Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
Alfa Romeo Giulietta (116)
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta is a small executive saloon car manufactured by Italian car maker Alfa Romeo from 1977 to 1985. The car was introduced in November 1977 and while it took its name from the original Giulietta of 1954 to 1965, it was a new design based on the Alfa Romeo Alfetta chassis; the Giulietta went through two facelifts, the first in 1981 and the second one in 1983. All Giuliettas used 5-speed manual transmissions. While it was a conventional three-box saloon/sedan body style, a defining point of difference was at the rear, where there was a short boot, a small aerodynamic spoiler, integrated into the body; the Giulietta was only offered in saloon form, but there were several estate/station wagon conversions made. First out was Moretti, whose conversion appeared in the first half of 1978; the Giulietta was launched in November 1977. Two models were available: Giulietta 1.3, with an oversquare 95 PS 1357 cc engine, Giulietta 1.6, with a 109 PS 1570 cc engine, both Alfa Romeo Twin Cam inline-fours fed by two twin-choke carburettors.
In April 1979, just under two years Giulietta 1.8 with a 122 PS 1,779 cc engine was added, in May of the following year the Giulietta Super with a 2-litre engine appeared. In summer of 1981, the Giulietta received a minor facelift and internally, while the engines remained the same; the car got plastic protection around the lower body, while interior modifications included a new steering wheel and new seats. The instrument panel and the centre armrest were modified; the Autodelta-produced Giulietta 2.0 Turbo Autodelta was introduced at the 1982 Paris motor show. This special version had a turbocharged 1,962 cc engine; the production Giulietta Turbodelta version had 170 PS and a KKK turbocharger coupled with two double-barrel Weber carburettors. All turbo versions were black with red interior. In the same year, the Giulietta 2.0 Ti and turbodiesel 1995 cc version with 82 PS were introduced, going on sale in early 1983. In 1982, Alfetta and Giulietta turbodiesels achieved seven world speed records over 5/10/25/50 thousand kilometres and 5/10/25 thousand miles at Nardò.
While one of the quickest diesels in its category at the time, the Giulietta was rather costly and suffered from a forward weight distribution. In late 1983, the "84" Giulietta was presented, with minor differences in appearance, bumpers were redesigned and the dashboard was re-designed, the instruments changed and the rear seat in some versions changed its form. Mechanically it was the same, with minor modifications to the brake booster and inlet manifold on some versions; the largest market for the Giulietta was South Africa, where a successful TV advertising campaign by Alfa Romeo produced good sales between 1981 and 1984. Central to this campaign was emphasis of the Giulietta's new'aerodynamic' line, carried over to the 75, the 33; the Giulietta was the'last hurrah' for Alfa in South Africa before the appearance of the 164 and 156 models in the 1990s In 1985, after around 380,000 Giuliettas had been built, it was replaced by the Alfa Romeo 75, which used much of the Alfetta/Giulietta underpinnings.
Media related to Alfa Romeo Giulietta at Wikimedia Commons
Alfa Romeo Spider
The Alfa Romeo Spider is a two-seater, front engine, rear drive roadster manufactured and marketed by Alfa Romeo from 1966 to 1994 in four distinct series, each with modifications ranging from modest to extensive. As successor to the Giulia Spider, the Spider remained in production for three decades; the first three series were assembled by Pininfarina in Grugliasco and the fourth series in San Giorgio Canavese. The last Spider was manufactured in April 1993 — the last rear wheel drive Alfa Romeo before the Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione of 2007. In 2012, FCA Italy studied the possibility with Mazda of jointly developing a new Spider for 2015 based on the Mazda MX-5 platform a modern interpretation of the Fiat 124 Sport Spider was manufactured instead. In 1962 Alfa Romeo introduced the new 105-series Giulia, which first complemented and replaced the 101-series Giulietta; the sport variants of the Giulietta remained on sale for several more years, upgraded to the Giulia's 1.6-litre engine and rebadged Giulia, until analogous variants of the new models were ready.
