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Alexis of Russia

Alexei Mikhailovich was the Tsar of Russia from 1645 until his death in 1676. His reign saw wars with Poland and Sweden, schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, the major Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. At the time of his death Russia spanned 2,000,000,000 acres. Born in Moscow on 19 March 1629, the son of Tsar Michael and Eudoxia Streshneva, the sixteen year old Alexei acceded to the throne after his father's death on 12 July 1645. In August, the Tsar's mother died, following a pilgrimage to Sergiyev Posad he was crowned on 28 September in the Dormition Cathedral, he was committed to the care of his tutor Boris Morozov, a shrewd boyar open to Western ideas. Morozov's pursued a peaceful foreign policy, securing a truce with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and avoiding complications with the Ottoman Empire, his domestic policy aimed at limiting the privileges of foreign traders and abolishing useless and expensive court offices. On 17 January 1648 Morozov procured the marriage of the tsar with Maria Miloslavskaya, himself marrying her sister, ten days both daughters of Ilya Danilovich Miloslavsky.

Morozov was accused of sorcery and witchcraft. In May 1648 Muscovites rose against his faction in the Salt Riot, the young Tsar was compelled to dismiss them and exile Boris to the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. Four months Boris secretly returned to Moscow to regain some of his power; the popular discontent demonstrated by the riot was responsible for Alexis' 1649 issuance of a new legal code, the Sobornoye Ulozhenie. In 1648, using the experience of creating regiments of the foreign system during the reign of his father, Alexis began reforming the army; the main direction of the reform was the mass creation of New Order Regiments: Reiters, Soldiers and Hussars. These regiments formed the backbone of the new army of Tsar Alexis. To fulfill the reform goals, a large number of European military specialists were hired for service; this became possible because of the end of the Thirty Years' War, which created a colossal market for military professionals in Europe. Throughout his reign, Alexei faced rebellions across Russia.

After resolving the 1648 Salt Riot Alexei faced rebellions in 1650 in the cities of Pskov and Great Novgorod. Alexei put down the Novgorod rebellion but was unable to subdue Pskov, was forced to promise the city amnesty in return for surrender; the Metropolitan Nikon distinguished himself at Great Novgorod and in 1651 became the Tsar's chief minister. By the 1660s, Alexei's wars with Poland and Sweden had put an increasing strain on the Russian economy and public finances. In response, Alexei's government had begun minting large numbers of copper coins in 1654 to increase government revenue but this led to a devaluation of the ruble and a severe financial crisis; as a result, angry Moscow residents revolted in the 1662 Copper Riot, put down violently. In 1669, the Cossacks along the Don in southern Russia erupted in rebellion; the rebellion was led by Stenka Razin, a disaffected Don Cossack who had captured the Russian terminus of Astrakhan. From 1670 to 1671, Razin seized multiple towns along the Volga River.

The turning point in his campaign was his failed siege of Simbirsk in October 1670. Razin was captured on the Don in April 1671, was drawn and quartered in Moscow. In 1651 Safavid troops attacked Russian fortifications in the North Caucasus; the main issue involved the expansion of a Russian garrison on the Koy Su River, as well as the construction of several new fortresses, in particular the one built on the Iranian side of the Terek River. The successful Safavid offensive resulted in the destruction of the Russian fortress and its garrison being expelled. In 1653 Alexis thinking about sending the Zaporozhian Cossacks decided to send an embassy to Persia for a peaceful settlement of the conflict. In August 1653 courtier Prince Ivan Lobanov-Rostov and steward Ivan Komynin traveled from Astrakhan to Isfahan. Shah Abbas II agreed to settle the conflict, stating that the conflict was initiated without his consent. In 1653 the weakness and disorder of Poland, which had just emerged from the Khmelnytsky Uprising, encouraged Alexei to attempt to annex the old Rus’ lands.

