Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
Geneva Motor Show
The Geneva International Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport; the Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, is considered an important major international auto show. First held in 1905, the Salon has hosted all major internal combustion engined models in the history of the automobile, along with benzene- and steam-powered cars from the beginning of the century. Exotic supercars steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have been announced at the exhibition; the show is regarded as a level playing field for the world's automakers, aided by the fact Switzerland lacks an auto industry of its own. Areas of the show: Motor cars 3 or 4 or more wheels. Electric cars and alternative powered cars.
Special bodywork for motor cars, car design, engineering. Converted cars. Accessories and parts for motor cars OEM: original equipment manufacturers Workshop installations for the repair and maintenance of motor cars Miscellaneous products and services related to the car industry Animation / Attractions; the International Advanced Mobility Forum is the Geneva Motor Show forum on the mobility of the future. The 89th Geneva Motor Show was held between 7 and 17 March 2019; the 88th Geneva Motor Show was held on 8 to 18 March 2018. The 87th Geneva Motor Show was held from 9 to 19 March 2017; the 86th Geneva Motor Show was held from 3 to 13 March 2016. The 85th Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 15 March 2015; the 84th Geneva Motor Show was held from 6 to 16 March 2014. The 83rd Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 17 March 2013; the 82nd edition was held from 8 to 18 March 2012. The 2011 edition was held from 3 to 13 March 2011; the 80th edition of the Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–14 March 2010.
Over 80 introductions were expected for the show. Press days for the show started on 2 March 2010; the 2009 Geneva Motor Show was held from 5–15 March 2009. The following vehicles were introduced: The 2008 Geneva Motor Show was held from 6–16 March 2008; the following vehicles were introduced: The following were scheduled to be introduced at the 2007 Geneva Auto Show: In addition, Subaru introduced its new boxer diesel engine, Honda showed its next generation clean diesel engine. Bolloré Bluecar Fiat Panda, hybrid petrol -natural gas. Ford Focus Turnier 2.0 Honda FCX Clarity Opel Corsa D, with optimized 100HP 1.6l natural gas engine. Serial production will be evaluated. Reva Greeny AC1 and AC1 Z Subaru R1e, small electric city car, with a battery that can be 80% recharged in just 15 minutes; the following introductions were featured at the 2006 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2005 Geneva show: The following introductions were made from 4 to 14 March 2004 at the Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2003 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2002 Geneva show: The following major introductions were made at the 2001 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 2000 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1999 Geneva show: The following concepts and major launches featured at the 1998 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1997 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1996 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1995 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1994 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1993 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1992 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1991 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1990 Geneva show: The following introductions were made at the 1989 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo SZ Alpina B10 Bi-Turbo Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 Daihatsu Applause Ford Fiesta Urba Ford Via concept Lancia Delta Integrale 16v Lotus Carlton Mercedes-Benz 500SL Peugeot Agades concept Sbarro Osmos concept The following introductions were made at the 1988 Geneva show: Ford Saguaro concept Maserati Karif Sbarro Robur concept The following introductions were made at the 1987 Geneva show: Aston Martin Lagonda Sbarro Monster G concept The following introductions were made at the 1986 Geneva show: Aston Martin V8 Zagato coupe BMW 524d Citroën Eole concept Rover CCV concept Sbarro Challenge 2+2 concept Volvo 480 Zender Vision 3C concept The following introductions were made at the 1985 Geneva show: Ferrari 412 Lamborghini Countach LP5000 S Quattrovalvole Michelotti PAC Peugeot Griffe 4 concept Sbarro Challenge concept Sbarro Super Five Volvo 780 The following introductions were made at the 1984 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo 33 1.5 Giardinetta Alfa Romeo Tempo Libero concept Ferrari 288 GTO Ford APV concept Lamborghini Jalpa P350 Sbarro Super Eight concept Sbarro Mercedes Benz Biturbo Zagato Z33 "Free Time" The following introductions were made at the 1983 Geneva show: Alfa Romeo Delfino concept Alfa Romeo Zeta Sei concept Fiat Ritmo Coupe concept Ford Trio concept Lincoln Quicksilver concept Renault Gabbiano concept The following introductions were made at the 1982 Geneva show: Bentley Mulsanne Turbo Lamborghini LMA002 Michelotti CVT 58 concept Opel Corsa Spider concept Sbarro Super Twelve concept Volkswagen Golf GTD The followin
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber, an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine; the force is applied to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy; the first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto. The term internal combustion engine refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as described.
Firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars and boats. An ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for CI engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.
In 1791, John Barber developed the gas turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. In 1794, Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, the first to use liquid fuel, built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine. In 1807, French engineers Nicéphore and Claude Niépce ran a prototype internal combustion engine, using controlled dust explosions, the Pyréolophore; this engine powered a boat on France. The same year, the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by an electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. In 1854 in the UK, the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci tried to patent "Obtaining motive power by the explosion of gases", although the application did not progress to the granted stage. In 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine. In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine.
In 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, four-cycle engine. In 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gasoline engine. In 1886, Karl Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with the internal combustion engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed compression ignition engine. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first jet aircraft. At one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery—a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" is any machine. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines". In boating an internal combustion engine, installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, but the engines that sit on the transom are referred to as motors. Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives.
Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles and motorcycles. Where high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbines or Wankel engines. Powered aircraft uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles. ICEs drive some of the large electric generators, they are found in the form of combustion turbines in combined cycle power plants with a typical electrical output in the range of 100 MW to 1 GW. The high temperature exhaust is used to superheat water to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the co
Alfa Romeo 75
The Alfa Romeo 75, sold in North America as the Milano, is a compact executive car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo between 1985 and 1992. The Alfa 75 was commercially quite successful: in only three years, 236,907 cars were produced, by the end of production in 1992, around 386,767 had been built; the Alfa Romeo 75 was the last model released. The 75 was introduced in May 1985 to replace the Giulietta, was named to celebrate Alfa's 75th year of production; the body, designed by head of Centro Stile Alfa Romeo Ermanno Cressoni, was styled in a striking wedge shape, tapering at the front with square headlights and a matching grille. At the 1986 Turin Auto Show, a prototype 75 estate was to be seen, an attractive forerunner of the 156 Sportwagon; this version was, never listed for sale, being cancelled after Fiat took control of Alfa Romeo. The car, dubbed the 75 Turbo Wagon, was made by Italian coachbuilder Rayton Fissore using a 75 Turbo as the basis. Two estate versions were to be found at the 1987 Geneva Motor Show.
The 75 featured some unusual technical features, most notably the fact that it was perfectly balanced from front to rear. This was achieved by using transaxle schema — mounting the standard five-speed gearbox in the rear connected to the rear differential; the front suspension was a torsion bar and shock absorber combination and the rear an expensive de Dion tube assembled with shock absorbers. The engine crankshaft was bolted directly to the two-segment driveshaft, which ran the length of the underside from the engine block to the gearbox and rotated at the speed of the engine; the shaft segments were joined with elastomeric'doughnuts' to prevent vibration and engine/gearbox damage. The 2.0 L Twin Spark and the 3.0 Litre V6 were equipped with a limited slip differential. The 75 featured a then-advanced dashboard-mounted diagnostic computer, called Alfa Romeo Control, capable of monitoring the engine systems and alerting the drivers of potential faults; the 75 engine range at launch featured four-cylinder 1.6-, 1.8- and 2.0-litre petrol carbureted engines, a 2.0-litre intercooled turbodiesel made by VM Motori, a 2.5-litre fuel injected V6.
In 1986, the 75 Turbo was introduced, which featured a fuel-injected 1,779 cc twin-cam engine using Garrett T3 turbocharger and oil cooler. In 1987, a 3.0-litre V6 was added to the range and the 2.0 L Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was redesigned to have now two spark plugs per cylinder, the engine was named as Twin Spark. With fuel injection and variable valve timing this engine produced 148 PS; this was an early example of a production engine using variable valve timing, though the first to do so was in Alfa Romeo's own Spider in 1980. In North America, where the car was known as the Milano, only the 2.5 and 3.0 V6 engines were available, from 1987 to 1989. The North American 2.5-litres were fundamentally different from their European counterparts. Due to federal regulations, some modifications were required. Most noticeable from the outside were the'America' bumpers, with the typical rubber accordions in them. Furthermore, these bumpers had thick shock-absorbing material inside them and in addition, they were mounted to the vehicle on shock absorbers.
