Alexandru Lapedatu

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Alexandru I. Lapedatu

Member of the Romanian Academy
Alexandru I. Lapedatu sitting.png
PresidentRomanian Senate (1936-1937)
MinisterCults and Arts Minister: 1923-1926, 1927-1928, 1934-1936; State Minister: 1933-1934, 1936-1937
PresidentRomanian Academy (1935-1938)
Personal details
Born(1876-09-14)September 14, 1876
Cernatul Săcelelor, Austria-Hungary
DiedAugust 30, 1950(1950-08-30) (aged 73)
Sighetu Marmatiei, Romania
CitizenshipRomanian
NationalityRomanian
Spouse(s)Victoria Pană (1878-1965)
ChildrenAna Victoria (said Mica) (1914-1999)
ProfessionHistorian, politician

Alexandru I. Lapedatu (born September 14, 1876, Cernatu Săcelelor, Austria-Hungary - d. August 30, 1950, Sighetu Marmatiei, Romania) was Cults and Arts and State minister of Romania; President of the Senate of Romania; member of the Romanian Academy, and its President and General Secretary.[1]

Family[edit]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu was the son of Ioan Alexandru Lapedatu,[2] Ph.D. of the University of Brussels, Romanian poet, writer and journalist[3] and professor for classical languages at the Higher Greek-Orthodox Romanian College in Brașov (today, Andrei Şaguna National College).[4] Alexandru I. Lapedatu had a twin brother, Ion I. Lapedatu, economist, politician and Governor of the National Bank of Romania.

The twins became orphans when they were one and a half years old,[5] their mother could only rely on a modest social help from the Brașov municipality and some support from her family.[6]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu married Victoria Pană (1878-1965) on 1 June 1911;[5][7] it was her second marriage, she had two children from her first marriage, Mircea and Maria Lipăneanu, they had a daughter, Ana Victoria, said Mica (1914-1999).[6]

Education[edit]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu started 1883 the primary school in the village in which he was born;[5] then he continued school in Brașov[5] and from 1888, after moving from Transylvania in Austria-Hungary to the Kingdom of Romania, in Iași, where his mother remarried after the death of his father,[5] he got his bachelor's degree from the Central College in Iași.[6] He studied at the Faculty of Philology and Philosophy of the University of Bucharest, graduating in 1904 and getting a Diploma in Geography and History in 1910.[6]

Professional occupations[edit]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu sustained himself financially during his studies by giving private lessons[6] or getting various jobs, like night corrector, then as columnist with the journal “România Jună / Young Romania” (1899) and as a teacher for the Romanian language at the French College and the Lolliot College (1901-1903).[6]

He started publishing national history studies already as a student, wining prizes set by Fundația Universitară Carol I / University Foundation Carol I for his work on the Romanian princes Radu cel Frumos and Vlad-Vodă Călugărul,[6] as well as being the University laureate[8] and the winner of the important “Hillel” price for his work “Istoria breslelor la români / The History of the Romanian Guilds”.[2]

Upon his graduation in 1903, Alexandru I. Lapedatu was offered an entry position as a clerk at the Library of the Romanian Academy, section for manuscripts, wehere he worked between 1903-1908;[2] at the same time, he became a substitute professor at the Saint Sava National College in Bucharest.[8]

He was appointed Secretary of the Historic Monuments Commission in 1904, becoming a member on 12 August 1919[8] and being then nominated President of its Transylvania section (1921 – 1941),[9] he was elected President of the Historic Monuments Commission on 15 October 1941,[10] performing this function until the Commission has been disbanded by the communist regime in 1948.

Alexandru I. Lapedatu was active in a great number of commissions and associations,[2] he was nominated secretary of the Romanian Historical Commission in 1909[1] and became member from 1911-1919,[11] re-confirmed by royal decree in 1924.[1] He was the secretary of the Committee of the “Steaua / The Star” Association established by Spiru Haret, editing its last 27 monographs, from No. 20 to No. 47,[2] mostly with historical content.[12][8] He was elected in the Society “Arta Romaneasca / Romanian Arts” in 1909;[1] was an active member of the Romanian Royal Geographical Society (1915);[1] was elected honorific member of the Romanian Numismatic Society (1920);[6] assured the Presidency of the Commission for Museum Reform in Transylvania (1921);[13] was appointed by the Ministry of Public Education as President of the Commission for the Organization of the State Archives in Transylvania;[1] was nominated in the Commission for Introducing National Toponyms in Transylvania, Banat and Partium; in the Commission for the Verification of the Valuable Assets and Public Goods of the Previous Hungarian Monarchy and from the other territories united with the Romanian State (1922);[1] on 9 November 1922 he was proclaimed honorific member of the Religious Historical-Archaeological Society in Chișinău;[1] he was a permanent delegate in the Committee of the Transylvanian Museum Society /Erdélyi Muzeum Egyesület (1925).[13]

