Alexandrine is a name used for several distinct types of verse line with related metrical structures, most of which are derived from the classical French alexandrine. The line's name derives from its use in the Medieval French Roman d'Alexandre of 1170, although it had been used several decades earlier in Le Pèlerinage de Charlemagne; the foundation of most alexandrines consists of two hemistichs of six syllables each, separated by a caesura: o o o o o o | o o o o o o o=any syllable. Each applies additional options, thus a line, metrical in one tradition may be unmetrical in another. The term "alexandrine" may be used with lesser rigor. Peureux suggests that only French syllabic verse with a 6+6 structure is speaking, an alexandrine. Preminger et al. allow a broader scope: "Strictly speaking, the term'alexandrine' is appropriate to French syllabic meters, it may be applied to other metrical systems only where they too espouse syllabism as their principle, introduce phrasal accentuation, or rigorously observe the medial caesura, as in French."
Common usage within the literatures of European languages is broader still, embracing lines syllabic, accentual-syllabic, stationed ambivalently between the two. Although alexandrines occurred in French verse as early as the 12th century, they were looser rhythmically, vied with the décasyllabe and octosyllabe for cultural prominence and use in various genres. "The alexandrine came into its own in the middle of the sixteenth century with the poets of the Pléiade and was established in the seventeenth century." It became the preferred line for the prestigious genres of tragedy. The structure of the classical French alexandrine is o o o o o. Victor Hugo began the process of loosening the strict two-hemistich structure. While retaining the medial caesura, he reduced it to a mere word-break, creating a three-part line with this structure: o o o S | o o ¦ o S | o o o S |=strong caesura. However, at no point did the newer line replace the older; this loosening process led to vers libéré and to vers libre.
In English verse, "alexandrine" is used to mean "iambic hexameter": × / × / × / ¦ × / × / × / /=ictus, a strong syllabic position. Though English alexandrines have provided the sole metrical line for a poem, for example in lyric poems by Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey and Sir Philip Sidney, in two notable long poems, Michael Drayton's Poly-Olbion and Robert Browning's Fifine at the Fair, they have more featured alongside other lines. During the Middle Ages they occurred with heptameters, both exhibiting metrical looseness. Around the mid-16th century stricter alexandrines were popular as the first line of poulter's measure couplets, fourteeners providing the second line; the strict English alexandrine may be exemplified by a passage from Poly-Olbion, which features a rare caesural enjambment in the first line: The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser, with its stanzas of eight iambic pentameter lines followed by one alexandrine, exemplifies what came to be its chief role: as a somewhat infrequent variant line in an otherwise iambic pentameter context.
Alexandrines provide occasional variation in the blank verse of William Shakespeare and his contemporaries. John Dryden and his contemporaries and followers occasionally employed them as the second line of heroic couplets, or more distinctively as the third line of a triplet. In his Essay on Criticism, Alexander Pope denounced the excessive and unskillful use of this practice: The Spanish alejandrino is a line of 7+7 syllables developed in imitation of the French alexandrine. O o o o o o o | o o o o o o o It was used beginning about 1200 for mester de clerecía occurring in the cuaderna vía, a stanza of four alejandrinos all with a single end-rhyme; the alejandrino was most prominent during the 13th and 14th centuries, after which time it was eclipsed by the metrically more flexible arte mayor. Juan Ruiz's Book of Good Love is one of the best-known examples of cuaderna vía, though other verse forms appear in the work; the mid-16th-century poet Jan van der Noot pioneered syllabic Dutch alexandrines on the French model, but within a few decades Dutch alexandrines had been transformed into strict iambic hexameters with a caesura after the third foot.
Mankato Township is a township in Blue Earth County, United States. The population was 1,969 as of the 2010 census. Mankato Township was organized in 1858. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has an area of 26.6 square miles, of which 25.9 square miles is land and 0.66 square miles, or 2.50%, is water. The southeast three-quarters of the city of Mankato and the west half of the city of Eagle Lake are within the township geographically, as is as the entire city of Skyline. All are separate entities from the township. Belle Haven at 44.165522°N 93.961343°W / 44.165522. S. Highway 14 Minnesota State Highway 22 Minnesota State Highway 60 Eagle Lake Lime Township Jamestown Township Le Ray Township McPherson Township Decoria Township Rapidan Township South Bend Township The township includes the following cemeteries: Bunker Hill, Glenwood, Good Counsel, Grand View Memorial, Old Masonic, Sibley Mound and Woodland Hills Memorial Park; as of the census of 2000, the township has 1,833 people, 626 households, 520 families.
The population density was 63.4 people per square mile. There were 636 housing units at an average density of 22.0/sq mi. The township's racial makeup was 98.09% White, 0.38% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.16% from other races, 0.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.38% of the population. There were 626 households, of which 42.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 75.7% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.8% were non-families. 13.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.19. 29.9% of the township's population was under age 18, 6.8% was from age 18 to 24, 26.4% was from age 25 to 44, 28.3% was from age 45 to 64, 8.7% was age 65 or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.0 males.
The township's median household income was $64,471, the median family income was $67,143. Males had a median income of $46,151 versus $28,571 for females; the township's per capita income was $27,189. About 2.0% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. United States National Atlas United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names Mankato Township official website
Dale Carrick is a Scottish professional footballer, who plays as a forward for Airdrieonians. Carrick started his career with Heart of Midlothian, having played for Raith Rovers, Kilmarnock and Cowdenbeath. Carrick has represented Scotland at both under-21 levels. Born in Edinburgh, Carrick grew up supporting his father's home-town club Queen of the South. A member of Hearts Under-20 team Carrick made his Scottish Premier League debut on 4 August 2012 in a 2–0 win versus St Johnstone. On 23 August 2012 in only his second appearance, Carrick made his European debut as a substitute in a 1–0 defeat versus Liverpool at Tynecastle. Carrick's first goal for the Jambos arrived on 18 January 2014 in a thrilling 3–3 draw versus the Perth club at McDiarmid Park. Carrick had joined Raith Rovers on 30 January 2015 on a one-month loan deal; the loan deal was cut-short on 11 February 2015 as a result of Carrick suffering an injury. On 8 July 2015, Carrick departed the Tynecastle club to pursue regular first-team football elsewhere with his contract terminated by mutual consent.
Carrick signed a three-year contract with Kilmarnock. After one season with Killie Carrick signed for the West Lothian club Livingston in July 2016. On 26 January 2017 Carrick moved on loan to Scottish League Two club Cowdenbeath for the remainder of the 2016-17 season. Carrick departed Livi in January 2018 and signed for Airdrieonians in an attempt to get more first-team football. Carrick has represented Scotland at under-16 level. Carrick made his debut in an International Challenge match versus Jersey on 18 August 2009 and made four appearances in total; as of match played 16 November 2019 Heart of MidlothianScottish League Cup: Runner–up: 2013 Scottish Championship: Winner: 2014–15 Dale Carrick at SoccerbaseDale Carrick at Soccerway