Paris Motor Show
The Paris Motor Show is a biennial auto show in Paris. Held during October, it is one of the most important auto shows with many new production automobile and concept car debuts; the show presently takes place in Paris expo Porte de Versailles. The Mondial is scheduled by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, which considers it a major international auto show. In 2016, the Paris Motor Show welcomed 1,253,513 visitors, making it the most visited auto show in the world, ahead of Tokyo and Frankfurt; the key figures of the show are: 125 000 m2 of exhibition, 8 pavilions, 260 brands from 18 countries, 65 world premieres, more than 10 000 test drives for electric and hybrid cars, more than 10 000 journalists from 103 countries. Until 1986, it was called the Salon de l'Automobile; the show was held annually through 1976. The show was the first motor show in the world, started in 1898 by industry pioneer, Albert de Dion. After 1910 it was held at the Grand Palais in the Champs-Élysées.
During the First World War motor shows were suspended, meaning that the show of October 1919 was only the 15th "Salon". There was again no Paris Motor Show in 1925, the venue having been booked instead for an Exhibition of Decorative Arts. In October 1926 the Motor Show returned; the outbreak of war again intervened in 1939 when the 33rd Salon de l'Automobile was cancelled at short notice. Normality of a sorts returned some six years and the 33rd "Salon" opened in October 1946. In January 1977, it was announced that no Paris Motor Show would take place that year, because of the "current economic situation": at the same time the organisers confirmed that a 1978 Auto Salon for Paris was planned; the 65th Salon de Paris duly opened on 15 October 1978 in the modern buildings of the Parc des Expositions on the south-western edge of central Paris at the Porte de Versailles, where the show had been held since 1962. 1898 1st 1913 14th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1919 15th "Salon de l'Automobile" The first "Salon" since 1913.9 October 1919 65 French automobile makers exhibited.
At least 118 exhibitors in total. There was no "Salon de l'Automobile" in 1920 1921 16th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1922 17th "Salon de l'Automobile" 4 October 1922 81 French automobile makers exhibited 113 exhibitors in total.1923 18th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1924 19th "Salon de l'Automobile" 2 October 1924 78 French automobile makers exhibited 116 exhibitors in total. There was no "Salon de l'Automobile" in 1925 due to the venue having been allocated to an Exhibition of Decorative Arts 1926 20th "Salon de l'Automobile" 7 October 1926 81 French automobile makers exhibited and 42 non French automobile industry businesses exhibited. 126 exhibitors in total1927 21st "Salon de l'Automobile" 1928 22nd "Salon de l'Automobile" 1929 23rd "Salon de l'Automobile" 1930 24th "Salon de l'Automobile" 2 October 1930 46 French automobile makers and 46 non French automobile makers exhibited. 92 exhibitors in total.1931 25th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1 October 1931 39 French automobile makers and 37 non French automobile makers exhibited.
79 exhibitors in total.1932 26th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1933 27th "Salon de l'Automobile" 5 October 1933 26 French automobile makers exhibited.1934 28th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1935 29th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1936 30th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1937 31st "Salon de l'Automobile" 7 October 1937 22 French automobile makers exhibited.1938 32nd 1946 33rd 1947 34th "Salon de l'Automobile" 23 October 1947 27 French automobile makers exhibited.1948 35th 1949 36th 1950 37th 1951 38th "Salon de l'Automobile" 4 October 1951 23 French automobile makers exhibited.1952 39th 1953 40th 1954 41st 1955 42nd 1956 43rd 1957 44th "Salon de l'Automobile" 3 October 1957 24 French automobile makers exhibited.1958 45th 1959 46th 1960 47th 1961 48th "Salon de l'Automobile" 5 October 1961 9 French automobile makers exhibited. 1962 49th SalonThis was the first year the show was held at the Porte de Versailles on the outskirts of Paris.1963 50th 1964 51st 1965 52nd "Salon de l'Automobile" October 1965 9 French automobile makers exhibited.
