Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
In electrical engineering, three-phase electric power systems have at least three conductors carrying alternating current voltages that are offset in time by one-third of the period. A three-phase system may be arranged in star. A wye system allows the use of two different voltages from all three phases, such as a 230/400 V system which provides 230 V between the neutral and any one of the phases, 400 V across any two phases. A delta system arrangement only provides one voltage magnitude, but it has a greater redundancy as it may continue to operate with one of the three supply windings offline, albeit at 57.7% of total capacity. Harmonic current in the neutral may become large if nonlinear loads are connected. In a star connected topology, with rotation sequence L1 - L2 - L3, the time-varying instantaneous voltages can be calculated for each phase A,C,B by: V L 1 − N = V P sin V L 2 − N = V P sin = V P sin V L 3 − N = V P sin = V P sin where: V P is the peak voltage, θ = 2 π f t is the phase angle in radians t is the time in seconds f is the frequency in cycles per second and voltages L1-N, L2-N and L3-N are referenced to the star connection point.
In electric power systems, the loads are distributed as evenly as is practical between the phases. It is usual practice to discuss a balanced system first and describe the effects of unbalanced systems as deviations from the elementary case. An important property of three-phase power is that the instantaneous power available to a resistive load, P = V I = 1 R V 2, is constant at all times. Indeed, let P L i = V L i 2 R P T O T = ∑ i P L i To simplify the mathematics, we define a nondimensionalized power for intermediate calculations, p = 1 V P 2 P T O T R p = sin 2 θ + sin 2 + sin 2 = 3 2 Hence: P T O T = 3 V P 2 2 R. Since we have eliminated θ we can see; this is essential for keeping large motors running smoothly. Notice that using the root mean square voltage V = V p 2, the expression for P T O T above takes the following more classic form: P T O T = 3 V 2 R; the load need not be resistive for achieving a constant instantaneous power since, as long as it is balanced or the same for all phases, it may be written as Z = | Z | e j φ so that the peak current is I
Ramal de Braga
Ramal de Braga is a railway line in Portugal, which connects the stations of Nine, on the Linha do Minho, Braga. It was opened on the 21st of May 1875, modernised in 2004. List of railway lines in Portugal List of Portuguese locomotives and railcars History of rail transport in Portugal Martins, João. O Caminho de Ferro Revisitado. Lisbon: Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses. Reis, Francisco. Os Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses 1856-2006. Lisbon: CP - Comboios de Portugal e Público-Comunicação Social S. A. ISBN 989-619-078-X. "2019 Network Statement". 7 December 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2019
ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation known under its brand ADtranz, was a multi-national rail transport equipment manufacturer with facilities concentrated in Europe and the US. The company was created in 1996 in the merger of Daimler-Benz's and ABB's rail equipment manufacturing facilities. In 1999 DaimlerChrysler bought ABB's shares and changed its official name to DaimlerChrysler Rail Systems. Bombardier Transportation acquired the company in 2001, at which time Adtranz was the world's second largest manufacturer of such equipment; the acquisition increased the size of Bombardier's rail industry holdings making Bombardier the largest rail equipment manufacturer in the world. Adtranz manufactured mainline locomotives, high-speed, regional and underground passenger trains and people movers as well as freight wagons. Non rolling stock businesses included signalling infrastructure. On 8 May 1995 ABB and Daimler-Benz proposed a merger of their rail industry related activities into a single autonomous 50:50 joint venture.
In Germany the combined company, along with Siemens would have a duopoly or near-duopoly in the market areas of electric locomotives and regional electric and diesel multiple units and metros, catenary systems. In the EU, outside Germany, the merger would have meant no significant market share increase, including Scandinavia, where ABB had a dominant market share; the proposed merger was suspended pending a report on any potential anti-competitive effects of the merger, on 18 October 1995 the merger was allowed, provided that both companies divest themselves of any shares in Kiepe. The merger came into force on 1 January 1996; the company's manufacturing facilities and product lines were rationalised, including a standard form of car body. However the company continued to be loss making, losing $111 million in 1997. Polish manufacturer Pafawag was acquired in 1997 and the facility modernised, controlling interests in MÁV Dunakeszi and Schindler Waggon Switzerland were acquired by the end of 1997.