On 1 October 1653 a national assembly met at Moscow to sanction the war and find the means of carrying it out, in April 1654 the army was blessed by Nikon, elected patriarch in 1652. The campaign of 1654 was an uninterrupted triumph, scores of towns, including the important fortress of Smolensk, fell into the hands of the Russians. Ukrainian Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky appealed to Tsar Alexei for protection from the Poles, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought about Russian dominance of the Cossack Hetmanate in Left-Bank Ukraine. In the summer of 1655, a sudden invasion by Charles X of Sweden swept the Polish state out of existence, in what became known as the Deluge; the Russians, unopposed appropriated nearly everything, not occupied by the Swedes. When the Poles offered to negotiate, the whole grand-duchy of Lithuania was the least of the demands made by Alexei; however Alexei and the king of Sweden quarrelled over the apportionment of the spoils, at the end of May 1656, with encouragement by the Habsburg emperor and the other enemies of Sweden, Alexei declared war on Sweden.

Great things were expected by Russia of the Swedish war. Dorpat was taken. In the meantime Poland had so far recovered herself as to become a much more


Glengarry—Prescott—Russell is a federal electoral district in Ontario, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1953. The district includes the United Counties of Prescott and Russell, the Township of North Glengarry and the former City of Cumberland. Major communities include Hawkesbury, Russell, Casselman, East Hawkesbury and Plantagenet, Clarence-Rockland, North Glengarry and The Nation, its area is 3,049 km2. The district was created in 1952 as "Glengarry—Prescott" from parts of Glengarry and Prescott ridings, it consisted of Glengarry County. In 1966, it was expanded to include Russell County excluding Cumberland Township. In 1970, the name was changed to "Glengarry—Prescott—Russell". In 1976, the district was redefined to exclude Charlottenburgh Township and include Cumberland Township. In 1987, it was redefined to consist of the United Counties of Prescott and Russell, the County of Glengarry and Akwesasne Indian Reserve No. 59 in the United Counties of Stormont and Glengarry, the part of the Township of Cumberland excluding the part north of Innes Road and west of Regional Road No. 57 and Trim Road.

In 1996, it was redefined to consist of the United Counties of Prescott and Russell, the County of Glengarry, the Township of Cumberland in the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, excluding the part west of Trim Road and North of Innes Road. In 2003, it was redefined to consist of the United Counties of Prescott and Russell, the Township of North Glengarry in the United Counties of Stormont and Glengarry, the part of the City of Ottawa east Cardinal Creek, Regional Road No. 174, Trim Road Wall Road, Mer Bleue Road and Boundary Road. Following the 2012 redistribution of Canada's ridings, the riding will lose the Cardinal Creek and Carlsbad Springs area to Orléans; this riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: Note: Conservative vote is compared to the total of the Canadian Alliance vote and Progressive Conservative vote in 2000 election. Note: Canadian Alliance vote is compared to the Reform vote in 1997 election. Note: Ralliement créditiste vote is compared to Social Credit vote in 1963 election.

Note: NDP vote is compared to CCF vote in 1958 election. " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03. Riding history for Glengarry—Prescott 1952-1970 from the Library of Parliament Riding history for Glengarry—Prescott—Russell 1970-2008 from the Library of Parliament 2011 Results from Elections Canada

Fixed fantasy

A fixed fantasy – known as a "dysfunctional schema" – is a belief or system of beliefs held by a single individual to be genuine, but that cannot be verified in reality. The term is applied to individuals suffering from some type of psychiatric dysregulation, most a personality disorder; the term is used in the different context of psychoanalysis to distinguish between a normal transitory one and a fixed fantasy with respect to the fantasised fulfilment in conscious or unconscious thought of the sexualised wish. Studies of borderline children uncovered at the base of their self-destructive behaviour patterns "a "fixed fantasy"... a rigid, nonreflective scenario of self-induced pain." As part of a psychic defence mechanism, "the omnipotence betrayed by the "fixed fantasy" underlying self-victimization or other forms of self-defeating behaviour... creates the illusory sense that they are producing the abandonment pain", rather than suffering it passively – "arranging deceits... arrang for blows to fall."

"in the course of development, these patterns acquire multiple adaptive functions... and serve as a key organizer of their sense of self.""In producing movement away from fixed fantasy systems, commonplace statements are necessary because the more fixed and extensive the fantasy system, the fewer the transitional opportunities offered. Banalities may be the only resource", as anything more complex may be used to feed back into the fantasy system itself. A fixed fantasy differs from a delusion or delusional system in that, superficially, a fixed fantasy tends to appear plausible, the person expressing the fantasy is not suffering a break from reality, as occurs in a delusional state. For example, sufferers of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder would believe that "everything has to be perfect" while sufferers of avoidant personality disorder would believe that they are "not good enough". Challenging such "automatic thoughts... attitudes and basic negative beliefs" is an important part of cognitive therapy.