1966 53rd 1967 54th "Salon de l'Automobile" 6 October 1967 8 French automobile makers exhibited, plus one coachbuilder Citroën Dyane world premiere1968 55th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1976 63rd "Salon de l'Automobile" known as a "Salon of Sobriété"Ferrari 400 world premiere1978 64th "Salon de l'Automobile" 15 October 19781998 Paris Motor Show 2000 Paris Motor Show 2002 Paris Motor Show 2004 Paris Motor Show 2006 Paris Motor Show 2008 Paris Motor Show 2010 Paris Motor Show 2012 Paris Motor Show 2014 Paris Motor Show 2016 Paris Motor Show 2018 Paris Motor Show Media related to Mondial de l’Automobile de Paris at Wikimedia Commons Official website Template:Paris Motor Show
A disc brake is a type of brake that uses calipers to squeeze pairs of pads against a disc or "rotor" to create friction. This action slows the rotation of a shaft, such as a vehicle axle, either to reduce its rotational speed or to hold it stationary; the energy of motion is converted into waste heat. Hydraulically actuated disc brakes are the most used form of brake for motor vehicles, but the principles of a disc brake are applicable to any rotating shaft. Development of disc-type brakes began in England in the 1890s. In 1902, the Lanchester Motor Company designed brakes that looked and operated in a similar way to a modern disc-brake system though the disc was thin and a cable activated the brake pad. Other designs were not practical or available in cars for another 60 years. Successful application began in airplanes before World War II, the German Tiger tank was fitted with discs in 1942. After the war, technological progress began to arrive in the 1950s, leading to a critical demonstration of superiority at the 1953 24 Hours of Le Mans race, which required braking from high speeds several times per lap.
The Jaguar racing team won, using disc brake equipped cars, with much of the credit being given to the brakes' superior performance over rivals equipped with drum brakes. Mass production began with the 1955 Citroën DS. Compared to drum brakes, disc brakes offer better stopping performance because the disc is more cooled; as a consequence discs are less prone to the brake fade caused when brake components overheat. Disc brakes recover more from immersion. Most drum brake designs have at least one leading shoe. By contrast, a disc brake has no self-servo effect and its braking force is always proportional to the pressure placed on the brake pad by the braking system via any brake servo, braking pedal, or lever; this helps to avoid impending lockup. Drums are prone to "bell mouthing" and trap worn lining material within the assembly, both causes of various braking problems; the disc is made of cast iron, but may in some cases be made of composites such as reinforced carbon–carbon or ceramic matrix composites.
This is connected to the wheel and/or the axle. To slow down the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads, mounted on the brake caliper, is forced mechanically, pneumatically, or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc. Friction attached wheel to slow or stop. Development of disc brakes began in England in the 1890s; the first caliper-type automobile disc brake was patented by Frederick William Lanchester in his Birmingham factory in 1902 and used on Lanchester cars. However, the limited choice of metals in this period meant that he had to use copper as the braking medium acting on the disc; the poor state of the roads at this time, no more than dusty, rough tracks, meant that the copper wore making the system impractical. Successful application began in airplanes and tanks before and during World War II. In Britain, the Daimler Company used disc brakes on its Daimler Armoured Car of 1939, the disc brakes, made by the Girling company, were necessary because in that four-wheel drive vehicle the epicyclic final drive was in the wheel hubs and therefore left no room for conventional hub-mounted drum brakes.
At Germany's Argus Motoren, Hermann Klaue had patented disc brakes in 1940. Argus supplied wheels fitted with disc brakes e.g. for the Arado Ar 96. The German Tiger I heavy tank, was introduced in 1942 with a 55 cm Argus-Werke disc on each drive shaft; the American Crosley Hot Shot is given credit for the first production disc brakes. For six months in 1950, Crosley built a car with these brakes returned to drum brakes. Lack of sufficient research caused reliability problems, such as sticking and corrosion in regions using salt on winter roads. Drum brake conversions for Hot Shots were quite popular; the Crosley disc was a Goodyear development, a caliper type with ventilated disc designed for aircraft applications. Chrysler developed a unique braking system, offered from 1949 to 1953. Instead of the disc with caliper squeezing on it, this system used twin expanding discs that rubbed against the inner surface of a cast-iron brake drum, which doubled as the brake housing; the discs spread apart to create friction against the inner drum surface through the action of standard wheel cylinders.
Because of the expense, the brakes were only standard on the Chrysler Crown and the Town and Country Newport in 1950. They were optional, however, on other Chryslers, priced around $400, at a time when an entire Crosley Hot Shot retailed for $935; this four-wheel disc brake system was built by Auto Specialties Manufacturing Company of St. Joseph, under patents of inventor H. L. Lambert, was first tested on a 1939 Plymouth. Chrysler discs were "self energizing," in that some of the braking energy itself contributed to the braking effort; this was accomplished by small balls set into oval holes leading to the brake surface. When the disc made initial contact with the friction surface, the balls would be forced up the holes forcing the discs further apart and augmenting the braking energy; this made for lighter braking pressure than with calipers, avoided brake fade, promoted cooler running, provided one-third more friction surface than standard Chrysler twelve-inch drums. Today's owners consider the Ausco-Lambert reliable and powerful, but admit its grabbiness and sensitivity.
