The Bion satellites named Biocosmos, is a series of Soviet biosatellites focused on space medicine. They are part of the Kosmos satellites; the Soviet biosatellite program began in 1966 with Kosmos 110, resumed in 1973 with Kosmos 605. Cooperation in space ventures between the Soviet Union and the United States was initiated in 1971, with the signing of the United States and Soviet Union in Science and Applications Agreement; the Soviet Union first offered to fly US experiments on a Kosmos biosatellite in 1974, only a few years after the termination of the U. S. biosatellite program. The offer was realized in 1975 when the first joint U. S./Soviet research were carried out on the Kosmos 782 mission. The Bion spacecraft were based on the Zenit and launches began in 1973 with primary emphasis on the problems of radiation effects on human beings. Launches in the program included Kosmos 110, 605, 690, 782, plus Nauka modules flown on Zenit-2M reconnaissance satellites. 90 kg of equipment could be contained in the external Nauka module.
The Soviet/Russian Bion program provided U. S. investigators a platform for launching Fundamental Space Biology and biomedical experiments into space. The Bion program, which began in 1966, included a series of missions that flew biological experiments using primates, insects and plants on a biosatellite in near-earth orbit. NASA participated in 9 of the 11 Bion missions. NASA ended its participation in the program with the Bion 11 mission launched in December 1996; the collaboration resulted in the flight of more than 100 U. S. experiments, one-half of all U. S. Life Sciences flight experiments accomplished with non-human subjects; the missions ranged from five days to around 22 days. In 2005 the Bion program was resumed with three new satellites of the modified Bion-M type – the first flight was launched April 19, 2013 from Baikonur cosmodrome, Kazakhstan; the first satellite of the new series Bion-M1 featured an aquarium by the German Aerospace Center and carried 45 mice, 18 Mongolian gerbils, 15 geckos, snails and micro-organisms into orbit for 30 days before re-entry and recovery.
All the gerbils died due to a hardware failure, but condition of the rest of the experiments, including all geckos, was satisfactory. Half the mice died. Bion-M2 is scheduled to launch in 2023 on a Soyus 2.1a rocket to an altitude of 800 km. The orbiter will carry 75 mice and studies will focus on how they are affected at molecular level by space radiation. Zenit Satellites - Bion Variant Astronautix, Bion TsSKB, Bion images RW Ballard, JP Connolly. U. S./U. S. S. R. Joint research in space biology and medicine on Kosmos biosatellites. FASEB J. 4: 5-9
GLONASS, or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating as part of a radionavigation-satellite service. It provides an alternative to GPS and is the second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision. Manufacturers of GPS navigation devices say that adding GLONASS made more satellites available to them, meaning positions can be fixed more and especially in built-up areas where buildings may obscure the view to some GPS satellites. GLONASS supplementation of GPS systems improves positioning in high latitudes. Development of GLONASS began in the Soviet Union in 1976. Beginning on 12 October 1982, numerous rocket launches added satellites to the system, until the completion of the constellation in 1995. After a decline in capacity during the late 1990s, in 2001, under Vladimir Putin's presidency, the restoration of the system was made a top government priority and funding increased substantially. GLONASS is the most expensive program of the Russian Federal Space Agency, consuming a third of its budget in 2010.
By 2010 GLONASS had achieved 100% coverage of Russia's territory and in October 2011 the full orbital constellation of 24 satellites was restored, enabling full global coverage. The GLONASS satellites' designs have undergone several upgrades, with the latest version, GLONASS-K2, scheduled to enter service in 2019. An announcement predicts the deployment of a group of communications and navigational satellites by 2040; the task includes the delivery to the Moon of a series of spacecraft for orbital research and the establishment of a lunar communications and positioning system. GLONASS is a global satellite navigation system, providing real time position and velocity determination for military and civilian users; the satellites are located in middle circular orbit at 19,100 kilometres altitude with a 64.8 degree inclination and a period of 11 hours and 15 minutes. GLONASS's orbit makes it suited for usage in high latitudes, where getting a GPS signal can be problematic; the constellation operates with eight evenly spaced satellites on each.