In 1919, when the first Romanian University was established in Cluj by the Directory Council of Transylvania, Banat and the Romanian Counties in Hungary (Consiliul Dirigent al Transilvaniei, Banatului și ținuturilor românești din Ungaria), he was nominated professor for ancient Romanian history on 23 August 1919, being confirmed by the King on 28 January 1920;[14] he was a member of the faculty until 1938, he was elected dean (1921-1922) and vice-dean (1922-1923) of the Philology and Philosophy Faculty[8] and was the co-founder, together with his colleague Ioan Lupaș, of the Institute of National History from Cluj, today the Institute of History "Gheorghe Barițiu" of the Romanian Academy, becoming in 1920-1938 its co-director, respectively in 1943-1945 its honorary director.[15]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu was the general director of the State Archives of Romania (30 March 1923 - 24 March 1924).[1]

In parallel with his academic activities, Alexandru I. Lapedatu gave history conferences in Folk High Schools: in the Summer School in Valenii de Munte, initiated in 1914 by Nicolae Iorga;[16] in the University Extension in Cluj, 1925, where he is elected Honorary President;[8] and in Free University or Folk University Association under director Sabina Cantacuzino.[6][17]

In 1910 Alexandru I. Lapedatu was elected correspondent member[1] and in 1918 active member of the History Section of the Romanian Academy,[1] he was elected vice-president (1934-1935, 1938-1939), then President of the Romanian Academy (3 June 1935 – 31 May 1938), and at the end of his mandate was elected its Secretary General (30 May 1939 – 12 August 1948).[1] Alexandru I. Lapedatu has been among the 113 members purged from the Romanian Academy (Decree Nr. 76 from 8 June 1948 of the communist regime).[18] The General Assembly of the Romanian Academy from 3 June 1990 reinstated his full membership.[15]

The list of the scientific publications by Alexandru I. Lapedatu contains 424 titles.

International missions[edit]

In 1917, the Triple Alliance armies occupied Bucharest and were advancing towards Iași; the Romanian Government decided to move the State Treasury to Russia in two transports, delegating Alexandru I. Lapedatu to accompany the second one that included cultural goods,[8] he left Iași for Moscow on 28 July 1917, and stayed there until 19 December 1917, experiencing the arrival of the Bolshevik revolution.[6]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu has been a member of the Romanian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference (1919),[2] participating in the negotiations on three instances: December 1918 - June 1919, returning after taking part in the signature ceremony of the Treaty of Versailles; again July – August 1919 participating in the incipient phase of the negotiations concerning Bessarabia;[6] and finally December 1919 - March 1920, contributing to the negotiations with Hungary that will be concluded by the Treaty of Trianon.[6]

On 31 March 1922, he has been nominated as a delegate and technical adviser in the Romanian Delegation to the Genoa Economic and Financial Conference (10 April - 19 May 1922) in which representatives from 34 nations addressed the Europe restoration in the aftermath of World War I.[1][13]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu was a member of the Romanian delegation to the XXXV Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Oslo, 15–19 August 1939, one of the last efforts to secure peace just a few days before the beginning of the World War II.[13]

Political activity[edit]

Descending from a family keeping “strong the awareness of the rights of the unbending man”, remaining “tenacious in its aspirations”,[1][13] Alexandru I. Lapedatu participated already in his school years, as many of his generation, in Romanian protests and demonstrations like the ones in Iași, in solidarity with the authors of the Memorandum.[6] During his University studies in Bucharest, he was an active member of the Liga pentru Unitatea Culturală a tuturor Românilor / League for the Cultural Unity of all Romanians.[13]

At the beginning of the world war, in Bucharest, he was nominated secretary of the Comitet de ajutorare a refugiaților din Transilvania, Banat şi Bucovina / Support Committee for the Refugees from Transylvania, Banat and Bukovina (1914-1916).[6][7] In January 1918 he co-founded in Odessa the Comitetul naţional al românilor emigraţi din Austro-Ungaria / National Committee of the Romanian Refugees from Austria-Hungary that elected him as President, moved to Iași and became a political platform bringing substantive contributions in preparing Romania for the peace negotiations at the end of World War I.[2]

In 1920, Alexandru I. Lapedatu was nominated as member of the Coronation Commission to organize the festivities consecrating Ferdinand I as the King of all Romanians, formally closing the political process of the Great Union.[13] In 1927, upon King Ferdinand I death, he was a member in the Senate delegation establishing the Regency and having it take the oath in front of the two Chambers of the Parliament.[13]

He joined the National Liberal Party in 1920, when he was elected a member of the Central Committee and of the Permanent Delegation,[6] becoming the undeniable leader of the liberals in Transylvania.[19]

At the foundation of the new University of Cluj, Alexandru I. Lapedatu was elected as the first Senator to represent it in the Romanian Senate 1919-1920.[6]

His first elected office as a member of the National Liberal Party was in 1922 as a member of the Chamber of Deputies from Ceica (Bihor). After this, he has been elected either in the Chamber of Deputies of in the Senate in all terms till 1940; he became Senator for life in 1936 and was elected President of the Romanian Senate (16 November 1936 – 20 March 1937). After the absolutist regime was deposed, he was elected in the Chamber of Deputies for the last time in 1946 -1947.[20]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu has been Arts and Cults Minister in the six Governments; from 9 June 1934, while State Minister in the Tătărescu (1) Government, he was also in charge of the Cults and Arts Department and the Minority Under-Secretariat of the Minister Council Presidency; in addition to his mandate, he also was as ad-interim Minister of Labour, Cooperation and Social Assurance in the Barbu Știrbei Government (4-6 June 1927), he was State Minister in four Governments (the list is summarized in the following table). As State Minister for Transylvania in the I.G. Duca Government, he co-signed the Journal of the Council of Ministers from 9 December 1927[21] that outlawed the fascist group “Garda de Fier / The Iron Guard”; as revenge, members of the Iron Guard assassinated the prime minister on 30 December 1933. His governmental functions[22] are listed in detail in the table.