The first use of disc brakes in racing was in 1951, one of the BRM Type 15s using a Girling-produced set, a first for a Formula One car. Reliable caliper-type
Colotti Trasmissioni is an Italian mechanical engineering firm located in Modena, Italy. It specializes in limited-slip differentials and transmission systems for racing cars. Valerio Colotti, famous as the chassis designer/engineer of Maserati 250F, started his own company called Tec-Mec in 1958. One of the first achievements was the design and manufacture of differential gear set/housing for Rob Walker, which solidified his reputation in the Grand Prix circles. After building a GP car for Jean Behra, which became known as Behra-Porsche, Colotti built his own Grand Prix car named Tec-Mec F415, based on Maserati 250F in 1959, with Fritz d'Orey as the driver who finished 10th at 1959 French Grand Prix. At about the same time, Alf Francis, the Chief Engineer at Rob Walker Racing, started working with Colotti, changing the Tec-Mec name to Colotti-Francis. Colotti-Francis was responsible for a Formula Junior car named T. C. A. built for Graf von Trips, but this project ended with Trips' death at 1961 Italian Grand Prix held at Monza, where his Ferrari 156 collided with Jim Clark's Lotus 21, when a 3rd-place finish would have secured Count Trips the first Grand Prix World Championship title for a German, which did not materialize until 1994.
Rob Walker asked Colotti to analyse and modify the front suspension of two Lotus racing cars belonging to Rob Walker Racing, the plausible result prompted Rob Walker to let Colotti review the design of his own Grand Prix car, Walker Special, being built at the time. With the new 1.5 Liter Formula One regulation going into effect for the 1960 season, Colotti designed and built T.32 5 speed and T.34 6 speed transaxles, which weighed less than 35 kg, suitable for lower-torque high-rev 1.5 Liter engines mounted behind the driver. Outside of racing field, Colotti worked under the name G. S. D; such as on a transmission of a Hovercraft for Britten-Norman of Isle of Wight, a power take-off/transfer system for the mixer drum on Cement mixer trucks, which replaced the long chain drives used. Francis and Colotti knew the shortage of limited slip differential manufacturers was a big hardship experienced by Grand Prix constructors then. For example, Colin Chapman had his in-house engineers, Keith Duckworth and Mike Costin, develop the sequentially shifting transaxles for Lotus 16 and Lotus 18, which he had asked Richard Ansdale and Harry Mundy to design for Lotus 12.
But despite these transaxles being unique and innovative, they still incorporated limited slip differentials made by ZF of Germany, about the only source, the technology used was an old slip-limiting principle invented by Ferdinand Porsche in the 1930s for Auto Union GP cars. Colotti, whose company name had become Colotti Trasmissioni by this time, researched the issue and patented a unique mechanism called Coppia-Frenata to limit the slip on the differential gears; this limited-slip differential became popular among the Formula 1 and other racing teams, being one of the few viable alternatives to the ZF product. In 1962, Colin Chapman asked Colotti to design and build a transaxle for a car designed for Indianapolis 500; this high torque specification 4 speed T.37 transaxle was designed for Small Block Ford-based engines. On Lotus 29, which had a Ford 256 CID all-aluminium OHV pushrod V-8, based on their iron Fairlane 260 CID V-8, the T.37 was used with 2 speeds blanked off. And the car went on to score the 2nd and 7th-place finishes at 1963 Indy 500 in the hands of Jim Clark and Dan Gurney, respectively.
T.37 was, with all four drive/driven gear sets used by Eric Broadley on Lola Mk6, by Ford for the Ford GT40 in the joint project with Broadley. Gianpaolo Dallara asked Colotti Trasmissioni to develop and manufacture a racing version of the transaxle for Lancia Montecarlo, to be Fiat Group's FIA Group 5 weapon. Equipped with a new quick-response limited-slip differential called Duo-Block, this transaxle was successful by winning the World Endurance Championship in 1980 and 1981, Duo-Block was patented. Colotti Trasmissioni was active in the Rally sector, by developing a new kind of limited-slip center differential for four wheel drive competition cars; this torque splitting/proportioning device is patented as Split-Diff. Valerio Colotti having worked for Ferrari in the late 1940s and early 1950s, having engineered the chassis and transmission of their first GP car of its own design under Enzo Ferrari, Aurelio Lampredi and Gioacchino Colombo, Piero Ferrari asked Colotti Trasmissioni to build an exact replica of Ferrari 125, with the original engine and drawings provided by the Maranello factory.