In March 1998 Adtranz presented a set of new product brands for modular product platforms, with designs that can be adapted for the specific requirements of different customers: the Innovia guided transport vehicle, the Incentro low floor tram, the Itino diesel multiple unit, the Crusaris medium-high speed train, the Octeon electric locomotive. A new diesel locomotive design with engine and electrical traction system provided by General Electric was introduced, named "Blue Tiger". Adtranz intended to consolidate its product range around these families once on-going deliveries are finished. Adtranz continued to make an operating loss in 1998, attributed to earlier contracts with underestimated costs, as well as technical problems with products; the same year brought an order for 400 locomotives for Deutsche Bahn, as well as the acquisition of Swiss locomotive manufacturer Schweizerische Lokomotiv- und Maschinenfabrik AG. In January 1999 ABB sold its 50% stake in Adtranz to DaimlerChrysler for $472million, taking up a previous agreement made on the formation of the joint venture whereby DaimlerChrysler was required to purchase ABB's stake.
In 2000 Adtranz achieved profitability. In preparation for a sale from DaimlerChrysler buyers for non-core rolling stock manufacturing businesses were sought. In January 2000 The Greenbrier Companies acquired the freight wagon business based in Siegen; the electrical installations business was sold to Balfour Beatty in late 2000 for €153million. No buyer was found for the railway signalling division. In August 2000 Bombardier Inc announced that it was to buy Adtranz for $711million, considered to be a low price; the sale was cleared by the European Union in April 2001. The takeover came into legal effect on 1 May 2001 with a final price of $725million. In 2002 Bombardier announced that it was to sue DaimlerChrysler for $867 million due to alleged misleading financial information regarding Adtranz provided by DaimlerChrysler during the takeover, in September 2004 the case was settled with the companies agreeing to a $209million reduction in price; the brand Adtranz was created by Landor Associates as part of the corporate identity of ABB Daimler Benz Transportation.
It is an acronym derived from selected letters of the complete name of the first company using it: ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation, with a z in place of an s at the end for the name to imply a complete product platform from A to Z. It was capitalised by the companies with a capital D as ADtranz, following the standard English text formatting and capitalization rules it is spelled with a small d as Adtranz. Above the text ADtranz, the company logo included a green dot, symbolizing a signal set on green, as well as the environmental friendliness of railways. In addition to the company registered the slogan ADtranz – we speak railways. Rights on the brand and slogan were deleted in 2007 respectively. A list of products: LocomotivesE464 electric locomotive Norges Statsbaner El 18 locomotives DE2000 Locomotive for the Hellenic Railways Organization, designated as OSE Class 220: designated as OSE A 471-496. Subway rail vehiclesM4 subway/elevated ca
Braga is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province. The city has a resident population of 192,494 inhabitants, representing the seventh largest municipality in Portugal, its area is 183.40 km². Its agglomerated urban area extends from the Cávado River to the Este River, it is the third-largest urban centre in Portugal The city was the European Youth Capital in 2012. It is host to the oldest Portuguese archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church and it is the seat of the Primate Archbishop of Portugal and of the Hispanias. Under the Roman Empire known as Bracara Augusta, the settlement was the capital of the province of Gallaecia. Inside of the city there is a castle tower that can be visited. Nowadays, Braga is a major hub for inland Northern Portugal. Human occupation of the region of Braga dates back thousands of years, documented by vestiges of monumental structures starting in the Megalithic era. During the Iron Age, the Castro culture extended into the northwest, characterized by Bracari peoples who occupied the high ground in strategically located fortified settlements.
The region became the domain of the Callaici Bracarii, or Bracarenses, a Celtic tribe who occupied what is now northern Portugal and Asturias in the northwest of Iberia. The Romans began their conquest of the region around 136 BC, finished it, by pacifying the northern regions, during the reign of Emperor Augustus; the civitas of Bracara Augusta was founded in 20 BC. The city of Bracara Augusta developed during the 1st century and reached its maximum extension around the 2nd century. Towards the end of the 3rd century, the Emperor Diocletian promoted the city to the status of capital of the administrative area Conventus bracarensis, the southwestern area of the newly founded Roman province of Gallaecia. During the Germanic Invasions of the Iberian Peninsula, the area was conquered by the Suebi, a Germanic people from Central Europe. In 410, the Suebi established a Kingdom in northwest Iberia covering what is present-day's Northern half of Portugal and Asturias, which they maintained as Gallaecia, had Bracara as their capital.
