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Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, comte de Tocqueville, colloquially known as Tocqueville, was a French aristocrat, political scientist and historian. He is best known for The Old Regime and the Revolution. In both, he analysed the improved living standards and social conditions of individuals as well as their relationship to the market and state in Western societies. Democracy in America was published after Tocqueville's travels in the United States and is today considered an early work of sociology and political science. Tocqueville was active in French politics, first under the July Monarchy and during the Second Republic which succeeded the February 1848 Revolution, he retired from political life after Louis Napoléon Bonaparte's 2 December 1851 coup and thereafter began work on The Old Regime and the Revolution. Tocqueville argued the importance of the French Revolution was to continue the process of modernizing and centralizing the French state which had begun under King Louis XIV; the failure of the Revolution came from the inexperience of the deputies who were too wedded to abstract Enlightenment ideals.

Tocqueville was a classical liberal who advocated parliamentary government and was skeptical of the extremes of democracy. During his time in parliament, he sat on the centre-left, but the complex and restless nature of his liberalism has led to contrasting interpretations and admirers across the political spectrum. Regarding his political position, Tocqueville wrote "the word'left' is... the word I wanted to attach to my name so that it would remain attached to it forever." Tocqueville came from an old Norman aristocratic family. His parents, Hervé Louis François Jean Bonaventure Clérel, Count of Tocqueville, an officer of the Constitutional Guard of King Louis XVI. Under the Bourbon Restoration, Tocqueville's father became a noble prefect. Tocqueville attended the Lycée Fabert in Metz. Tocqueville, who despised the July Monarchy, began his political career in 1839. From 1839 to 1851, he served as member of the lower house of parliament for the Manche department, he sat on the centre-left, defended abolitionist views and upheld free trade while supporting the colonisation of Algeria carried on by Louis-Philippe's regime.

In 1847, he sought to found a Young Left party which would advocate wage increases, a progressive tax, other labor concerns in order to undermine the appeal of the socialists. Tocqueville was elected general counsellor of Manche in 1842 and became the president of the department's general council between 1849 and 1852. According to one account, Tocqueville's political position became untenable during this time in the sense that he was mistrusted by both the left and right and was looking for an excuse to leave France. In 1831, Tocqueville obtained from the July Monarchy a mission to examine prisons and penitentiaries in the United States and proceeded there with his lifelong friend Gustave de Beaumont. While he did visit some prisons, Tocqueville traveled in the United States and took extensive notes about his observations and reflections, he returned within nine months and published a report, but the real result of his tour was De la démocratie en Amerique, which appeared in 1835. Beaumont wrote an account of their travels in Jacksonian America: Marie or Slavery in the United States.

During this trip, he made a side trip to Lower Canada to Montreal and Quebec City from mid-August to early September 1831. Apart from North America, Tocqueville made an observational tour of England, producing Memoir on Pauperism. In 1841 and 1846, he traveled to Algeria, his first travel inspired his Travail sur l'Algérie in which he criticized the French model of colonisation based on an assimilationist view, preferring instead the British model of indirect rule which avoided mixing different populations together. He went as far as advocating racial segregation between the European colonists and the Arabs through the implementation of two different legislative systems. In 1835, Tocqueville made a journey through Ireland, his observations provide one of the best pictures of. The observations chronicle the growing Catholic middle class and the appalling conditions in which most Catholic tenant farmers lived. Tocqueville made clear both his libertarian sympathies and his affinity for his Irish co-religionists.

After the fall of the July Monarchy during the February 1848 Revolution, Tocqueville was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly of 1848, where he became a member of the commission charged with the drafting of the new Constitution of the Second Republic. He defended the election of the President of the Republic by universal suffrage; as the countryside was thought to be more conservative than the labouring population of Paris, universal suffrage was conceived as a means to counteract the revolutionary spirit of Paris. During the Second Republic, Tocqueville sided with the Party of Order against the socialists. A few days after the February insurrection, he believed that a violent clash between the Parisian workers' population led by socialists agitating in favour of a "Democratic and Social Republic" and the conservatives, which included the aristocracy and the rural population, was inescapable; as Tocqueville had foreseen, these social tensions eventuall

John Peter Smith Hospital

John Peter Smith Hospital is a Level 1 Trauma Center, 573-bed county hospital located in Fort Worth, Texas that provides inpatient and behavioral healthcare. John Peter Smith Hospital is part of the tax-supported JPS Health Network of the Tarrant County Hospital District; the hospital has an Emergency Department, Trauma Services Department, Urgent Care Center and is home to the county's only Psychiatric Emergency Center. Established in 1906, the hospital is named for a former mayor of Fort Worth. Smith is considered by many to be "the Father of Fort Worth." He was instrumental in changing the county seat to Fort Worth. Smith served six terms as mayor and donated many acres of land for public works projects such as cemeteries and the county hospital which bears his name; the hospital is the only Level I Trauma Center in Tarrant County. The facilities at 1500 Main Street on Fort Worth's Near Southside, include a Patient Care Pavilion – a five-story acute care facility - an outpatient care center and a dedicated facility for psychiatric services.

JPS is a teaching hospital and trains nurses and other healthcare workers. JPS is home to ACGME and AOA accredited residency programs including a Family Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Psychiatry, Obstetrics/Gynecology and Transitional Year, it is the main teaching hospital for the Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine at the University of North Texas Health Science Center. In addition, the hospital supports the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center oral/maxillofacial residency and Baylor University Medical Center general surgery residency programs. In June 2011, the hospital welcomed its first batch of emergency medicine residents; the first class of emergency medicine residents graduated in June 2014. JPS is the main teaching hospital for the Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine at the University of North Texas Health Science Center. JPS trains doctors through residency programs: Emergency Medicine, Family Medicine and Gynecology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery, Psychiatry, Sports Medicine and Transitional Internship.