A operational constellation with global coverage consists of 24 satellites, while 18 satellites are necessary for covering the territory of Russia. To get a position fix the receiver must be in the range of at least four satellites. GLONASS satellites transmit two types of signal: open standard-precision signal L1OF/L2OF, obfuscated high-precision signal L1SF/L2SF; the signals use similar DSSS binary phase-shift keying modulation as in GPS signals. All GLONASS satellites transmit the same code as their standard-precision signal; the center frequency is 1602 MHz + n × 0.5625 MHz, where n is a satellite's frequency channel number. Signals are transmitted in a 38° cone, using right-hand circular polarization, at an EIRP between 25 and 27 dBW. Note that the 24-satellite constellation is accommodated with only 15 channels by using identical frequency channels to support antipodal satellite pairs, as these satellites are never both in view of an earth-based user at the same time; the L2 band signals use the same FDMA as the L1 band signals, but transmit straddling 1246 MHz with the center frequency 1246 MHz + n×0.4375 MHz, where n spans the same range as for L1.
In the original GLONASS design, only obfuscated high-precision signal was broadcast in the L2 band, but starting with GLONASS-M, an additional civil reference signal L2OF is broadcast with an identical standard-precision code to the L1OF signal. The open standard-precision signal is generated with modulo-2 addition of 511 kbit/s pseudo-random ranging code, 50 bit/s navigation message, an auxiliary 100 Hz meander sequence, all generated using a single time/frequency oscillator; the pseudo-random code is generated with a 9-stage shift register operating with a period of 1 ms. The navigational message is modulated at 50 bits per second; the superframe of the open signal is 7500 bits long and consists of 5 frames of 30 seconds, taking 150 seconds to transmit the continuous message. Each frame is 1500 bits long and consists of 15 strings of 100 bits, with 85 bits for data and check-sum bits, 15 bits for time mark. Strings 1-4 provide immediate data for the transmitting satellite, are repeated every frame.
Strings 5-15 provide non-immediate data for each satellite in the constellation, with frames I-IV each describing five satellites, frame V describing remaining four satellites. The ephemerides are updated every 30 minutes using data from the Ground Control segment; the almanac is updated daily. The more accurate high-precision signal is available for authorized users, such as the Russian military, yet unlike the US P code, modulated by an encrypting W code, the GLONASS restricted-use codes are broadcast in the clear using only security through obscurity; the details of the high-precision signal have not been disclosed. The modulation
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic known as the Russian Soviet Republic and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, as well as being unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia, or Russia, was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, afterwards the largest, most populous and most economically developed of the 15 Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1990 a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, during the last two years of the existence of the USSR. The Russian Republic comprised sixteen smaller constituent units of autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais and forty oblasts. Russians formed the largest ethnic group; the capital of the Russian SFSR was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. The economy of Russia became industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR.
By 1961, it was the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region and Siberia, trailing in production to only the United States and Saudi Arabia. In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care. After 1985, the "perestroika" restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s under General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives; the Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed on 7 November 1917 as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state with the ideology of Communism. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922, the Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR setting up of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The 1977 Soviet Constitution stated that "Union Republic is a sovereign state that has united in the Union" and "each Union Republic shall retain the right to secede from the USSR". On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, established separation of powers, established citizenship of Russia and stated that the RSFSR shall retain the right of free secession from the USSR. On 12 June 1991, Boris Yeltsin, supported by the Democratic Russia pro-reform movement, was elected the first and only President of the RSFSR, a post that would become the presidency of the Russian Federation; the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt with the temporary brief internment of President Mikhail Gorbachev destabilised the Soviet Union. On 8 December 1991, the heads of Russia and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords; the agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its original founding states and established the Commonwealth of Independent States as a loose confederation.
