the army as a young man. As an adult, Thomas-Alexandre used his mother's name, Dumas, as his surname after a break with his father. Dumas was promoted to general by the age of 31, the first soldier of Afro-Antilles origin to reach that rank in the French army. While working for Louis-Philippe, Dumas began writing articles for magazines and plays for the theatre; as an adult, he used his slave grandmother's surname of Dumas. His first play, Henry III and His Courts, produced in 1829 when he was 27 years old, met with acclaim; the next year, his second play, was popular. These successes gave him sufficient income to write full-time. In 1830, Dumas participated in the Revolution that ousted Charles X and replaced him with Dumas's former employer, the Duke of Orléans, who ruled as Louis-Philippe, the Citizen King; until the mid-1830s, life in France remained unsettled, with sporadic riots by disgruntled Republicans and impoverished urban workers seeking change.

As life returned to normal, the nation began to industrialise. An improving economy combined with the end of press censorship made the times rewarding for Alexandre Dumas's literary skills. After writing additional successful plays, Dumas switched to writing novels. Although attracted to an extravagant lifestyle and always spending more than he earned, Dumas proved to be an astute marketer; as newspapers were publishing many serial novels, in 1838, Dumas rewrote one of his plays as his first serial novel, Le Capitaine Paul. He founded a production studio, staffed with writers who turned out hundreds of stories, all subject to his personal direction and additions. From 1839 to 1841, with the assistance of several friends, compiled Celebrated Crimes, an eight-volume collection of essays on famous criminals and crimes from European history, he featured Beatrice Cenci, Martin Guerre and Lucrezia Borgia, as well as more recent events and criminals, including the cases of the alleged murderers Karl Ludwig Sand and Antoine François Desrues, who were executed.

Dumas collaborated with Augustin

PlayStation technical specifications

The PlayStation technical specifications describe the various components of the original PlayStation video game console. LSI CoreWare CW33300-based coreMIPS R3000A-compatible 32-bit RISC CPU MIPS R3051 with 5 KB L1 cache, running at 33.8688 MHz. The microprocessor was manufactured by LSI Logic Corp. with technology licensed from SGI. Features: Initial feature size was 0.5 micron. 850k – 1M transistors Operating performance: 30 MIPS Bus bandwidth 132 MB/s One arithmetic/logic unit One shifter CPU cache RAM: 4 KB instruction cache 1 KB non-associative SRAM data cacheGeometry Transform Engine Coprocessor that resides inside the main CPU processor, giving it additional vector math instructions used for 3D graphics, geometry and coordinate transformations – GTE performs high-speed matrix multiplications. Operating performance: 66 MIPS Polygons per second: 90,000 with texture mapping and Gouraud shading 180,000 with texture mapping 360,000 with flat shadingMotion Decoder Also residing within the main CPU, enables full screen, high quality FMV playback and is responsible for decompressing images and video into VRAM.