A fixed fantasy differs from religion or superstition in that these are culturally bound, whereas a fixed fantasy is specific to an individual. In and of themselves, fixed fantasies are not harmful, but they can interfere with an individual's ability to develop a coherent and integrated life experience. In a disciplinary distinct usage the term fixed fantasy has been used in respect of psychosexual phantasies – conscious and unconscious. "In rare cases, a person can become so fixed on a particular fantasy that he or she cannot become aroused without it." Such fantasies underpin much perversion, where "the perverse and fixed "scenario"... is as much a defence against the anxieties associated with alternative fantasies as it is with the gaining of satisfaction." Robert Stoller considered such fixed fantasies to structure "one's preferred erotic script... at the centre of, a remembered bad experience or relationship in early childhood." The fixed fantasy is "a primal daydream that summarises the person's erotic preferences and mirrors that person's whole character structure."

I. V Halvorsen/S. N. Olsen eds. New Research on Personality Disorders Robert J. Stoller, Perversion: The Erotic Form of Hatred

Filipino cartoon and animation

Filipino cartoon and animation known as Pinoy cartoon and animation, is a body of original cultural and artistic works and styles applied to conventional Filipino storytelling, combined with talent and the appropriate application of classic animation principles and techniques, which recognizes their relationship with Filipino culture and films. It delves into relying on traditional and common Filipino "sense of going about things" or manner of coping with Filipino life and environment. Original Filipino cartoons began with the publication of local comic books, known as komiks. During the late 1920s, Filipino writer Romualdo Ramos and Filipino visual artist Antonio “Tony” Velasquez created the cartoon character named Kenkoy, it appeared in the pages of the Tagalog-language Liwayway magazine as a weekly comic strip entitled Mga Kabalbalan ni Kenkoy or "Kenkoy's antics". Because of its popularity it became a Filipino icon and was translated into other regional languages in the Philippines. Since other cartoon characters were created by other Filipino comic book artists.

The creation of Kenkoy influenced the works of Filipino musicians such as Nicanor Abelardo, the emergence of atypical Kenkoy-like pronunciation of English words which came to be known as “Kenkoy’s English” and “Carabao English”. This influence of Kenkoy gave birth to original Filipino language vocabulary, such as Barok and Pinoy, the colloquial form of the word Filipino. Kenkoy survived the arrival of the Japanese during World War II. Kenkoy became a tool of the Japanese occupiers for disseminating health programs. Other Filipinos who excelled in the Philippine komiks and cartoon industry are Francisco Coching, Elito Circa and his Minggan and Alex Niño; the first Filipino-made cartoon for television was Panday, created by Gerry Garcia in the 1980s based on the comic book character of the same name produced by Carlo J. Caparas. RPN-9 began airing in November 1986. Garcia is considered as the pioneer of Filipino animation industry. From 1995 to 1997, Garcia brought into life Adarna, the first Filipino full-length animation movie, based on the story of the Adarna bird.

Garcia directed Adarna under FLT Productions and Guiding Light Productions. Adarna received recognition from the Metro Manila Film Festival on December 27, 1997 as the first animated movie in Philippine cinema. In 1998, it was included in the Asian Collection of Japan’s 7th Hiroshima Animation Festival. In 2008, Garcia’s creation was followed by the second Filipino full-length animated feature film, Urduja, a Philippine animation product using a mixture of digital and traditional animation techniques. Another known Filipino pioneer cartoonist is more popularly known as Larry Alcala. One more is Alfredo P. Alcala who, apart from creating several comic strips in the Philippines, worked for American comic book firms, namely DC Comics, Dark Horse Comics, Marvel Comics. Another recognized Filipino animator is Benedict Carandang, the co-founder of Tuldok Animation Studios and recipient of the United Kingdom’s British Council’s 2008 Young Screen Entrepreneur. Carandang produced the animation of Ramon del Prado's short-film entitled, Libingan or “The Burial”, an animated cartoon inspired by the hanging coffins of Sagada, Mountain Province.