On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet. On 25 December 1991, following the resignation of Gorbachev as President of the Soviet Union, the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation, with President Yeltsin re-establishing the sovereign and independent state. With the lowering at 12 midnight of the red flag with hammer and sickle design of the now former USSR from the towers of the Kremlin in Moscow on 26 December 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of the Republics, which by that time was the only functioning chamber of the parliamentary Supreme Soviet. After dissolution of the USSR, Russia declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, including UN membership and permanent membership on the Security Council, but excluding foreign debt and foreign assets of the USSR; the 1978 RSFSR Constitution was amended several times to reflect the transition to democracy, private property and market economy. The new Russian Constitution, coming into effect on 25 December 1993 after a constitutional crisis abolished the Soviet form of government and replaced it with a semi-presidential system.
Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky, the Bolshevik communists established the Soviet state on 7 November 1917 after the interim Russian Provisional Government, most led by opposing democratic socialist Alexander Kerensky, which governed the new Russian Republic after the overthrow of the Russian Empire government of the Romanov imperial dynasty of Czar Nicholas II the previous March, was now itself overthrown during the following October Revolution, the second of t
Expendable launch system
An expendable launch vehicle is a launch system or launch vehicle stage, used only once to carry a payload into space. Satellites and human spacecraft were launched using expendable launchers. ELV advantages include cost savings through mass production, a greater payload fraction, their components are not recovered. This contrasts with a reusable launch system or RLV, in which some or all of the components are recovered intact; the vehicle consists of several rocket stages, discarded one by one as the vehicle gains altitude and speed. A few companies are developing reusable launch systems intended to cut costs. A reusable launch vehicle, such as the SpaceX Falcon 9 first-stage booster, may be flown in "expendable configuration" to increase performance, although this is unusual; the now-retired Space Shuttle was one of the earliest RLVs. It was intended to reduce launch costs, but increased them; some reusable launch vehicles are, on occasion, launched to orbit in "expendable configuration." For example, EchoStar 23 was launched to orbit in March 2017 on an RLV Falcon 9 where the first stage carried no grid fins nor landing legs, used all of the requisite propellant for landing to impart additional energy to the heavy mass of the large commsat payload being transported to geosynchronous orbit.
On March 26, 1980, the European Space Agency and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales created Arianespace, the world's first commercial space transportation company. Arianespace produces and markets the Ariane launcher family. During 1995 Arianespace lofted its 100th satellite and on 23 September 1997 the Ariane rocket had its 100th launch. Arianespace's 23 shareholders represent scientific, technical and political entities from 10 different European countries; the major shareholder is the CNES, with 34.68% of capital. From the beginning of the Shuttle program until the Challenger disaster in 1986, it was the policy of the United States that NASA be the public-sector provider of U. S. launch capacity to the world market. At the start, NASA subsidized satellite launches, intending to price Shuttle service for the commercial market at long-run marginal cost. On October 30, 1984, United States President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Commercial Space Launch Act; this enabled an American industry of private operators of expendable launch systems.
On November 5, 1990, United States President George H. W. Bush signed into law the Launch Services Purchase Act The Act, in a complete reversal of the earlier Space Shuttle monopoly, specified that NASA is to purchase launch services for its primary payloads from commercial providers whenever such services are required in the course of its activities; this lead to the NASA COTS program. The Russian government sold part of its stake in RSC Energia to private investors in 1994. Energia together with Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center constituted most of the Russian manned space program. In 1997, the Russian government sold off enough of its share to lose the majority position. In 1996 the United States government selected Lockheed Martin and Boeing to each develop Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles to compete for launch contracts and provide assured access to space; the government's acquisition strategy relied on the strong commercial viability of both vehicles to lower unit costs.
This anticipated market demand did not materialize, but both the Delta IV and Atlas V EELVs remain in active service. Beginning in 2013, the Russian government began a renationalization of the Russian space sector. Among the actions taken was the formation of the United Rocket and Space Corporation to consolidate a large number of disparate companies and bureaus; the efforts have continued into 2014. On 19 May 2015 State Duma passed a bill on a creation of Roscosmos State Corporation, further consolidating the industry. Since 1995 Khrunichev's Proton rocket is marketed through International Launch Services while the Soyuz rocket is marketed via Starsem. Energia builds the Soyuz rocket and owns part of the Sea Launch project which flies the Ukrainian Zenit rocket. In 2003 Arianespace joined with Boeing Launch Services and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries to create the Launch Services Alliance. In 2005, continued weak commercial demand for EELV launches drove Lockheed Martin and Boeing to propose a joint venture called the United Launch Alliance to lower costs for the United States government.