To accommodate these shock absorbers, the'America'-bodies were different from the European ones. Other changes relative to the European model were: A 67-litre fuel tank, located behind the rear seats, reducing the boot capacity from 500 L to 300 L. Side-markers in the bumpers Exhaust silencer sticking out from under the bumper at the r/h side of the vehicle instead of the centre Reinforcements in the doors and boot lid Hooks underneath the bonnet, to keep the bonnet in position in a crashThe North American cars had different equipment levels. L/h and r/h electrically adjustable outside mirrors, electrically reclining seats and cruise control were optional in Europe; the car was available with a 3-speed ZF automatic gearbox option for the 2.5 V6. Other, more common options such as electrically operated rear windows and an A/C system were standard in the USA; the USA-cars had different upholstery styles and of course different dashboard panels indicating speed in mph, oil pressure in psi and coolant temperature in degrees F, as a final touch the AR control was different, including a seat belt warning light.
The European-spec 2.5 V6 was sold only between 1985 and 1987, although some of them were not registered until 1989. Few of them were sold when the 155 PS 1.8 Turbo got launched, which in some countries was cheaper in taxes because of its lower displacement. To create a bigger space between the V6 and the inline fours, the 2.5 was bored out to 2,959 cc's to deliver 188 PS and this new engine was introduced as the 3.0 America in 1987. As its type designation suggests, the 3.0 only came in the US-specification, with the impact-bumpers and in-boot fuel tank. However, the European'America's' were not equipped with side-markers or the door and boot lid fortifications. Depending on the country of delivery, the 3.0 America could be equipped with a catalyt
Sbarro is a small Swiss high-performance replica and sports car company founded by Franco Sbarro in 1971. The first Sbarro offered was a replica of the Lola T70, powered by a 5.4-litre Chevrolet V8. Since the company has produced small-series replicas of a variety of models including the BMW 328, Ford GT40, Bugatti Royale and Mercedes-Benz 540K. Other significant models have included the mid-engine Tiger, the Stash, the wedge-shaped Challenge of the 1980s, based on a Porsche 911 chassis. Sbarro collaborated with Pierre Cardin for a mid-engined, turbocharged version of the Stash released in Paris 1975. While the 109 kW, 1.8-litre Volkswagen K70 engine provided impressive performance for the time, Cardin's special interior with its striping, special upholstery, zip-fastened pockets was the main attraction. All Sbarros have been limited production vehicles - for instance, only five Stash seem to have been built though at least three engines, two bodystyles, the Pierre Cardin special edition were on offer.
Another series of project cars of the early 1980s sold to private customers are the Super Twelve and Super Eight. The 1982 Super Twelve had the bodywork of a squared-off hatchback, albeit with unusually broad fenders and lots of other hints at potency; the mid-mounted engine was a twelve-cylinder unit constructed from two Kawasaki Z1300 six-cylinder motorcycle engines. The 1984 Super Eight featured the same bodywork, but received the marginally more sane eight-cylinder engine from the Ferrari 308. Sbarro has built dozens of concept cars and custom high-performance vehicles for private customers; some of the more recent concepts are the Christelle, Millennium Coupe, Picasso, GT12 and GT1. Some of these feature hubless a Sbarro concept. At the Geneva Motor Show on 3 March 2011, Sbarro unveiled the Evoluzione concept car. Sbarro's concept car had a 1.8-litre turbocharged four-cylinder engine from Audi. It output 134 kW of power; the Evoluzione was built without normal production car constraints, as the rear exposes the entire rear suspension set-up as well as the engine.
Overall, the design took 25 students just 13 weeks to complete. Established over 20 years ago by Franco Sbarro, Sbarro Espera school offers training in car design and mechanics, combines theory and practice. Lawrence, Mike, A to Z of Sports Cars. Bideford: Bay View Books, 1991. ISBN 1-870979-81-8 Official Site Overview of all Sbarro models
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The Lancia Dedra is a compact executive car produced by the Italian automaker Lancia from 1989 to 1999. It was designed to support, to replace, the Prisma that, six years after its launch, was having difficulties to keep in pace with its latest opponents, it can be considered as the saloon version of the second generation Delta, launched four years in 1993. The task of the Dedra was demanding: it must continue the legacy of the Prisma, which relaunched the Lancia brand in the field of compact executive cars, expand its market share if possible. Larger than its predecessor, the Dedra was presented as the second flagship car of Lancia, as a car that could satisfy those looking for an elegant medium-sized sedan but did not want to buy an executive car, as the Thema; the design, by Ercole Spada of the I. DE. A Institute, produced an excellent drag coefficient of only 0.29. The core of the product was prestige, exclusivity and comfort, achieved through a high level of equipment and use of materials as well as details such as special paints, alloy wheels and an attention to soundproofing and other issues.