This first-ever Ferrari-built Grand Prix car had been lost, the completed replica resides in Museo Ferrari in Maranello, alongside newer Ferrari F1 machines. ZF Friedrichshafen Hewland Official website
Lucas Industries plc was a Birmingham-based British manufacturer of motor industry and aerospace industry components. Once prominent, it was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. In August 1996, Lucas merged with the American Varity Corporation to form LucasVarity plc. After LucasVarity was sold to TRW the Lucas brand name was licensed for its brand equity to Elta Lighting for aftermarket auto parts in the United Kingdom; the Lucas trademark is owned by ZF Friedrichshafen, which retained the Elta arrangement. In the 1850s, Joseph Lucas, a jobless father of six, sold paraffin oil from a barrow cart around the streets of Hockley. In 1860, he founded the firm, his 17-year-old son Harry joined the firm around 1872. At first it made general pressed metal merchandise, including plant pot holders and buckets, in 1875 lamps for ships. Joseph Lucas & Son was based in Little King Street from 1882 and Great King Street Birmingham. In 1902, what had by become Joseph Lucas Ltd, incorporated in 1898, started making automotive electrical components such as magnetos, windscreen wipers, lighting and starter motors.
The company started its main growth in 1914 with a contract to supply Morris Motors Limited with electrical equipment. During the First World War Lucas made shells and fuses, as well as electrical equipment for military vehicles. Up until the early 1970s, Lucas was the principal supplier to British manufacturers of magnetos, alternators and other electrical components. After the First World War the firm expanded branching out into products such as braking systems and diesel systems for the automotive industry and hydraulic actuators and electronic engine control systems for the aerospace industry. In 1926 they gained an exclusive contract with Austin. Around 1930, Lucas and Smiths established a trading agreement to avoid competition in each other's markets. During the 1920s and 1930s Lucas grew by taking over a number of their competitors such as Rotax and C. A. Vandervell. During WW2 Lucas were engaged by Rover to work on the combustion and fuel systems for the Whittle jet engine project making the burners.
This came about because of their experience of sheet metal manufacture and CAV for the pumps and injectors. In the 1950s they started a semiconductor manufacturing plant to make transistors. In 1976, the militant workforce within Lucas Aerospace were facing significant layoffs. Under the leadership of Mike Cooley, they developed the Lucas Plan to convert the company from arms to the manufacture of useful products, save jobs; the plan was described at the time by the Financial Times as "one of the most radical alternative plans drawn up by workers for their company", by Tony Benn as "one of the most remarkable exercises that has occurred in British industrial history". The Plan took a year to put together, consisted of six volumes of around 200 pages each, included designs for 150 proposed items for manufacture, market analysis and proposals for employee training and restructuring the firm's work organisation; the plan was not put into place but it is claimed that the associated industrial action saved some jobs.
In addition the Plan had an impact outside of Lucas Aerospace: according to a 1977 article in New Statesman, "the philosophical and technical implications of the plan now being discussed on average of twenty five times a week in international media". Workers in other companies subsequently undertook similar initiatives elsewhere in the UK, continental Europe and the United States, the Plan was supported by and influenced the work of radical scientists such as the British Society for Social Responsibility in Science and community and environmental activists through spreading the idea of encouraging useful production; the Plan's proposals had an influence on the economic development strategies of a number of left-wing Labour councils, for example the West Midlands, Sheffield and the Greater London Council, where Cooley was appointed Technology Director of the Greater London Enterprise Board after being sacked by Lucas in 1981 due to his activism. In August 1996, Lucas Industries plc merged with the North American Varity Corporation to form LucasVarity plc.
Its specific history is covered on the LucasVarity page but for the sake of continuity key aspects of the old Lucas business histories to date that referring to CAV and Lucas Diesel Systems are still included here. Harry Lucas designed a hub lamp for use in a high bicycle in 1879 and named the oil lamp "King of the Road"; this name would come to be associated with the manufactured products of Lucas Companies, into the present day. However, Lucas did not use the "King of the Road" epithet for every lamp manufactured, they used this name on only their most prestigious and highest priced lamps and goods. This naming format would last until the 1920s when the "King of the Road" wording was pressed into the outer edge of the small "lion and torch" button motifs that decorated the tops of both bicycle and motor-car lamps; the public were encouraged by Lucas to refer to every Lucas lamp as a "King of the Road", but speaking, this is quite wrong, as most lamps throughout the 20th century possessed either a name, a number, or both.