Thus the Giulietta-based Giulia Spider 1600 and Giulia Spider Veloce were produced from 1962 to 1965 and from 1963 to 1965 respectively. The Alfa Romeo Spider was based on Giulia mechanicals, including its Alfa Romeo twin cam inline-four, independent front and solid axle rear suspension, unibody construction, incorporating the new principles of crumple zones into the front and rear. Following the evolution the other Giulia sport variants, the Spider was powered by a 1.6 L engine received a 1750 cc a 1300 cc, a 2000 cc engine. Unlike any other Giulia derivative, it was upgraded and continued to sell through four decades, into the 1990s; as for its predecessor the Giulietta Spider, the Italian firm of Pininfarina was responsible for the design, manufacturing of the body, as well as final assembly. The 1600 Spider was the last project. Design director of Pininfarina at that time was Franco Martinengo; the original 1966 Spider shape was the result of a number of Pininfarina design studies, concept cars showing traits incorporated in the final production design.
The first one was the Alfa Romeo Superflow, a concept car built upon the chassis of a retired 6C 3000 CM racing car and first show at the 1956 Turin Motor Show. Despite being an aerodynamic coupé with prominent fins on the rear, a futuristic all-plexiglas greenhouse and front wings, the Superflow shown the overall body shape of the future Spider and the scallops on the sides. In the following years the Superflow was updated three times into three more different concept cars, namely a Superflow II coupé an open-top spider and another Superflow IV coupé; the most significant in the Spider's design history was the second, the open-top Alfa Romeo Spider Super Sport, shown at the 1959 Geneva Motor Show. It did without the rear fins of the Superflow and Superflow II, showing for the first time the rounded cuttlebone-shaped tail and tail light configuration of the Spider. Last of the Spider's forerunner was the Giulietta Sprint Speciale-based Alfa Romeo Giulietta SS Spider Aerodinamica, which premiered at the 1961 Turin Motor Show.
It was similar in shape for hideaway headlamps. Despite the final design being ready in 1961, the continuing success of existing models and the economic challenges facing Italy at the time meant that the first pre-launch production Spiders began to emerge from the Pininfarina production line only at the end of 1965; the Spider was launched at the 36th Geneva Motor Show in March 1966, together with the Giulia Sprint GT Veloce tested by the press at an event organised in Gardone Riviera. To choose a name for the spider Alfa Romeo announced a write-in competition, offering an example of the new car as a prize. Over 100 thousand ballots were sent in, the great majority from Italy; however it could not be adopted due to trademark issues, the car was named Alfa Romeo Spider 1600. The Spider's 1,570 cc twin cam engine had dual Weber two-barrel side-draft carburetors, produced 109 PS DIN. Sparsely fitted inside but including five speed manual transmission, disc brakes 15" wheels fitted with Pirelli Cinturato 155HR15 CA67 tyres.
The price on launch in Italy was 2,195,000 lire. In the US the car sold for $3,950. In the UK the car's price was close to a Jaguar E-Type. In January 1968, in Vietri sul Mare, Alfa Romeo introduced the press to its 1750 line of cars, which included the new 1750 Berlina saloon, the Giulia Sprint-based 1750 GT Veloce coupé, the 1600 Spider-based 1750 Spider Veloce, which replaced the original Spider 1600. All were powered by the same engine, a new 1,779 cc, 118 PS DIN version of the Alfa Romeo twin cam engine. Top speed rose to 190 km/h; the car did not bear any Spider badging, just a "1750" script below the rear Alfa Romeo badge. During the production run, the front repeater lights were moved ahead of the wheel arches. While in Europe the 1750 was fitted with two twin horizontal carburettors, starting with model year 1969 models for the North American market had SPICA mechanical fuel injection. According to Alfa Romeo engine output and performance were unchanged from the carburetted version. Modifications were made to the suspension, electrics, 14" wheels and 165HR14 Pirelli Cinturato CA67 tyres, though the car looked the same.