Government Parliament
From To Prime minister Function From To Chamber Circum-scription
1.12.1919 12.3.1920 Vaida-Voievod (1) (Federation) 1919 1920 Senator Uni. Cluj
19.1.1922 29.3.1926 I. I. C. Brătianu (6) 30.10.1923: Cults and Arts Minister 27.2.1922 27.3.1926 Deputy Bihor
30.4.1926 4.6.1927 Averescu (3) 25.6.1926 6.6.1927 Senator Uni. Cluj
4.6.1927 20.6.1927 Stirbey Cults and Arts Minister
21.6.1927 24.11.1927 I. I. C. Brătianu (7) Cults and Arts Minister
21.6.1927 9.11.1928 Vintilă Brătianu 22.6.1923: Cults and Arts Minister 17.7.1927 10.11.1928 Senator Brașov
10.11.1928 6.6.1930 Maniu (1) 22.12.1928 30.4.1931 Senator
7.6.1930 12.6.1930 Mironescu (1)
13.6.1930 9.10.1930 Maniu (2)
10.10.1930 17.4.1931 Mironescu (2)
18.4.1931 5.6.1932 Iorga 15.6.1931 10.6.1932 Deputy Brasov
6.6.1932 10.8.1932 Vaida Voievod (2) 30.7.1932 18.11.1933 Senator Uni. Cluj
11.8.1932 19.10.1932 Vaida Voievod (3)
20.10.1932 13.1.1933 Maniu (3)
14.1.1933 13.11.1933 Vaida Voievod (4)
14.11.1933 29.12.1933 Duca State Minister for Transylvania
30.12.1933 3.1.1934 Angelescu State Minister
5.1.1934 1.10.1934 Tătărăscu (1) State Minister

9.6.1934: also Cults and Arts and Minorities

1.2.1934 19.12.1937

Since March 1936[7]

16.11.1936-

20.3.1937

Senator

Senator for life

President of the Senate

Cluj
2.10.1934 28.8.1936 Tătărăscu (2) Cults and Arts Minister
29.8.1936 14.11.1937 Tătărăscu (3) State Minister
6.3.1945 30.11.1946 Petru Groza (1) End of the Senator for life mandate as the Senate is abolished
1.12.1946 31.12.1947 Petru Groza (2) 1.12.1946 November 1947 (the National Liberal Party is interdicted) Deputy in the unicameral legislatures

Alexandru I. Lapedatu joined the National Renaissance Front established by King Carol II of Romania (Royal Decree Nr. 4321 from 15 December 1938) as the only political organization legally allowed in the country;[23] Carol II transformed the Front into the Partidul Națiunii / Nation’s Party (Royal Decree Nr. 2056 from 22 June 1940) that was dismantled by the prime minister Ion Antonescu (Decree from 9 September1940) three days after Carol II abdication.[23]

After King Michael's Coup d'état from 23 August 1944 that removed Ion Antonescu from power, the political parties prepared to re-enter the political life and Alexandru I. Lapedatu assumed leadership for the effort of the National Liberal Party-Brătianu in Transylvania[20] (a parallel effort with the same objective was led by Gheorghe Tătărăscu). Alexandru I. Lapedatu entered in some circumscriptions in Transylvania in an electoral cartel with the Peasants Party obtaining a modest and ephemeral electoral success in the elections from 19 November 1946, when two candidates were elected, him in Cluj and Vasile Netea in Satu Mare, in spite of the tremendous pressure and falsifications perpetrated by the Blocul Partidelor Democrate / Block of Democratic Parties dominated by the communists,[1] he soon recognized that the communist repression will prevail, but did not give up hope: on 30 September 1949, it is reported to the Securitate that Alexandru I. Lapedatu “believes in the future of the nation and in the capitulation of Russia and of communism”,[1] his vision has been confirmed more than 50 years later, with the fall of the Berlin Wall.

Romanian Participation in the Paris Peace Conference (1919)[edit]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu engaged politically in working for the Romanian unity in 1918, as President of the National Committee of the Romanian Refugees from Austria-Hungary, established in Odessa on 21 January 1918,[6] then moved to Iași, that pursued the political unity of all Romanians[2] and intended to represent them in Thomas G. Masaryk's Nationality Association in Kiev. Through this Committee, Alexandru I. Lapedatu connected with key political personalities in Romania and, thanks to the support from the French Ambassador, the Count of Saint-Aulaire, with the Triple Entente representatives.[6] On 6 / 19 October the Committee issued a Declaration, distributed to all political actors including King Ferdinand I, contesting the manifesto of Charles I of Austria proclaiming the federalization of the Empire and demanding that all territories inhabited by Romanians be united with Romania.[7]