This kingdom was lasted for over 150 years. By about 584, the Visigoths took over control of Gallaecia from the Suebi, they renounced the Priscillianist heresies during two synods held here in the 6th century. As a consequence, the archbishops of Braga claimed the title of Primate of Portugal a county, for a long period, claimed supremacy over the entire Hispanic church. Yet, their authority was never accepted throughout Hispania. Braga had an important role in the Christianization of the Iberian Peninsula; the first known bishop of Braga, lived at the end of the 4th century, although Saint Ovidius is sometimes considered one of the first bishops of this city. In the early 5th century, Paulus Orosius wrote several theological works that expounded the Christian faith, while in the 6th century Bishop Martin of Braga converted the pagan Suebi and Visigoths from Arianism to Catholicism. At the time, Martin founded an important monastery in Dumio, it was in Braga that Archbishopric of Braga held their councils.
The transition from Visigothic reigns to the Muslim conquest of Iberia was obscure, representing a period of decline for the city. The Moors captured Braga early in the 8th century, but were repelled by Christian forces under Alfonso III of Asturias in 868 with intermittent attacks until 1040 when they were ousted by Ferdinand I of León and Castile; as a consequence, the bishopric was restored in 1070: the first new bishop, started rebuilding the Cathedral. Between 1093 and 1147, Braga became the residential seat of the Portuguese court. In the early 12th century, Count Henry of Portugal and bishop Geraldo de Moissac reclaimed the archbishopric seat for Braga, with power over a large area in Iberia; the medieval city developed around the cathedral, with the maximum authority in the city retained by the archbishop. Braga as the main center of Christianity in Iberia, during the Reconquista, held a prominent stage in medieval politics, being a major factor/contributor to the Independence of Portugal with the intervenience of the Archbishop D. Paio Mendes in the Vatican and the Pope Alexander III, which lead to the promulgation of the Bula Manifestis Probatum in 1179 recognizing Portugal as an independent Kingdom under D. Afonso I Henriques.
The following centuries marked a slow decline in its prestige and influence marked by the infamous theft of Holy Relics by the Archbishop of Santiago of Compostela Gelmirez. The relics only returned to Braga in the 1960s. In the 16th century, due to its distance from the coast and provincial status, Braga did not profit from the adventures associated with the Age of Portuguese Discoveries. Yet, Archbishop Diogo de Sousa, who sponsored several urban improvements in the city, including the enlargement of streets, the creation of public squares and the foundation of hospitals
Pendolino is an Italian family of tilting trains used in Italy, Poland, Slovenia, Russian Federation, the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, Slovakia and China. Based on the design of the Italian ETR 401 and the British Advanced Passenger Train, it was further developed and manufactured by Fiat Ferroviaria, taken over by Alstom in 2000; the idea of a tilting train became popular in the 1960s and 1970s when various rail operators, impressed by the high-speed rail services being introduced in France and Japan, wondered how they could speed up travel without building a dedicated parallel rail network. By tilting, the train could go around curves designed for slower trains at higher speeds without causing undue discomfort to passengers. In Italy, various possibilities were explored. A number of prototypes were built and tested, including an automotrice derived from ALn 668 diesel car and provided with tilting seats; the first working prototype using a tilting carbody was ETR Y 0160, an electrically powered car launched by FIAT in 1969.
This was the first to be christened Pendolino. It led to the construction of a whole EMU in 1975, the ETR 401, built in two units by FIAT. One was put into public service on 2 July 1976 on the Rome-Ancona line, operated by Italian State Railways. Between Roma and Ancona the train took 2 hours and 50 minutes while the ordinary trains took 3 hours and 30 minutes; the train had four cars and was considered a travelling laboratory for the new technology. The second unit was adapted for service to the broad gauge RENFE Spanish lines. In 1982, FS retired the ETR 401 from service, due to high maintenance cost, FIAT transformed it in a train-laboratory, to test the parts for the successor of the ETR 401, ETR 450. After 1988, the trainset went around Europe to demonstrate the greatness of the tilting revolutionary technology and between 1994 and 2001 it was utilised as a charter train. In 2001 the ETR 401 was put aside in Ancona and since 2013, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first official pendolino service, it has been restored.