Inside the ability to obtain the perfect driving position was helped by the adjustable seats, steering wheel and electrically adjustable mirrors. Safety, both passive with a structure designed to minimize injury in an accident, active, such as ABS and airbag, was near the top of the Dedra's agenda, it was based on the Fiat Type Three platform, because the idea of Fiat Group at the end of the 80s was to achieve, from a single floorpan, three different cars from the same base: elegance for Lancia Dedra 1989, convenience at a competitive price for the Fiat Tempra and sportsmanship for the Alfa Romeo 155. In 1991 was launched the Dedra Integrale, it used the same transmission that the Delta Integrale 8v. The Delta Integrale 8v engine is one of the world's most competition proven power units, a 2-litre four-cylinder fuel injected twin cam engine, fitted with contra-rotating balancing shafts, a Garrett T3 turbocharger and associated inter-cooler to aid volumetric efficiency that boost power output to 171 PS in catalyzed version.
The Dedra Integrale uses the same permanent four-wheel drive of the Delta Integrale, includes the new Visco Drive 2000 traction control system. Includes the electronically controlled suspension available as option in the 2.0 and upper versions. When the Dedra was launched, it was a good time for Lancia: The Thema had been facelifted a year earlier, despite being on the market for five years was selling well, the Delta, thanks its continued success in competition was living a second youth, the Y10 had a slight restyling and good sales. However, the Dedra was not a strong success outside Italy. A major facelift in 1993 did little to boost the car's sales success and the whole Lancia range including the Dedra was withdrawn from RHD markets a year later; the car, from 1994 sold as a station wagon, developed by French coachbuilders Heuliez, remained popular on the Italian market until it was replaced by the all-new Lybra at the end of the 90s. A total of 418,084 Dedras were manufactured during its commercial life.
January 89: Production begun April 89: Official launch. May 91: Launch of Integrale and 2.0 L turbocharger versions. May 92: Launch of automatic version. October 92: First facelift. January 93: Enhancement of security equipment. July 94: Launch of second version, with new engines, station wagon version and other minor enhancements. January 95: Included antitheft device. November 95: Second facelift. February 96: 2.0 L engine was replaced by 1.8 L 16 V. January 97: New 2.0 L 16 V Integrale version. May 97: New interiors. July 97: New 1.8 L 113 PS engine. December 97: Launch of third version, with new engines, new frontal, new door and other minor enhancements. January 00: End of production; the Dedra had some revisions. The first was in 1992, to adapt the engine, resizing the features and introducing the HF Integrale 180 HP version; the second was with the introduction of the DOHC 16V engine. Dedra 1.6 ie 8V - 90 HP Dedra 1.6 ie cat - 76 HP Dedra 1.8 ie cat - 107 HP Dedra 2.0 ie cat - 115 HP Dedra 2.0 ie Automatic - 115 PS Dedra 2.0 Turbo 8v HF - 165 PS Dedra 2.0 Turbo 8v HF Integrale - 180 PS Dedra 1.9 Turbo DS cat - 90 PSThe Dedra 2.0 Turbo 8V HF Integrale, with equip LX, had a digital panel and had an autoblocante, allowing to control the car better in dangerous surfaces.
This car, thanks to the 180 PS engine, reached a top speed of 230 km/h, with 13 L/100 km. The Dedra HF Integrale, Turbo, could have an optional rear wing spoiler to give a better aerodynamic at high speeds; the Dedra 2.0 Turbo 8V HF FWD was lighter than Integrale, but a bit lower than Integrale. Both of them had wheels 195/50 R 15. Dedra 1.6 8V MPI - 90 PS Dedra 1.8 16V - 108 PS Dedra 2.0 16V - 139 PS Dedra 2.0 16V Integrale - 139 PSThree years the HF versiones were replaced by atmospheric 16V engines. Dedra 1.8 16v 113 PS. This motor was used in Fiat Bravo. Dedra 1.8 16v VVT 131 PS. Replaced the 2.0 16V 139 PS. Dedra 1.6 16v 103 PS. This motor was used in Fiat Bravo. SPI = single point injection, Bosch Monomotronic o Siemens.& SPI weber marelly MPI = multi point injectión. Cat. = catalized version, mandatory from 1993. In October 2013, Top Gear magazine placed the Dedra on its list of "The 13 worst cars of the last 20 years." In 1992, IAD Studio presented its Magia prototype based on Dedra Integrale rolling chassis.
Four-seat coupé, finished in bright orange, of distinctive wedge shape w