Visible differences were limited to the rear-view mirror repositioned t
Alfa Romeo 75
The Alfa Romeo 75, sold in North America as the Milano, is a compact executive car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo between 1985 and 1992. The Alfa 75 was commercially quite successful: in only three years, 236,907 cars were produced, by the end of production in 1992, around 386,767 had been built; the Alfa Romeo 75 was the last model released. The 75 was introduced in May 1985 to replace the Giulietta, was named to celebrate Alfa's 75th year of production; the body, designed by head of Centro Stile Alfa Romeo Ermanno Cressoni, was styled in a striking wedge shape, tapering at the front with square headlights and a matching grille. At the 1986 Turin Auto Show, a prototype 75 estate was to be seen, an attractive forerunner of the 156 Sportwagon; this version was, never listed for sale, being cancelled after Fiat took control of Alfa Romeo. The car, dubbed the 75 Turbo Wagon, was made by Italian coachbuilder Rayton Fissore using a 75 Turbo as the basis. Two estate versions were to be found at the 1987 Geneva Motor Show.
The 75 featured some unusual technical features, most notably the fact that it was perfectly balanced from front to rear. This was achieved by using transaxle schema — mounting the standard five-speed gearbox in the rear connected to the rear differential; the front suspension was a torsion bar and shock absorber combination and the rear an expensive de Dion tube assembled with shock absorbers. The engine crankshaft was bolted directly to the two-segment driveshaft, which ran the length of the underside from the engine block to the gearbox and rotated at the speed of the engine; the shaft segments were joined with elastomeric'doughnuts' to prevent vibration and engine/gearbox damage. The 2.0 L Twin Spark and the 3.0 Litre V6 were equipped with a limited slip differential. The 75 featured a then-advanced dashboard-mounted diagnostic computer, called Alfa Romeo Control, capable of monitoring the engine systems and alerting the drivers of potential faults; the 75 engine range at launch featured four-cylinder 1.6-, 1.8- and 2.0-litre petrol carbureted engines, a 2.0-litre intercooled turbodiesel made by VM Motori, a 2.5-litre fuel injected V6.
In 1986, the 75 Turbo was introduced, which featured a fuel-injected 1,779 cc twin-cam engine using Garrett T3 turbocharger and oil cooler. In 1987, a 3.0-litre V6 was added to the range and the 2.0 L Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was redesigned to have now two spark plugs per cylinder, the engine was named as Twin Spark. With fuel injection and variable valve timing this engine produced 148 PS; this was an early example of a production engine using variable valve timing, though the first to do so was in Alfa Romeo's own Spider in 1980. In North America, where the car was known as the Milano, only the 2.5 and 3.0 V6 engines were available, from 1987 to 1989. The North American 2.5-litres were fundamentally different from their European counterparts. Due to federal regulations, some modifications were required. Most noticeable from the outside were the'America' bumpers, with the typical rubber accordions in them. Furthermore, these bumpers had thick shock-absorbing material inside them and in addition, they were mounted to the vehicle on shock absorbers.
To accommodate these shock absorbers, the'America'-bodies were different from the European ones. Other changes relative to the European model were: A 67-litre fuel tank, located behind the rear seats, reducing the boot capacity from 500 L to 300 L. Side-markers in the bumpers Exhaust silencer sticking out from under the bumper at the r/h side of the vehicle instead of the centre Reinforcements in the doors and boot lid Hooks underneath the bonnet, to keep the bonnet in position in a crashThe North American cars had different equipment levels. L/h and r/h electrically adjustable outside mirrors, electrically reclining seats and cruise control were optional in Europe; the car was available with a 3-speed ZF automatic gearbox option for the 2.5 V6. Other, more common options such as electrically operated rear windows and an A/C system were standard in the USA; the USA-cars had different upholstery styles and of course different dashboard panels indicating speed in mph, oil pressure in psi and coolant temperature in degrees F, as a final touch the AR control was different, including a seat belt warning light.