Operating performance: 80 MIPS Documented device mode is to read three RLE-encoded 16×16 macroblocks, run IDCT and assemble a single 16×16 RGB macroblock. Output data may be transferred directly to GPU via DMA, it is possible to overwrite IDCT matrix and some additional parameters, however MDEC internal instruction set was never documented. It is directly connected to a CPU bus. System Control Coprocessor This unit is part of the CPU. Has 16 32-bit control registers. Modified from the original R3000A cop0 architecture, with the addition of a few registers and functions. Controls memory management through virtual memory technique, system interrupts, exception handling, breakpoints. 2 MB main EDO DRAM Additional RAM is integrated with the SPU, see below for details. Cache RAM for CPU core and CD-ROM. See the relevant sections for details. Flash RAM support through the use of memory cards. BIOS stored on 512 KB ROM 32-bit Sony GPU Handles display of graphics, control of framebuffer, drawing of polygons and textures Handles 2D graphics processing, in a similar manner to the 3D engine RAM:1 MB VRAM for framebuffer 2 KB texture cache 64 bytes FIFO buffer Features: Adjustable framebuffer Emulation of simultaneous backgrounds Mask bit Texture window Dithering Clipping Alpha blending Fog Framebuffer effects Transparency effects Render to texture Offscreen rendering Multipass rendering Flat or Gouraud shading and texture mapping No line restriction Colored light sourcing Resolutions: Progressive: 256×224 to 640×240 pixels Interlaced: 256×448 to 640×480 pixels Colors: Maximum color depth of 16,777,216 colors 57,344 to 153,600 colors on screen Unlimited color lookup tables 32 levels of transparency All calculations are performed to 24 bit accuracy Texture mapping color mode:Mode 4: 4-bit CLUT Mode 8: 8-bit CLUT Mode 15: 15-bit direct Mode 24: 24-bit Sprite engine1024×512 framebuffer, 8×8 and 16×16 sprite sizes, bitmap objects Up to 4,000 sprites on screen and rotation 256×256 maximum sprite size Special sprite effects:Rotation Scaling up/down Warping Transparency Fading Priority Vertical and horizontal line scroll 16-bit Sony SPUSupports ADPCM sources with up to 24 channels Sampling rate of up to 44.1 kHz 512 KB RAM PCM audio source Supports MIDI sequencing Digital effects include: Pitch modulation Envelope Looping Digital reverb CD-ROM drive660 MB maximum storage capacity, double speed CD-ROM drive 2×, with a maximum data throughput of 300 KB/s, 150 KB/s 128 KB data buffer XA Mode 2 compliant Audio CD play CD-DA Rated for 70,000 seek operationsTwo control pads via connectorsExpandable with multitap connectorBackup flash RAM supportTwo removable cards Each card has 128 KB flash memory OS support for File Save and RemoveVideo and audio connectivityAV Multi Out RCA Composite video and Stereo out RFU DC out S-Video out Serial and parallel portsSerial I/O Parallel I/O SCPH-100x to 750x only)Power input100 VAC /120 VAC /220–240 VAC 7.5 VDC 2 A PlayStation 2 technical specifications PlayStation 3 technical specifications PlayStation 4 technical specifications

List of Brazilian football songs

Many songs are used to express and love of Brazilians for football and commemorate the country's victories into the FIFA World Cup. Though foreign fans and broadcasters play Aquarela do Nagen Brasil in Brazilian matches, these are associated with the game in Brazil; the most popular melody associated to football in Brazil is Na Cadência do Samba known as Que bonito é, which served as the theme tune for Canal 100, a newsreel running in local theaters from 1962 up to early 1980s. It is a soft samba composed and written by Luis Bandeira, famous for his frevo compositions for Carnival in Pernambuco. Although it had lyrics, the song was used by the newsreel producer Carlos Niemeyer in a purely instrumental version, orchestrated with trumpets and piano. More can be seen at the newsreel website. A Taça do, it was composed by Maugeri, Müller, Sobrinho e Dagô. The music was re-recorded in 1962,after Brazil won the World Cup in that year, with the lyrics of the last verse being modified to "O brasileiro/desta vez no Chile/mostrou o futebol como é que é/ganhou o Bicampeonato/Sambando com a bola no pé/Goool!"

Forward, Brazil introduced in 1970 during the FIFA World Cup 1970 this is and most recognized song and marks the Pelé and the Seleção Canarinho era. Composed by Miguel Gustavo and used in the film of the same name, a harsh criticism of the military dictatorship's usage of football to alienate people in regard to the horrors of political repression; this song was introduced by Rede Globo for the World Cup 1994 and is used until today by the channel. It had been released for the national championship of 1993, with different lyrics; the melody are used each time Brazil makes a goal and is the official for football broadcasts including Campeonato Brasileiro. The song was updated in 1998 for the fifth title campaign: the line "É taça na raça, Brasil!" was changed to "Tenta que é penta, Brasil!". The theme was used again in 2002, but modified due to the loss in 1998. In 2006, Rede Globo did not use the lyrics anymore, but only an instrumental version of the same song. Papa Essa Brasil was the Rede Globo World Cup 1990 song.

I am Brazilian, introduced in an Ambev SKOL beer TV commercial in late 1990s and used in World Cup 2002. The song can be sung in regular matches of the Campeonato Brasileiro and in games of other popular sports of Brazil such as Volleyball and Basketball, it became popular around the 1998 World Cup