Experiencing the depressing installation of a German Mission in Iași as a consequence of the Treaty of Bucharest (1918), Alexandru I. Lapedatu published the paper “Chestiunea transilvana / The Transylvanian Issue” in "Neamul Românesc / The Romanian Nation" stating that the Romanian issue shall find its solution when the situation of all nationalities will be addressed at the peace negotiations at the end of the war, expected to happen soon.[6]

In his letter from 28 June 1918 to the President of the National Liberal Party, Ion I.C. Bratianu, Alexandru I. Lapedatu expressed the urgent need for a document summarizing the Romanian position in the political evolution to be expected in the near future, specifically addressing: 1) the geographical, ethnical, social, cultural and political situation of the Romanians in relationship with the other nationalities; 2) the historical and political evolution between Romanians and Hungarians; 3) the denationalization policies in Transylvania and Bukovina; and 4) the impossibility to implement autonomy, federalization etc. and the unavoidable dismantling of the Danube monarchy to create new national states.[7] In recognition to his competence, Alexandru I. Lapedatu has been nominated between 1919 and 1922 as an expert in the Romanian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference (1918);[2] the documents he authored have been submitted by Romania to the Conference and have been used by the Romanian Delegation as basis for the negotiations.[24]

The Cultural Policy in the United Romania[edit]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu had cultural activities in various associations and foundations, such as in the Asociația Transilvană pentru Literatura Română și Cultura Poporului Român (ASTRA) / Transylvanian Association for the Romanian Literature and the Culture of the Romanian People[25] that proclaimed him honorific member of (8/9 November 1924)[25] and elected him member of the "demographic and ethnology-politic section" (14/15 September 1935).[25] For ASTRA he provided funding,[25] held conferences,[25] supported the publication of the ASTRA library,[25] and donated the Fund “Al. I. Lapedatu”.[25]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu expressed his conviction that promoting the cultural development is an essential mission of the State and the nation, and proposed and implemented policies pursuing the enhancement of the cultural and artistic prestige of all cities, and of the country as a whole.[8] Alexandru I. Lapedatu formulated the principles of the monument preservation and restoration already in 1911.[8][26] Under his leadership, the Section of the Historical Monuments Commission in Cluj executed in 1929-1948 more than 240 conservation and restoration projects, addressing Romanian heritage such as antiques Roman and Dacian vestiges, medieval stone churches and monasteries, wooden architecture, rear glass painted icons, the Hunedoara and Bran Castles, the Suțu palace and the Filipescu House in Bucharest etc.[27] After 1918, the Commission for Historic Monuments also undertook large restoration works on monuments belonging to Hungarian or Saxon minorities including Roman Catholic or Evangelical churches in Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, Brasov, Alba Iulia, Sighișoara etc.[28]

As Cults and Arts Minister for almost seven years, he pursued a wide the areas of activities:

The General Regime of the Cults in Romania (1928 – 1948)[edit]

The first challenging task of Alexandru I. Lapedatu as a minister has been to establish a legal frame for the cults in the unified Romania,[31] he presented the statement of reasons for the law clarifying that in the united Romania, besides the Orthodox Church, the State recognized the following cults: Romanian Greek-Catholic (united), Catholic (of Latin, Greek and Armenian ritual), reformed (Calvin), evangelic-Lutheran, Unitarian, Mosaic, Muslim and finally Baptist (recognized only in Transylvania), each governed by a different legislation in the regions coming from Russia, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria respectively the Kingdom of Romania.[32] The framework was set by the Constitution from 1923 that guaranteed absolute freedom of consciousness and equal treatment for all cults, except that it stipulated that the Orthodox Church was dominant, and the Greek-catholic cult has priority.[33]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu worked towards a legislation reinforcing the State sovereignty and secularism.

  • First, he proposed a law to elevate the status of the head of Romanian Orthodox Church to the rank of a Patriarch; it was adopted by the Parliament on 25 February 1925, with his signature as the responsible minister;[34]
  • Second, he worked with the Orthodox Church to define its Statute unifying the differences among the different regions; upon his proposal, the Parliament adopted the Statute by the law from 6 May 1925, with his signature as the responsible minister;[35]
  • Third, he collaborated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to restart the negotiations on a Concordat with the Holy See and concluded them on 15 January 1926 when an official text was agreed upon by both parties;[6] the Concordat was signed on 10 May 1927 and ratified on 12 June 1929.[36]

Since the two exceptions mentioned in the Constitution were no more in the position to challenge State prerogatives, it was now possible for Alexandru I. Lapedatu to submit to the Parliament, after animated consultations and debates, a project that obtained almost the unanimity of votes both in the Chamber of Deputy and in the Senate; it was adopted on 22 April 1928[37] and remained in power until 1948,[32] it was an essential achievement toward the unification of the young Romanian State.[31]

Distinctions[edit]

Alexandru I. Lapedatu received national and foreign distinctions:[22]

National distinctions:

  • Jubilee medal Carol I, Royal decree Nr. 5384/28, December 1905. Official Journal Nr. 218 / 1 January 1906 – 10 May 1906
  • Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House, Grade: Officer or 2nd Class, Royal Decree Nr. 885/24 March 1909
  • Order of the Star of Romania, Grade: Commander, Royal Decree from 21 October 1922
  • Order of the Crown (Romania), Grade: Grand Cross, Royal Decree from 22 January 1926
  • Order of Bene Merenti of the Royal House, Grade: Commander or 1st Class, Royal Decree Nr. 2749/ 3 November 1928 for achievements in the fields of “history, literature and education”
  • Medal “The Reward for the Work in Education”, First Class, Royal Decree Nr. 4102 / 17 November 1930 “for services in the field of education”
  • Honorific Sign "The Reward for the Work in the Public Service" for 25 years, Royal Decree Nr. 3994 / 10 December 1931
  • The Order "The Cultural Merit" for literature, Grade: Officer or First Class, Royal Decree from 22 September 1931 “for services brought to education and religion, as well as contributions in the field of literature, arts, sciences and social endeavours”
  • The “Peles” Medal, established by Royal Decree Nr. 2305 / 16 August 1933; awarded: Decree Nr. 224 / 25 September 1933
  • Honorific Sign “The Eagle of Romania”, Grade: Commander of Second Class, Royal Decree Nr. 2762 / 11 November 1933
  • Order of Ferdinand I, Grade: Knight, Royal Decree from 15 March 1934
  • Medal for the Centenary of King Carol I / Medalia Centenarul Regelui Carol I, Royal Decree Nr. 1915, 2036 / 1939 and Nr. 372 / 1940
  • “For contributions to the army supply”, Brevet issued by the Ministry of Supply / Ministerul inzestrarii armatei, Nr. 6272 / p March 1940
  • “Cultural Merit” Order and Medal, Grade: Commander, Royal Decree Nr. 248 / 1 February 1943 “for literature”

Foreign :

End of life[edit]

In 1950, the communist regime cancelled the pension of Alexandru I. Lapedatu, leaving him without any revenue,[1] he was arrested in the night of 5/6 May 1950 in the group of "dignitaries”. He passed away on 30 August 1950 in the prison from Sighetu Marmatiei and was buried in a common grave without a sign,[1] his cenotaph is in the "Groaveri" cemetery in Brașov.

Recognition[edit]

Streets in Romania named after Alexandru I. Lapedatu:

Alexandru I. Lapedatu donated his library to the “Lucian Blaga” Central University Library in Cluj-Napoca; he is listed in the Golden Book of donors and the Professors’ Reading Hall is named after him.

His bust is placed in front of the Așezământul Cultural “Alexandru Lapedatu” / “Alexandru Lapedatu” Cultural Establishment in the Fundaţia Colegiul European / European College Foundation in Cluj-Napoca.