Comparison of orbital launch systems Comparison of orbital launchers families Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Launch vehicle Lists of rockets NewSpace Spacecraft propulsion Spaceflight Lockheed Martin website The Boeing Company Arianespace website ESA website Mitsubishi Heavy Industries website Mitsubishi Heavy Industries website
Mir was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and by Russia. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996, it had a greater mass than any previous spacecraft. At the time it was the largest artificial satellite in orbit, succeeded by the International Space Station after Mir's orbit decayed; the station served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, astronomy and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of space. Mir was the first continuously inhabited long-term research station in orbit and held the record for the longest continuous human presence in space at 3,644 days, until it was surpassed by the ISS on 23 October 2010, it holds the record for the longest single human spaceflight, with Valeri Polyakov spending 437 days and 18 hours on the station between 1994 and 1995. Mir was occupied for a total of twelve and a half years out of its fifteen-year lifespan, having the capacity to support a resident crew of three, or larger crews for short visits.
Following the success of the Salyut programme, Mir represented the next stage in the Soviet Union's space station programme. The first module of the station, known as the core module or base block, was launched in 1986 and followed by six further modules. Proton rockets were used to launch all of its components except for the docking module, installed by a US Space Shuttle mission STS-74 in 1995; when complete, the station consisted of seven pressurised modules and several unpressurised components. Power was provided by several photovoltaic arrays attached directly to the modules; the station was maintained at an orbit between 296 km and 421 km altitude and travelled at an average speed of 27,700 km/h, completing 15.7 orbits per day. The station was launched as part of the Soviet Union's manned spaceflight programme effort to maintain a long-term research outpost in space, following the collapse of the USSR, was operated by the new Russian Federal Space Agency; as a result, most of the station's occupants were Soviet.
Mir was deorbited in March 2001. The cost of the Mir programme was estimated by former RKA General Director Yuri Koptev in 2001 as $4.2 billion over its lifetime. Mir was authorised by a 17 February 1976 decree, to design an improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space stations. Four Salyut space stations had been launched since 1971, with three more being launched during Mir's development, it was planned. By August 1978, this had evolved to the final configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station, it was planned that the ports would connect to 7.5-tonne modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These modules would have used a Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, the descent and orbital modules would have been replaced with a long laboratory module. Following a February 1979 governmental resolution, the programme was consolidated with Vladimir Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station programme; the docking ports were reinforced to accommodate 20-tonne space station modules based on the TKS spacecraft.
NPO Energia was responsible for the overall space station, with work subcontracted to KB Salyut, due to ongoing work on the Energia rocket and Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, Progress spacecraft. KB Salyut began work in 1979, drawings were released in 1982 and 1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels, Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Luch satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers. By early 1984, work on Mir had halted while all resources were being put into the Buran programme in order to prepare the Buran spacecraft for flight testing. Funding resumed in early 1984 when Valentin Glushko was ordered by the Central Committee's Secretary for Space and Defence to orbit Mir by early 1986, in time for the 27th Communist Party Congress, it was clear that the planned processing flow could not be followed and still meet the 1986 launch date. It was decided on Cosmonaut's Day 1985 to ship the flight model of the base block to the Baikonur cosmodrome and conduct the systems testing and integration there.
The module arrived at the launch site on 6 May, with 1100 of 2500 cables requiring rework based on the results of tests to the ground test model at Khrunichev. In October, the base block was rolled outside its cleanroom to carry out communications tests; the first launch attempt on 16 February 1986 was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed, but the second launch attempt, on 19 February 1986 at 21:28:23 UTC, was successful, meeting the political deadline. The orbital assembly of Mir began on 19 February 1986 with the launch of the Proton-K rocket. Four of the six modules which were added followed the same sequence to be a
Soviet people or citizens of the USSR was an umbrella demonym for the population of the Soviet Union. Used as a nonspecific reference to the Soviet population, it was declared to be a "new historical and international unity of people". Through the history of the Soviet Union, both doctrine and practice regarding ethnic distinctions within the Soviet population varied over time. Minority national cultures were not abolished in the Soviet Union. By Soviet definition, national cultures were to be "socialist by content and national by form", to be used to promote the official aims and values of the state. While the goal was always to cement the nationalities together in a common state structure, as a pragmatic step in the 1920s and early 1930s under the policy of korenizatsiya the leaders of the Communist Party promoted federalism and the strengthening of non-Russian languages and cultures. By the late 1930s, policy shifted to more active promotion of Russian language and still to more overt Russification efforts, which accelerated in the 1950s in areas of public education.