The Philippine animation industry traces its origins back to the 1980s. Being one of the earlier players in the industry, with the local Philippine animation industry scene being around for twenty years, the Philippines is considered one of the stronger Asian players in the realm of animation globally; the rising need for outsourced services from the United States and Europe, caused the continued flourishing of animation studios in the country. These animation studios were for the most part export-driven and catered to the demands of these foreign animators. Among the first few animation studios in the country include Burbank Animation Inc. Asian Animation, Fil-Cartoons; the clientele of Philippine studios supply the demand coming from the United States and Europe. Today, the country is regarded as one of the main and “stronger players” in outsourced and global animated cartoon production; the Philippines is second to India in providing services related to business outsourcing. Began from Filipino-made cartoons inspired by komiks, the Philippine animation industry found opportunities abroad on big animated projects.

In previous projects of DreamWorks Studios in Los Angeles, the Filipino animator Ronnie Del Carmen was chosen as the artistic supervisor for works like The Prince of Egypt and The Road to El Dorado. In 1983, Burbank Animation Inc. an Australian company, established a branch in the Philippines. Optifex International, Inc., called AsianAnimation before, was one of the first Filipino owned corporations. In 1988, another big company known as Fil-Cartoons was established. Other major studios in the country have emerged including Toei Animation, a Japanese company with a Philippine subsidiary that has worked on G. I. Joe, Dragon Ball, Sailor Moon and Nadja, Top Peg Animation and Creative Studio, Inc., a Philippine-owned company that has worked on Disney television series like 101 Dalmatians: The Series, The Legend of Tarzan, Kim Possible and Hercules. In 2009, Toei Animation and Top Draw were part of the 2010-11 Philippines Top 15000 Corporations as well as four members of the Association Council of the Philippines.

According to the 1994 Census of Establishments, there is a total of 4609 film and animation establishments in the country, with a combined gross revenue of PHP 1.796 billion. A significant number of these firms a


Andance is a French commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Andançois or Andançoises Andance is located 5 km south of Saint-Rambert-d'Albon, 15 km east of Annonay, 20 km north of Tournon-sur-Rhone, it can be accessed by the D86 road from Champagne in the north passing through the village continuing south through the commune to Sarras. The D86B passes from the village over the Rhone to Andancette on the east bank; the D82 road comes from Saint-Etienne-de-Valoux in the north-east to the village. There are the small D370 road from Talencieux in the west to the village via a tortuous route and the D370B from Talencieux to the south of the commune; the commune has the Rhone as its entire eastern border with the Ruisseau de L'Ecoutay, the Ruisseau du Creux, the Ruisseau de Cueil, numerous other streams flowing through the commune to the Rhone. The Conce river forms the southern border of the commune and flows into the Rhone.

List of Successive Mayors The population of the commune is old. The proportion of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national rate while being less than the departmental rate; as with the national and departmental distribution, the female population of the commune is higher than the male population. The rate is of the same order of magnitude as the national rate; the distribution of the population of the commune was, in 2009, 50 % of women. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Andance and Ardèche Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE; the Sarrazinière Roman Ruins at Châtelet are registered as an historical monument Andance bridge was built in 1827 with iron wires and a central pier. The Andance bridge is the oldest suspension bridge still used today in France, it was built by Marc Seguin the brilliant inventor from Annonay. Destroyed during the Second World War on 30 August 1944, it was rebuilt and reopened in 1946 underwent further changes The Church of Our Lady of Andance is registered as an historical monument A Calvary of Three Saints.

The Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: A Painting: Saint Philomena Martyred A Painting: Saint Romain A Painting: Pope Pius IX remitting indulgences to the Andance Priest for the Saint-Barrel Chapel A Painting: Crusaders bringing relics to the chapel An Altar Cross A Processional Cross 2 Prints with frames: Stations of the Cross A Reliquary A Statue: Saint Barulas A Statue: Black Madonna A Passion Cross: Cross of Bargemen Andance is mentioned in the poem by Louis Aragon, The conscript of a hundred villages, written as an act of clandestine intellectual resistance in 1943 during the Second World War. Communes of the Ardèche department Andance on the National Geographic Institute website Andance official website Andance on Lion1906 Andance on Google Maps Andance on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Andance on the 1750 Cassini Map Andance on the INSEE website INSEE