His name is on plaques on the natal house in Săcele, in the National College Andrei Șaguna and in the National College Saint Sava.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Opriș, I. (2016) [1997]. Alexandru Lapedatu and His Contemporaries (Internet, Civic Academy Foundation ed.). Cluj-Napoca: Editura Albastră. pp. 4, 13, 40, 16, 19, 34, 23, 32, 35, 17, 19, 4, 31, 151, 138–139, 142, 147, 6. ISBN 978-9739215466.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Crăciun, I. (1936). "Alex. I. Lapedatu...". Omagiu: XXV, XXV, XXV, XXVIII, XXVI, XXVI, XXV, XXVI, XXVII.
  3. ^ Lapedatu, I. A. (1976). Vatamaniuc, D. (foreword, notes) (ed.). Incercări... Cluj-Napoca: Editura Dacia.
  4. ^ Braharu, D. (1936). "Ion Al. Lapedatu...". Omagiu: VIII.
  5. ^ a b c d e Lapedatu, I.I. (2016) [1998]. Opris, I. (foreword, notes) (ed.). Memoirs and Memories (Internet, Civic Academy Foundation ed.). Iasi: Institutul European. pp. 25, 255, 47, 50, 55. ISBN 978-9735860738.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Lapedatu, Al. (2016) [1998]. Opriș, I. (foreword, notes) (ed.). Memories (Internet, Civic Academy Foundation ed.). Cluj-Napoca: Editura Albastră. pp. 2, 90, 311, 312, 50, 59, 62, 319, 271, 117–162, 195, 199, 43, 91, 205, 13, 163, 173, 164, 270. ISBN 978-9739215756.
  7. ^ a b c d e Ciupea, I.; Țârău, V. (2007). Cluj Liberals. Destinies in the Great History. Vol. 2. Cluj-Napoca: Editura MEGA. pp. 195, 195, 200–201, 197, 197. ISBN 9789731868189.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Opriș, I. (2016) [1996]. Alexandru Lapedatu in the Romanian Culture (Internet, Civic Academy Foundation ed.). Bucharest: Editura Științifică. pp. 15, 15, 16, 17, 39, 102, 30, 77, 31, 117, 95, 69, 57, 88, 117, 97, 99. ISBN 978-9734401901.
  9. ^ Sechel, D. (1997). "Alexandru Lapedatu and the Research on Middle-Age..." (PDF). Universitatea '1 December 1918' Alba Iulia, Buletinul Cercurilor Stiintifice Studentesti, Arheologie-Istorie. Nr. 3: 153. ISSN 1454-8097.
  10. ^ Brătescu, V. (1943). 1942 Yearbook of the Historic Monuments Commission. Bucharest: Monitorul Oficial și Imprimeriile Statului, Imprimeria Națională. p. 7.
  11. ^ Pop, I.A. (2016). "Alexandru Lapedatu : A University Profesor in Cluj". Academica. Anul XXVI, Nr. 9: 5.
  12. ^ Mazălu, D.M. (2009). "The main periods in the writing of the historian Alexandru Lapedatu". Transilvania: 57.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Opriș, I. (2017). The Lapedatu Twins. History and Finances. Bucharest: Oscar Print. pp. 111, 107, 107, 106, 53, 55, 115. ISBN 9789736684357.
  14. ^ *** (29 January 1920). "Decree". Official Journal. Nr. 222: 11461.
  15. ^ a b Edroiu, N. (2016). "Alexandru Lapedatu (1876 – 1950) – founder and co-director of the National History Institute in Cluj". Academica. Nr. 9: 10, 11.
  16. ^ Ivănescu, I. (2008). "The Light from Valenii de Munte". România Literară. Nr. 31.
  17. ^ Cantacuzino, Sabina (2014). From the Life of the Ion C. Brătianu Family. 1914-1919. Bucharest: Humanitas. p. 295. ISBN 9789735046750.
  18. ^ Otiman, P.I. (2013). "1948 – the Year of the Tremendous Sacrifice of the Romanian Academy". Akademos Istorie. Nr. 4(31): 118.
  19. ^ Nastasă, L. (2007). The 'Sovereigns' of the Romanian Universities. Cluj-Napoca: LIMES. p. 375. ISBN 978-9789737260.
  20. ^ a b Ciupea, I.; Țarău, V. (2009). Cluj Liberals. Destinies in the Great History. Vol. 1. Cluj-Napoca: Editura MEGA. pp. 279, 267–273. ISBN 9789731868714.
  21. ^ *** (9 December 1933). "Journals of the Council of Ministers". Official Journal. 286 bis: 7644.
  22. ^ a b Opriș, I. (1996). Alexandru Lapedatu in the Romanian Culture (Paper ed.). Editura Științifică. pp. 317–332.
  23. ^ a b Teompa, A.Ș. "National Renaissance Front - First Mass Party". Neamul Românesc-on-line. ISSN 1844-055X.
  24. ^ Lapedatu, Alexandru (1919). La Roumanie devant le Congrès de la Paix. 4 volumes. Paris: Ed. Dubois et Bauer.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Preda, G. (1944). 'Astra' Activity in the 25 Years since the Union (1918-1943) (PDF). Sibiu: Editura ASTRA. pp. 4, 81, 89, 70, 83–84, 113, 168.
  26. ^ Lapedatu, Al. (1911). Brief Overview on the Historic Monuments Conservation and Restoration in Romania. In: "To Spiru C. Haret. Yours from Yours". Bucharest: Tip. Carol Göbl – I.St. Rasidescu. pp. 780–801.
  27. ^ a b c Lapedatu, A. (1985). Opriș, I. (ed.). Selected Publications. Cluj-Napoca: Editura Dacia. pp. 32, 27, 37.
  28. ^ Opriș, I. (1994). The Commission of Historic Monuments. Bucharest: Editura Enciclopedica. p. 166. ISBN 9789734500772.
  29. ^ Farkas, E. "The History of the Guruslau Monument". Graiul Sălajului.
  30. ^ *** (21 March 1926). "Law Regarding the Organization and Administration of the National Theaters and the Performances Control in Romania". Official Journal. No. 67: 3912–3920.
  31. ^ a b Știrban, M. (2002). "The Issue of a Reglementation for the General Regime of the Cults (1922-1928)". Submission to the Yearly Yearbook of the History Institute "George Bariţiu", Series HISTORICA. Nr. XLI.
  32. ^ a b Russu Ardeleanu, D. (1928). Our Church and the Minority Cults... Bucharest: Imprimeria ziarului "Universul". pp. 14–15.
  33. ^ "CONSTITUTION". Official Journal. No. 282: 13318. 29 March 1923.
  34. ^ "Law to Elevate the Arch-Bishop and Metropolitan Siege of Ungro-Vlahia as the Primate of Romania to the Rank of Patriarch". Official Journal. No. 44: 1921–1922. 25 February 1925.
  35. ^ "Law Regarding the Organization of the Romanian Orthodox Church". Official Journal. 44: 4993–5015. 6 May 1925.
  36. ^ Gojinescu, C. (2009). "The Concordate from 1928 ..." (PDF). Etnosfera. No. 1, Anul I (XII): 25–37.
  37. ^ "LEGEA PENTRU REGIMUL GENERAL AL CULTELOR / LAW FOR THE GENERAL REGIME OF THE CULTS". Official Journal. Nr 89. 22 April 1929.