On 29 May 1988, the ETR 450 became the first pendolino to enter in a high-speed regular service in the world. The project of the new train was similar to the predecessor, but it utilised many electronic parts, as the chopper and the automatic gear. Characterized by a 9-car configuration, the 15 trainsets ETR 450 could run the Rome-Milan line in under four hours, at speeds up to 250 km/h, with a comfort level as the best TEE's cars at the speed of 180–200 km/h. Passenger numbers increased from 220,000 in 1988 to 2.2 million in 1993. In 1994, the next generation, the ETR 460, styled by Giorgetto Giugiaro, began service. Though plagued by technical teething problems, the ETR 460 introduced several innovations, such as more powerful AC asynchronous motors. Further, the pistons actuating the anti-tilting action were placed in the bogie instead of on the carbody sides: this permitted the reorganisation of the vestibules and passenger compartment areas, improving comfort; the bogie-to-body connection is simple and easy to make, with clear advantages for maintenance.
ETR 460 keeps axle load to an low level to allow the train to negotiate curves up to 35% faster than conventional Intercity trains. The body, which exploits large aluminium extrusion technology, has substantial modularity and allows for low axle weight, whilst respecting the highest safety standards, allows the best exploitation of the space with different loading gauges. ETR 460 was built in only 10 units. Improved versions include 9 ETR 470 for the Italo-Swiss Cisalpino company and 15 ETR 480 / 485 used by Trenitalia under AC lines such as those in France and Switzerland. A total of 34 EMUs of the ETR 460/470/480 - 485 series were built. FIAT Ferroviaria was sold to the French Alstom company in 2000; the development of the Pendolino technology continued in the Italian factories of Alstom and the next generation, the New Pendolino, was delivered to Trenitalia and Cisalpino as the ETR 600 and the ETR 610 from 2006. Before the first Pendolino EMU was built in Italy, in 1972, Fiat and RENFE signed an agreement for cooperation in tilting-train development.
The first fruit of the cooperation was the equipment of a RENFE Class 432 EMU with the active tilting suspension in September 1972. After successful tests, Spanish trainmaker Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles and Fiat built a prototype similar to the ETR 401, delivered in 1976 as RENFE Class 443, nicknamed Platanito for its yellow livery; the four-car train had a commercial top speed of 180 km/h and achieved a speed record for Spain of 206 km/h on 6 May 1987. However, the train remained a unique specimen, as RENFE favoured the domestic Talgo Pendular, a tilting train with passive suspension introduced in 1980. After revenue service in 1979-1982, the train was used for test runs. Two decades to speed up services along its Madrid-Valencia conventional line, Renfe ordered ten Pendolini in 1996; the trains, based on the ETR 460 and ETR 470, were delivered by a joint consortium of Fiat Ferroviaria and GEC-Alsthom from 1998 as RENFE Class 490. The three-car trains are suited for 220 km/h on RENFE's conventional lines electrified with 3 kV DC.
The Class 490 took up the new Madrid-Valencia Alaris services in 1999. With growing
Linha de Guimarães
Linha de Guimarães is a railway in Portugal operated by Comboios de Portugal. It runs between Guimarães, it was extensively modernised in the 2000s, including conversion from metre gauge to Iberian gauge track and electrification. The 1,000 mm gauge line from Lousado to Guimarães opened in 1884 and was extended to Fafe in 1907. From 1938 trains started operating the entirety of the route via a new link from Trindade station in Oporto through to Fafe; the section between Guimarães and Fafe was closed in 1986 and the track lifted. Narrow gauge services on the Guimarães line ended in 2002; the terminus in Porto was Trindade station, closed in 2001 and subsequently rebuilt for use by the Porto Metro. The first few kilometres of the Guimarães line from Trindade has been rebuilt to become line C of the Porto Metro. In 2004 Guimarães was one of the venues for the UEFA Euro 2004 football championship. Considerable investment was needed to bring the Guimarães line up to modern standards for carrying the expected numbers of visitors.
Accordingly, the line was rebuilt as a 1,668 mm gauge line, with 25 kV 50 Hz overhead wire electrification. The former line east of Guimarães to Fafe remained closed. Upon modernisation in 2004, the former Porto terminus at Trindade station was closed; the former section of line between Porto Trindade station and Lousado was closed. Most Guimarães trains now terminate at Porto São Bento. List of gauge conversions List of railway lines in Portugal List of Portuguese locomotives and railcars History of rail transport in Portugal