Joseph and Harry Lucas formed a joint stock corporation with the New Departure Bell Co. of America in 1896, so that Lucas designed bicycle lamps could be manufactured in America to avoid import duties. The King of the Road name returned in 2013 as Lucas Electrical reintroduced a range of bicycle lighting to the UK
A valvetrain or valve train is a mechanical system that controls operation of the valves in an internal combustion engine, whereby a sequence of components transmits motion throughout the assembly. A conventional reciprocating internal combustion engine uses valves to control the flow of the air/fuel admix into and out of the combustion chamber. A typical ohv valvetrain consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrods and camshaft. Valvetrain opening/closing and duration, as well as the geometry of the valvetrain, controls the amount of air and fuel entering the combustion chamber at any given point in time. Timing for open/close/duration is controlled by the camshaft, synchronized to the crankshaft by a chain, belt, or gear. Valvetrains are built in several configurations, each of which varies in layout but still performs the task of opening and closing the valves at the time necessary for proper operation of the engine; these layouts are differentiated by the location of the camshaft within the engine: Cam-in-block The camshaft is located within the engine block, operates directly on the valves, or indirectly via pushrods and rocker arms.
Because they require pushrods they are called pushrod engines. Overhead camshaft The camshaft is located above the valves within the cylinder head, operates either indirectly or directly on the valves. Camless This layout uses no camshafts at all. Technologies such as solenoids are used to individually actuate the valves; the valvetrain is the mechanical system responsible for operation of the valves. Valves are of the poppet type, although many others have been developed such as sleeve and rotary valves. Poppet valves require small coil springs, appropriately named valve springs, to keep them closed when not actuated by the camshaft, they are attached to the valve stem ends, seating within spring retainers. Other mechanisms can be used in place of valve springs to keep the valves closed: Formula 1 engines employ pneumatic valve springs in which pneumatic pressure closes the valves, while motorcycle manufacturer Ducati uses desmodromic valve drive which mechanically close the valves. Depending on the design used, the valves are actuated directly by a rocker arm, finger, or bucket tappet.
Overhead camshaft engines use fingers or bucket tappets, upon which the cam lobes contact, while pushrod engines use rocker arms. Rocker arms are actuated by a pushrod, pivot on a shaft or individual ball studs in order to actuate the valves. Pushrods are slender metal rods seated within the engine block. At the bottom ends the pushrods are fitted with lifters, either solid or hydraulic, upon which the camshaft, located within the cylinder block, makes contact; the camshaft pushes on the lifter, which pushes on the pushrod, which pushes on the rocker arm, which rotates and pushes down on the valve. Camshafts must actuate the valves at the appropriate time in the combustion cycle. In order to accomplish this the camshaft is linked to and kept in synchronisation with the crankshaft through the use of a metal chain, rubber belt, or geartrain; because these mechanisms are essential to the proper timing of valve actuation they are named timing chains, timing belts, timing gears, respectively. Typical normal-service engine valve-train components may be too lightweight for operating at high revolutions per minute, leading to valve float.
This occurs when the action of the valve no longer opens or closes, such as when the valve spring force is insufficient to close the valve causing a loss of control of the valvetrain, as well as a drop in power output. Valve float will damage the valvetrain over time, could cause the valve to be damaged as it is still open while the piston comes to the top of its stroke. Upgrading to high pressure valve springs could allow higher valvetrain speeds, but this would overload the valvetrain components and cause excessive and costly wear. High-output and engines used in competition feature camshafts and valvetrain components that are designed to withstand higher RPM ranges; these changes include additional modifications such as larger-sized valves combined with freer breathing intake and exhaust ports to improve air flow. Automakers offer factory-approved performance parts to increase engine output, numerous aftermarket parts vendors specialize in valvetrain modifications for various engine applications.