References[edit]

  • ***: Official Journal / Monitorul Oficial Nr. 222/29 January 1920, Decree, pag. 11461
  • ***: Official Journal / Monitorul Oficial Nr. 282, 29 March 1923,“CONSTITUTIUNE / CONSTITUTION”, pag. 13315-13333
  • ***: Official Journal / Monitorul Oficial Nr. 44, 25 February 1925, “Lege pentru Ridicarea Scaunului Arhiepiscopal si Mitropolitan al Ungro-Vlahiei ca Primat al Romaniei, la rangul de Scaun Patriarhal / Law to Elevate the Arch-Bishop and Metropolitan Siege of Ungro-Vlahia as the Primate of Romania to the Rank of Patriarch”, pag. 1921-1922
  • ***: Official Journal / Monitorul Oficial Nr. 97, 6 May 1925, “Lege pentru organizarea Bisericii Ortodoxe române / Law Regarding the Organization of the Romanian Orthodox Church”, pag. 4993-5015
  • ***: Official Journal / Monitorul Oficial Nr. 67, 21 March 1926, “Lege pentru organizarea și administrarea teatrelor naționale și controlul spectacolelor în România / Law Regarding the Organization and Administration of the National Theaters and the Performances Control in Romania”, pag. 3912-3920
  • ***: Official Journal / Monitorul Oficial Nr. 89, 22 April 1928, “Lege pentru regimul general al cultelor / Law Regarding the General Regime of the Cults”
  • Braharu, D.: “Ion Al. Lapedatu (1844-1878). Note bio-bibliografice / Ion Al. Lapedatu (1844-1878). Bio-Bibliographical Notes”. In: “Fraţilor Alexandru şi Ion I. Lapedatu la împlinirea vârstei de 60 de ani / To the Alexandru and Ion I. Lapedatu Brothers at Their 60th Anniversary”, XIV. IX. MCMXXXVI, Monitorul Oficial, Imprimeria Naţională, Bucharest 1936, page VII-XXIV.
  • Brătescu, Victor: “Anuarul Comisiunii Monumentelor Istorice pe 1942/ 1942 Yearbook of the Historic Monuments Commission,” Monitorul Oficial și Imprimeriile Statului / Imprimeria Națională, București, 1943
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  • Edroiu, Nicolae; Moraru, Alexandru; Man, Dorel; Turcuş, Veronica: ”Alexandru Lapedatu (1876-1950) ctitor de instituţii ştiinţifice şi cultural-bisericeşti”, Cluj-Napoca, Edit. Renaşterea, 2009
  • Edroiu, Nicolae: “Alexandru Lapedatu (1876-1950) – ctitor si codirector al Institutului de Istorie Nationala din Cluj / Alexandru Lapedatu (1876 – 1950) – founder and co-director of the National History Institute in Cluj”, ACADEMICA Annul XXVI, Nr. 9, September 2016, pp. 9–11 http://www.acad.ro/academica2002/rev2016/pag_acad2016_nr311_sep.htm
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  • Fürtos, Andrea: ”Aspecte privind distrugerea elitei romanesti interbelice. Metode, mijloace si mod de actiune (1950-1955) / Aspects regarding the destruction of the Romanian in-between the wars elite. Methods, Means and Operating Mode”, Tara Barsei (serie noua), Nr. 1, Annul I (XII), 2002, pp. 69–78, ISSN 1583-3119, http://tara-barsei.ro/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/furtos2002.pdf
  • Gojinescu, C.: “Concordatul din 1929 şi organizarea cultului catolic în România / The Concordat from 1928 and the organisation of the catholic cult in Romania”, Etnosfera, Nr 1, 2009, p. 25-37, http://www.etnosfera.ro/pdf/2009/1/03.pdf
  • Ivanescu, Ion : “Lumina de la Vălenii de Munte” , Romania Literara Nr. 31, 2008, http://www.romlit.ro/lumina_de_la_vlenii_de_munte
  • Lapedatu, Alexandru: “La Roumanie devant le Congrès de la Paix”, Paris, Ed. Dubois et Bauer, 1919 :
    • Actes d’union des provinces de Bessarabie, Bucovine, Transylvanie, Banat et des régions roumaines de Hongrie avec le Royaume de Roumanie”, 22 p.
    • La Transylvanie et les territoires roumains de Hongrie. (Renseignements statistiques et ethniques)”, 30 p.
    • “Le Banat de Temeshvar”, 37 p.
    • Les revendications territoriales de la Roumanie”, 18 p.
  • Lapedatu, Alexandru: “Scurtă privire asupra cestiunii conservării şi restaurării monumentelor istorice în România / Brief Overview on the Historic Monuments Conservation and Restoration in Romania”, in: “Lui Spiru C. Haret. Ale tale dintr’ale tale / To Spiru C. Haret. Yours from Yours”, Tip. Carol Göbl – I.St. Rasidescu, Bucureşti, 1911, pp. 780–801
  • Lapedatu, Alexandru, Opriş, Ioan (editor, foreword and notes): “Scrieri alese / Selected Publications”, Editura Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 1985
  • Lapedatu, Alexandru, Opriş, Ioan (editor, foreword and notes): “Amintiri / Memories”, Editura Albastră, Cluj-Napoca, 1998. Internet version edited by the Civic Academy Foundation, 2016 http://www.memorialsighet.ro/carti/alexandru-lapedatu-amintiri-2/