Although some assimilation did occur, this effort did not succeed on the whole as evidenced by developments in many national cultures in the territory after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Reinforcing the distinctions in national identities, the Soviet state maintained information about "nationality" on many administrative records, including school and military records, as well as in the periodic censuses of population; the "fifth record" was the section of the obligatory internal passport document which stated the citizen's ethnicity. Nikita Khrushchev had used the term in his speech at the 22nd Communist Party Congress in 1961, when he declared that in the USSR there had formed a new historical community of people of diverse nationalities, having common characteristics—the Soviet people; the 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union finalized this definition. This single all-Soviet entity—the Soviet people, Sovietskiy narod—was attributed many of the characteristics that official doctrine had ascribed to nations and nationalities composing the multi-national Soviet state.
The "Soviet people" were said to be a "new historical and international community of people having a common territory and socialist content. According to the 2010 Russian Census 27,000 Russians identified themselves as members of the Soviet people. Demographics of the Soviet Union Homo Sovieticus Melting pot New Soviet man Orthodoxy and Nationality Rootless cosmopolitan Russification Zhonghua minzu, the equivalent notion in the People's Republic of China Yugoslavs
The Luna programme called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. Fifteen were successful, each designed as either an orbiter or lander, accomplished many firsts in space exploration, they performed many experiments, studying the Moon's chemical composition, gravity and radiation. Twenty-four spacecraft were formally given the Luna designation; those that failed to reach orbit were not publicly acknowledged at the time, not assigned a Luna number. Those that failed in low Earth orbit were given Cosmos designations; the estimated cost of the Luna programme was about $4.5 billion. Luna 1 missed its intended impact with the Moon and became the first spacecraft to fall into orbit around the Sun. Luna 2 mission hit the Moon's surface, becoming the first man-made object to reach the Moon. Luna 3 rounded the Moon that year, returned the first photographs of its far side, which can never be seen from Earth.
Luna 9 became the first probe to achieve a soft landing on another planetary body. It returned five black and white stereoscopic circular panoramas, which were the first close-up shots of the Lunar surface. Luna 10 became the first artificial satellite of the Moon. Luna 17 and Luna 21 carried the Lunokhod vehicles. Another major achievement of the Luna programme, with Luna 16, Luna 20 and Luna 24, was the ability to collect samples of lunar soil and return them to Earth; the programme returned 0.326 kg of lunar samples. The Luna missions were the first space-exploration sample return missions to rely on advanced robotics. Luna 15 designed to return soil samples from the lunar surface, underwent its mission at the same time as the Apollo 11 mission. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were on the lunar surface when Luna 15 began its descent, the spacecraft crashed into a mountain minutes later. While the programme was active, it was Soviet practice not to release any details of missions which had failed to achieve orbit.
This resulted in Western observers assigning their own designations to the missions, for example Luna E-1 No.1, the first failure of 1958 which NASA believed was associated with the Luna programme, was known as Luna 1958A. NASA identified a spacecraft which it referred to as Luna 1966A as having launched on 30 April 1966, a spacecraft referred to as Luna 1969B as having launched on 15 April 1969, a spacecraft referred to as Luna 1970B as having launched on 19 February 1970; when details of Soviet launches were disclosed, no launches of Luna spacecraft were found to have occurred on those dates. Luna Luna-Glob Soviet moonshot Soviet space program Lunar and Planetary Department Moscow University Luna Series Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration Encyclopædia Britannica, Luna Space Probe Soviet Luna Chronology Soviet Lunar Images Exploring the Moon: Luna Missions