Lab School of Washington

The Lab School of Washington is a small private school in Washington, D. C. for students with learning disabilities, established in 1967 by Sally Smith. Katherine Schantz has directed the school from 2009 to the present; the Lab School of Washington established a new high school building in the Fall of 2016, has plans for an expanded Theater and Arts Wing and a renovated Middle School. Although the school was not incorporated until 1982, Lab School of Washington cites its founding date as 1967, when Sally Liberman Smith, faced with her son Gary's learning difficulties in school, began home schooling Gary and started teaching other children faced with similar learning difficulties. At the time, Gary was a first-grader at Beauvoir elementary school who could not read and who struggled with simple math. Beginning with Gary and three other students, as an extension of the Kingsbury Diagnostic Center, a testing and remediation facility dealing with learning difficulties and related issues, Smith started her own school to help children with dyslexia, ADHD, other learning differences.

Borrowing ideas from the 19th century philosopher and education reformer John Dewey who championed progressive education, Smith figured out through themed birthday parties that kids those like her son who had significant learning differences, could learn through the arts. Located at the Kingsbury Center on Bancroft Place, the school moved to a small annex of the center on Phelps Place, where, in 1973, Smith designed the curriculum for the Lab School of Kingsbury Center's Junior High Program, the school relocated to the current campus on Reservoir Road. Incorporated as its own school in 1982, The Lab School of Washington is now an independent non-profit educational institution, its Board of Trustees headed by Ann Bradford Mathias. The head of the school is Katherine Schantz. There are two campuses of the Lab School: the main campus, which houses the intermediate division, junior high and high school, is on Reservoir Road, while the elementary school campus is on Foxhall Road; the school teaches students from first through twelfth grades who have moderate to high-level learning differences and average or above average I.

Q. levels. These students can have challenges with reading, writing and math as well as moderate executive functioning issues. Many of the academic subjects are taught through an arts-based curriculum, whether through the performing arts, dramatic arts, or visual arts, but there is traditional work with textbooks and worksheets. In addition, all class sizes are smaller than those in public schools and in most private schools and are scaled according to the subject. More than 84 percent of Lab teachers have advanced degrees; the Lab School has four divisions. The Lab School no longer has a night school program for adults with learning disabilities or a tutoring program. Available are on-campus clinical services; these services consist of psychological services, occupational therapy and language pathology, tutoring and testing services, as well as care from clinical psychologists with a Ph. D; some students who do not attend the Lab School can receive these services. Each year, the school invites people who have learning difficulties to the school and gives them an award for working through their difficulties and any academic-related challenges they face in their careers.

Some of the awardees include Cher, Tom Cruise, Henry Winkler, Tracey Gold, Magic Johnson, Daniel Stern, Susan Butcher, Fannie Flagg, Vince Vaughn, Don Coryell, Billy Bob Thornton, Danny Glover, Charles Schwab, other notable individuals. Students get to have an opportunity to ask them questions on how they deal with their learning difficulties during a Q&A panel session. With such a large number of applicants, Smith opened a second Lab School in Baltimore, a school in Philadelphia is adopting her teaching methods. Baltimore Lab will no longer be connected to the Washington campus; the Lab School has a debate team in High school. They practice debating as part of an after school program and compete against many different schools from the D. C. area. The youngest Lab School students enjoy their own campus, located on Foxhall Road in northwest Washington, DC; the large building with its quiet residential setting gives children ages 6–10 the freedom to experiment and explore — to learn by doing — in comfortable, age-appropriate surroundings.

There are no designated “grades” in the early years at The Lab School. Art, ceramics and dance are core components of The Lab School’s curriculum at every level, starting in the Elementary program. Reading, language arts, math are an intensive part of each day’s work. Science, physical education, The Lab School’s unique Academic Clubs round out the Elementary education. Geared toward children ages 10–12, the Intermediate program focuses on transition. Although still “ungraded,” students move to The Lab School’s main campus on Reservoir Road and begin to assume more structure in their daily routine as attention to executive functioning skills becomes a priority. Written language is emphasized at the Intermediate level. Intermediate mathematics concentrates on abstract reasoning as well as computation skills. Academic Clubs — Lab’s full immersion humanities program — continue to be an important feature of