Cam-in-block Overhead camshaft Camless Animation
Alfa Romeo 33
The Alfa Romeo 33 is a small family car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo between 1983 and 1995. From a mechanical standpoint it was an evolution of its predecessor, the Alfasud, whose floorpan and drivetrain were carried over—albeit with modifications to the suspension and braking system; the Nissan-based Alfa Romeo Arna was launched shortly after, offering a sized but lower priced car. The 33 has a unique place in the Alfa Romeo history, as nearly 1 million of these cars were produced. During its 11-year lifespan the 33 saw a light facelift in 1986 and a significant restyle in 1989; the 33 was discontinued in 1994 and replaced by the Alfa Romeo 145 and 146, which used the same boxer engines but built around an new platform based on the Fiat Tipo. Known as the Alfa 33, the 5-door hatchback was launched in 1983 and a station wagon version was introduced the following year at the same time as a four-wheel drive version of the hatchback; the hatchback was styled by Ermanno Cressoni at the Centro Stile Alfa Romeo, while the station wagon was designed by Pininfarina.
The 33 became renowned for its nimble handling and powerful boxer engines, but became well known for its unreliable electronics and tendencies to rust. Another issue was its braking and increased unsprung weight—the Alfasud's inboard front disc brakes had been moved to the more common outboard discs; the rear discs of the Sud's four-wheel disc arrangement had been replaced with drums. The car featured numerous innovations for the company, including an instrument binnacle that moved up and down with the adjustable steering wheel; the UK launch promoted the sleek design, the Daily Mail noted its low drag coefficient of 0.36, impressive in 1983 with only bigger cars such as the Ford Sierra and Audi 100 able to better it. At launch two models were available, 33 33 1.5 Quadrifoglio Oro. Both engines were SOHC boxers fed by a twin-choke carburettor, carried over from the Alfasud along with its 5-speed gearbox: a 1,350 cc developing 76 PS at 6,000 rpm, a 1,490 cc developing 85 PS at 5,800 rpm. Unlike on the Alfasud, fifth gear acted like an overdrive gear and top speed was reached in fourth.
The luxurious 1.5 Quadrifoglio Oro was distinguished by a silver grille, two-tone paintwork and clear front turn indicator lenses outside. Standard equipment included bronze tinted glass, headlight wipers, passenger side wing mirror and a trip computer. A four-wheel-drive variant, the 33 1.5 4x4, was introduced in at the 1983 Frankfurt Motor Show and put on sale in December. It was assembled by Pininfarina in Turin. Front-wheel drive, the four-wheel drive system could be engaged manually by the driver at any speed, via a handle in front of the gear lever. Like the Quadrifoglio Oro the 4x4 was characterised by two-tone paint, either metallic red or silver separated from a black lower body by a double white pinstripe. Equipment level was the same as on the richer Quadrifoglio Oro; the 33 1.5 Giardinetta, a 5-door estate designed and—like the 4x4 hatchback—assembled by Pininfarina, made its début at the March 1984 Geneva Motor Show. The Giardinetta went on sale in 4x4 guise in June and was joined in the year by a front-wheel drive model, shown at the Turin Motor Show in November.
Another Quadrifoglio top of the range model, this time the sporting 1.5 Quadrifoglio Verde, was put on sale in June 1984. It was powered by a 105 PS version of the 1,490 cc boxer, equipped with double twin-choke carburettors like on the Sprint 1.5 QV coupé. The Quadrifoglio Verde could be recognized from its specific grille, additional plastic spoilers under both body-colour bumpers, side skirts, grey 8-hole alloy wheels with low profile 185/60 HR14 tyres. In the cabin there were sport seats in black and grey cloth, a leather covered steering wheel and additional gauges for voltmeter and oil pressure. October 1984 saw the introduction of the updated model year 1985 range displayed at the 60th Turin Motor Show. All models save for the base 1.3 were upgraded to one-choke-per-cylinder twin carburettor setups—as on the Quadrifoglio Verde. This gave birth to a sportier 1.3-litre model, the 33 1.3 S, which put out 86 PS at 5,500 rpm, or 10 PS more than the standard. Minor changes were made to the equipment of most models but the introduced 1.5 QV, such as the adoption of side skirts and a black grille on the Quadrifoglio Oro.
With the arrival of the 1.3 S and front-wheel-drive Giardinetta, for 1985 the lineup included seven models: 1.3, 1.3 S, 1.5 Quadrifoglio Oro, 1.5 Quadrifoglio Verde, 1.5 4x4, 1.5 Giardinetta and 1.5 Giardinetta 4x4. All flat-4 petrol engines: In autumn 1986 a mild facelift resulted in a revised range. Exterior alterations were limited to clear instead of amber-coloured indicator lenses, new wheel covers and alloy wheels, the adoption of side skirts by all models, a redesigned front grille.
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun