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Alexandria

Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic center. With a population of 5,200,000, Alexandria is the largest city on the Mediterranean, the sixth-largest city in the Arab world and the ninth-largest in Africa; the city extends about 40 km at the northern coast of Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea. Alexandria is a popular tourist destination, an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria was founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great, king of Macedon and leader of the Greek League of Corinth, during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. An Egyptian village named Rhacotis existed at the location and grew into the Egyptian quarter of Alexandria. Alexandria grew to become an important center of Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for 1,000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat. Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Alexandria was the intellectual and cultural center of the ancient Mediterranean world for much of the Hellenistic age and late antiquity. It was at one time the largest city in the ancient world before being overtaken by Rome; the city was a major center of early Christianity and was the center of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, one of the major centers of Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire. In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. Following the Arab conquest of Egypt in 641 AD, the city was plundered and lost its significance before re-emerging in the modern era. From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major center of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centers in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Recent radiocarbon dating of seashell fragments and lead contamination show human activity at the location during the period of the Old Kingdom and again in the period 1000-800 BC, followed by the absence of activity thereafter.

From ancient sources it is known there existed a trading post at this location during the time of Rameses the Great for trade with Crete, but it had long been lost by the time of Alexander's arrival. A small Egyptian fishing village named Rhakotis existed since the 13th century BC in the vicinity and grew into the Egyptian quarter of the city. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands; as early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Heracleion. The latter was rediscovered under water. Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Passing through Egypt, Alexander wanted to build a large Greek city on Egypt's coast that would bear his name, he chose the site of Alexandria, envisioning the building of a causeway to the nearby island of Pharos that would generate two great natural harbors. Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley.

A few months after the foundation, Alexander never returned to his city. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy Cleomenes continued the expansion; the architect Dinocrates of Rhodes designed the city. Following Alexander's death in 323 BC, his general Ptolemy Lagides took possession of Egypt and brought Alexander's body to Egypt with him. Ptolemy at first ruled from the old Egyptian capital of Memphis. In 322/321 BC he had Cleomenes executed. In 305 BC, Ptolemy declared himself Pharaoh as Ptolemy I Soter and moved his capital to Alexandria. Although Cleomenes was in charge of overseeing Alexandria's early development, the Heptastadion and the mainland quarters seem to have been Ptolemaic work. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and, for some centuries more, was second only to Rome.

It became Egypt's main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world; the Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there. The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic center of learning, but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek and Egyptian. By the time of Augustus, the city walls encompassed an area of 5.34 km2, the total population in Roman times was around 500–600,000. According to Philo of Alexandria, in the year 38 of the Common era, disturbances erupted between Jews and Greek citizens of Alexandria during a visit paid by the Jewish king Agrippa I to Alexandria, principally over the respect paid by the Jewish nation to the Roman emperor, which escalated to open affronts and violence betwe

Grover Cleveland 1888 presidential campaign

President of the United States Grover Cleveland's first term was most notable "for its record number of vetoes, more than double the number issued by all his predecessors combined." During Cleveland's first term, controlling Congressional and "wasteful spending" was an important priority for him and his administration. Cleveland's vetoes angered the Grand Army of the Republic, a powerful organization advocating for Union veterans. In his State of the Union Address in December 1887, President Cleveland called for lower tariffs and tariff reform, making it a major issue in the upcoming 1888 U. S. Presidential election. In order to ensure his renomination in 1888, Cleveland made sure to weaken the power and influence of his opponents and political enemies within the Democratic Party protectionist Pennsylvania United States Congressman Samuel J. Randall and New York Governor David B. Hill. Cleveland was renominated at the 1888 Democratic National Convention, in addition, he was able to get the Democratic party platform in 1888 to endorse his goal of lower tariffs and tariff reform.

Cleveland went into the 1888 U. S. Presidential election as the first Democratic Presidential nominee to be re-nominated since Martin Van Buren in 1840 half a century earlier; the respected former U. S. Senator Allen G. Thurman was picked as Grover Cleveland's Vice Presidential running mate. Cleveland's previous Vice President died in November 1885; the Republican Party nominated former U. S. Senator Benjamin Harrison to run against Cleveland in 1888 after 1884 Republican Presidential nominee James G. Blaine refused to run again and after several other candidates failed to win enough support. President Cleveland's campaign managers in 1888 were "William Barnum, the Democratic national chairman, Calvin Brice, a railroad promoter." The Democratic campaign was hurt by its lack of funds and by Cleveland's "lethargy" and his unwillingness to help his re-election campaign much. The only major things that President Cleveland did for his campaign are writing a " letter of acceptance and a few publicized letters on policy."

The 74-year-old Allen G. Thurman did campaign in favor of the Democratic ticket in the Midwest and Northeast. Thurman's brief speeches explained "why high tariffs were bad for workingmen and consumers and" delineated "his physical ailments, such as cholera, head cold, neuralgia." Because Thurman "collapsed twice on stage" during his speeches, the press concentrated on Thurman's poor health rather than on the contents of his speeches. In contrast to Cleveland, Harrison ran a active campaign, giving 100 speeches throughout his front porch campaign in which he defended the Republican platform while criticizing the policies of President Cleveland and his Democratic Party; the Murchison letter was released shortly before the 1888 election in an attempt to reduce Cleveland's support, but this did not work, since Cleveland gained more Irish American votes in 1888 than in 1884. The general election was pretty close—Cleveland ended up winning the popular vote by 1%, while Harrison managed to win the electoral vote 233 to 168 by narrowly winning New York and Indiana.

Cleveland was hurt in New York by Tammany Hall's lukewarm support for him. Cleveland came close to losing Connecticut, West Virginia, the ex-Confederate state of Virginia to Harrison as well. Democratic Vice Presidential nominee Thurman's home state of Ohio narrowly went for Harrison in 1888. Though Benjamin Harrison won the 1888 U. S. Presidential election, outgoing U. S. President Grover Cleveland would return to political life in a couple of years and challenge Harrison again for the U. S. Presidency in 1892. Grover Cleveland 1884 presidential campaign Grover Cleveland 1892 presidential campaign

Hysterocrates gigas

Hysterocrates gigas is a member of the tarantula family, Theraphosidae found in Cameroon. It is known as Cameroon red baboon spider, or red baboon tarantula; this is ranges in color from a dull black and gray to a rusty orange/brown. It is black when freshly turns brown just before a moult, its eyes are only able to judge light levels. Its abdomen is oval in shape with a diameter up to 4 inches. Although it has hairy legs, this tarantula is an Old World species and does not have urticating hairs on its abdomen, it has a leg span which may reach 8 inches. This tarantula, in common with the rest of the family, has downward-facing, parallel fangs, used like pickaxes rather than pincers. Adult males have smaller abdomens than females. Male pedipalps are club shaped, but it may take up to 4 years for differences between male and female to show, since the average male lifespan is about 4 years and the leg span of the male is 5”; these tarantulas spin little silk - what silk they do spin is used for egg sacs or to line their burrows - they do not make webs.

These tarantulas in particular burrow intricate burrows. Hysterocrates gigas is found in Cameroon; this species lives in sub-tropical environments. According to Sam Marshall, they dig intricate burrows, they need high humidity in their environment. They are found at ground level in tropical rain forests; these tarantulas will eat other invertebrates, such as crickets, butterflies and other spiders or small vertebrates, such as mice, frogs and birds. They are known to be one of the only swimming spiders and will dive to catch fish, they kill their prey with their venom, inject digestive juices into the body of their prey and suck up the resulting liquid. Females lay eggs in an egg sac. Spiderlings live together for up to 6 months, though some tarantulas from the same sac are believed to co-habitate long after and share burrows and tunnel systems. Most spiderlings will kill each other for food, but these spiderlings have been found to share food with their siblings. Spiderlings are difficult to see.

Their mother will kill prey for them. In their first year of life, spiderlings molt up to 8 times. Females molt about once a year after maturity and depending on how much the tarantula is fed, it will result in more frequent molts resulting in faster maturing. Adaptations: These tarantulas are opportunistic, nocturnal hunters and will take whatever prey they find; the venom of these tarantulas is not medically significant, but may cause some nausea, though if the victim is abnormally sensitive medical attention may be required. Spider venom is intended for prey items though the spider will attack humans if provoked. To defend themselves, they rear up aggressively on their hind legs in a threatening posture, smack their front legs on the ground and a sound comparable to the tearing of velcro can be produced by rubbing leg pairs I and II together. Although they may bite, their main alternate defence is to run away; the name "tarantula" is given to spiders in this family. It is a misnomer - it was given to a smaller wolf spider from Taranto, where, in the Middle Ages, people danced themselves into a trance - called the tarantella - in an attempt to purge the effects of the wolf spider's bite.

These tarantulas moult by wriggling out of it. They pull their legs out of their old skeletons. A new exoskeleton remains soft for about a week; the tarantula stretches his new skeleton to allow for the new skeleton hardens. During and after the molt, which may take hours to complete, the tarantula is dehydrated. During this time the tarantula is lying on its back with its legs in the air vulnerable to other creatures - some that would be its prey. Fangs are shed as well; the tarantula avoids eating for a week. A lost limb may be or regenerated during a moult, its natural enemies are mammals, reptiles, ants, big crickets and other tarantulas which prey on them. They are collected as pets by humans. Rhino beetles, stage beetle can kill them with defence. Animal, Ed. David Burnie & Don E. Wilson, Smithsonian Institution, 2001 Tarantulas in the Vivarium, P. Klaas, Krieger Pub. Co. 2001 The Encyclopedia of Insects, Ed. C. O'Toole, Equinox, 1987 NHM.ac.uk/e http://www.bighairyspiders.com/hgigas.shtml Arachnophiliac.co.uk http://www.eightlegs.us/gigas/gigas.html Eightlegs.us