  • Lapedatu, I.A., Vatamaniuc D. (editor, foreword and notes): “Încercări de literatură / Literary Endeavors”, Editura Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 1976. Internet version edited by the Foundation Civic Academy, 2016 http://www.memorialsighet.ro/carti/incercari-in-literatura-ioan-a-lapedatu/
  • Lapedatu, Ion I., Opriș Ioan (editor, foreword and notes): “Memorii şi amintiri / Memoirs and Memories”, Institutul European, Iaşi, 1998, ISBN 973-586-073-2. Internet version edited by the Civic Academy Foundation, 2016 http://www.memorialsighet.ro/carti/memorii-si-amintiri/
  • Mazălu, Dan-Mircea: ”Principalele etape în scrisul istoricului Alexandru Lapedatu / The main periods in the writing of the historian Alexandru Lapedatu”, TRANSILVANIA Nr. 2, 2009, pp. 55–61, https://revistatransilvania.ro/2-2009/
  • Nastasă, Lucian: “ ‘Suveranii’ Universităților românești / The ‘Sovereigns’ of the Romanian Universities”, Editura LIMES, Cluj-Napoca, 2007, ISBN 978-973-726-278-3, http://www.history-cluj.ro/Istorie/cercet/Nastasa/SuveraniiUniversitatilorI.pdf
  • Opriș, Ioan: “Comisiunea Monumentelor Istorice / The Commission of Historic Monuments”, Editura Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1994, ISBN 978-973-4500772
  • Opriş, Ioan: “Alexandru Lapedatu în cultura românească / Alexandru Lapedatu in the Romanian Culture”, Editura Stiintifica, Bucuresti, 1996, ISBN 973-44-0190-4. Internet version edited by the Civic Academy Foundation, 2017 http://www.memorialsighet.ro/carti/alexandru-lapedatu-cultura-romaneasca/
  • Opriș, Ioan: “Alexandru Lapedatu şi contemporanii săi / Alexandru Lapedatu and His Contemporaries”, Editura Albastră, Cluj-Napoca 1997, ISBN 973-9215-46-7. Internet version edited by the Civic Academy Foundation, 2016 http://www.memorialsighet.ro/carti/alexandru-lapedatu-si-contemporanii-sai/
  • Opriş, Ioan: “Gemenii Lapedatu. Istorie și finanțe / The Lapedatu Twins. History and Finances”, Ed. Oscar Print, Bucharest, 2017, ISBN 978-9736-68435-7
  • Otiman, Păun Ion: “1948 – anul imensei jertfe a Academiei Romane / 1948 – the year of the tremendous sacrifice of the Romanian Academy”, AKADEMOS ISTORIE, Nr. 4 (31), 2013, pp. 115–124. https://www.scribd.com/document/345599425/1948-anul-imensei-jertfe-a-Academiei-romane-pdf
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel: “Alexandru Lapedatu – un universitar clujean / Alexandru Lapedatu : A University Profesor in Cluj”, ACADEMICA Annul XXVI, Nr. 9, September 2016, pp. 5–8, http://www.acad.ro/academica2002/rev2016/pag_acad2016_nr311_sep.htm
  • Preda, Dr. G.: “‘Activitatea ‘Astrei’ în 25 de ani de la Unire (1918-1943) / Astra’ Activity in the 25 Years since the Union (1918-1943)”, Sibiu, 1944, Editura ASTREI, http://centrulslavici.uvvg.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/G.%20Preda%20ACTIVITATEA%20ASTRA%201918-1943.pdf
  • Russu Ardeleanu, M.: ”Biserica noastră și cultele minoritare. Marea discuție parlamentară în jurul legei cultelor / Our Church and the Minority Cults; the Great Parliamentary Discussion on the Law of the Cults”, Bucuresti, 1928, http://www.digibuc.ro/proxy/?px=aHR0cDovL2RpZ2l0b29sLmRjLmJtbXMucm86ODg4MS9SL1hDUUdDUFJUMkdEU1ZUQUtJVlFONjVCMlYzUEoxQ0s2STNNQjlBVE1BNUE2VjdBM0RFLTA1MzI2P2Z1bmM9cmVzdWx0cy1qdW1wLWZ1bGwmYW1wO3NldF9lbnRyeT0wMDAwMDEmYW1wO3NldF9udW1iZXI9MDM2MDQwJmFtcDtiYXNlPUdFTjAx
  • Sechel, Daniela: “Alexandru Lapedatu şi cercetările asupra monumentelor istorice medievale în cadrul C.M.I.T. / Alexandru Lapedatu and the Research on Middle-Age Historic Monuments within the Historic Monuments Commission – Transylvania Section (CMIT)”, Universitatea ‘1 December 1918’ Alba Iulia, Buletinul Cercurilor Stiintifice Studentesti, Arheologie-Istorie, No 3, 1997, ISSN 1454-8097, pp. 153–156, http://www.diam.uab.ro/istorie.uab.ro/publicatii/colectia_bcss/bcss_3/22_sechel.pdf
  • Stirban, Marcel: “Problema reglementarii regimului general al cultelor (1922-1928). Etape, proiecte, problem in litigiu / The Problem of a Regulation for the General Regime of the Cults (1922-1928). Steps, Projects, Controversial Issues”, “Babes-Bolyai” University, Cluj-Napoca, 2002. http://www.history-cluj.ro/Istorie/anuare/2002/Stirban%20-%20Problema%20reglementarii.htm
  • Teompa, Aviu Ştefan: „Frontul renaşterii naţionale – primul partid de masă/ National Renaissance Front - First Mass Party“, Neamul Romanesc, ISSN 1844-055X, https://arhivaneamulromanesc.wordpress.com/dezvaluiri/teompa-aviu-stefan-%e2%80%9efrontul-renasterii-nationale-primul-partid-de-masa%e2%80%9c/