JPS provides clinical medical education to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Baylor Medical Center and the University of North Texas Health Science Center. JPS has academic affiliations with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School and Texas A&M Health Science Center. Marlise Munoz was 14 weeks pregnant when her husband found her unconscious in November 2013 from a pulmonary embolism, she was subsequently declared brain dead after her arrival at JPS Hospital. Munoz had indicated to her husband that she would not like to be kept artificially alive if brain dead; the fetus was suspected to be non-viable. Fetus' lower extremities were deformed to the extent. Fetus had fluid building up inside the skull and had a heart problem. A 2002 study estimated the cost for an ICU bed in an average U. S. hospital is $2,000 to $3,000 per day. When her husband asked that life support be removed JPS officials cited a state law requiring that a pregnant woman remain on life support - regardless of her end-of-life wishes - until the fetus is viable at 24 to 26 weeks.

Officials feared that if they turn off the machines, the Tarrant County District Attorney Joe Shannon Jr.'s office would charge them with murder of the fetus. The assistant district attorney insisted that the state had a compelling interest in protecting a fetus, pointing to a section of the Texas Penal Code that stated that a person may commit criminal homicide by causing the death of a fetus and a passed bill that banned abortions after 20 weeks of pregnancy on the theory that a fetus was capable of feeling pain at that stage. An attorney who had helped rewrite the Texas state law being used to keep her body on life support at John Peter Smith Hospital said that there was a problem with the application of the law to a patient, no longer alive; the Texas law itself, passed in 1989 and amended in 1999, provides lawyers for each side with little guidance. The relevant section of the Texas Health and Safety Code is a single sentence, reading, “A person may not withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment under this subchapter from a pregnant patient.”Her husband Eric, with the support of her family sued the hospital for continuing treatment.

On January 24, 2014 a state judge issued an order giving JPS three days "to pronounce Mrs. Munoz dead and remove the ventilator and all other'life-sustaining' treatment from the body." On January 26 JPS issued the following statement: "The past eight weeks have been difficult for the Munoz family, the caregivers and the entire Tarrant County community, which found itself involved in a sad situation. JPS Health Network has followed. From the onset, JPS has said. On Friday, a state district judge ordered the removal of life-sustaining treatment from Marlise Munoz; the hospital will follow the court order." At about the same time the statement was issued, Munoz's body was removed from life support and released to her husband. Eddy Furniss, family physician John Haynes, Jr. family physician and surgeonKent Brantly List of hospitals in Texas Official website

Beaumaris Pier

Beaumaris Pier is a pier in Beaumaris, North Wales. Designed by Frederick Foster, it had a concrete and stone neck, wooden piles supporting iron girders, a wooden deck. After opening in 1846, it was rebuilt in 1872 along the new classical Victorian era civil engineering lines, with screw piles made from iron, steel supporting girders and a wooden deck. In 1895, works extended its deck length to 570 feet, with a T-shaped pontoon end, a pavilion, added a 2 ft 6 in railway baggage line; the reason for the reconstruction was to attract the pleasure steamers of the Liverpool and North Wales Steamship Company, which plied to and from Liverpool and the Isle of Man along the Menai Strait. An accessible pier meant that Beaumaris could compete for summer traffic alongside the equipped Garth Pier at Bangor; the most frquent steamers to call were the Snowdon, La Marguerite and St. Elvies. In the 1920s the local Sunday School chartered the Snowdon for its annual trips to Llandudno; the company provided the ferry Cynful, with regular summer service to Bangor, evening excursions around Puffin Island.

The popularity of pleasure steamer services began to drop before World War II, due to competition from the cheaper motor bus. As a result, post-War there was some considerable deterioration to address, with the decline in pleasure steamers, the decision was taken to demolish the T-head pontoon. In the 1960s, through lack of maintenance, the pier became unsafe and was again threatened with demolition, but local yachtswoman and RNLI lifeboat secretary Miss Mary Burton made a large private donation to ensure the pier was saved for the town. With ownership passed to Beaumaris Town Council, they restored the residual structure at a cost of £15,000, with ownership passing to the Isle of Anglesey Borough Council in 1974, they undertook additional repair works, set aside a budget for the replacement of decaying timbers. In August 2010, Anglesey County Council approved plans for the refurbishment of the pier, to include: reinstatement of the pier to its former width; the refurbished Beaumaris Pier was unveiled for the 2011 season.

There are refurbished seats with new planking, shelters plus an end pavilion, a dual-purpose landing stage. Visitors can buy a license to enable Sea Fishing, access commercial boat services to cross to Puffin Island, or travel down the Menai Strait. To the left of the piers main deck is the Blue Peter II lifeboat station; the full length of the pier was refurbished in 2011-2012 and a floating pontoon landing stage was installed at the seaward end of the pier. The works included replacing all of the timber decking and the steel beams supporting the deck, restoring the pier to its full width; the pier was reopened in May 2012. The designer of the pier refurbishment was the Colwyn Bay office of Capita Symonds Ltd, the contractor was BAM Nuttall Ltd. Beaumaris Pier, official website Beaumaris Pier at National Piers Society