The European-spec 2.5 V6 was sold only between 1985 and 1987, although some of them were not registered until 1989. Few of them were sold when the 155 PS 1.8 Turbo got launched, which in some countries was cheaper in taxes because of its lower displacement. To create a bigger space between the V6 and the inline fours, the 2.5 was bored out to 2,959 cc's to deliver 188 PS and this new engine was introduced as the 3.0 America in 1987. As its type designation suggests, the 3.0 only came in the US-specification, with the impact-bumpers and in-boot fuel tank. However, the European'America's' were not equipped with side-markers or the door and boot lid fortifications. Depending on the country of delivery, the 3.0 America could be equipped with a catalyt
Alfa Romeo 4C
The Alfa Romeo 4C is a mid-engined, rear-wheel drive sports car. Available in coupé and spider body style, it uses a carbon fiber tub and rear crash box, hybrid rear subframe out of aluminum to keep weight at 895 kg and 1,050 kg in the United States; the 4C is Alfa Romeo's first mass-produced vehicle of the 21st century to re-enter the North American automotive market. Alfa Romeo 4C Concept is a two-seater, rear-wheel drive coupé with technology and materials derived from the Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione, with 1750 turbo petrol engine with direct injection, the "Alfa TCT" twin dry clutch transmission, the Alfa DNA dynamic control selector; the 4C concept version unveiled in the 81st Geneva Motor Show in March 2011, followed by Mille Miglia 2011 parade, Goodwood Festival of Speed 2011, 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show. It was displayed for the first time outside in Concorso d'Eleganza Villa d'Este in 2012. Compared to the production version, it is similar, with the biggest differences being front lights, side vents and mirrors.
The Alfa Romeo 4C Concept was voted the'Most Beautiful Concept Car of the Year' award by the readers of German magazine Auto Bild, won the Auto Bild Design Award 2011. It was awarded the "Design Award for Concept Cars & Prototypes" by referendum of the public in Villa d'Este; the production car was unveiled at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show, followed by 2013 Essen'Techno Classica', Goodwood Festival of Speed 2013, Moscow Raceway, 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show. The bare'4C000' chassis was shown at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. Ordering of European models began in October 2013 at Alfa Romeo dealerships in Europe; as part of Alfa Romeo 4C launch, Alfa Romeo Style Centre and Compagnia Ducale designed a 4C IFD Bicycle, inspired by the Alfa Romeo 4C coupé. The vehicle went on sale in December 2013 and marketed in Europe and America. Production of 4C began May 2013 at Maserati's plant in Modena, with an expected production of up to 2500 units per year, it will be the first mass-produced Alfa Romeo car for re-entry into the US market.
Production of Alfa Romeo 4C was estimated to be over 1000 units per year, with an upper limit of 3500 units per year, depending on the quantity of carbon fiber chassis that can be built by the supplier Adler Plastic. Within the 3,500-unit quota, 1,000 units of which are earmarked for Europe. Delivery of European Alfa Romeo 4C Launch Edition took place at Balocco Test Centre, with vehicles delivered to Pierluigi De Silvestro, Philippe Walch, Carlos Diniz, Aldo Mariani and Stefano Zanotti; the car was developed by Alfa Romeo. The chassis is composed with aluminium subframes front and rear; the carbon fiber tub is produced by TTA in Airola, as a joint venture between Adler Plastic and Lavorazione Materiali Compositi. The carbon fiber components that make up the chassis are cut using CNC technology; the entire carbon-fiber monocoque chassis of the car weighs a mere 143 lb. Front and rear aluminum subrames combine with the tub, roof reinforcements and engine mounting to comprise the 4C chassis giving the vehicle a total chassis weight of 236 lb and a total vehicle curb weight of just 2,465 lb.
The 4C has a single carbon fiber body, similar to the body of many supercars. The outer body is made of a composite material, 20% lighter than steel; the stability is better than aluminium. The 4C employs double wishbone suspensions at MacPherson struts at the rear; the resultant weight distribution is 62 % on the rear axle. Wheels and tyres have different diameters and widths front and rear: 205/45 R17 front and 235/40 R18 back as standard, with optional 205/40 R18 and 235/35 R19. Both wheel options come equipped with Pirelli P Zero tires; the 4C uses vented disc brakes on all wheels. The car can stop from 100 km/h in 36 meters. To save weight and increase steering feel, the 4C has no power steering, its center of gravity height at just 40 centimetres off the ground is 7 centimetres lower than the Lotus Elise. The 4C uses a new all-aluminium 1.75 L inline 4 cylinder turbocharged engine producing 240 horsepower at 6000 rpm. The engine has been designed for minimum weight; the engine's combined fuel consumption 6.8 L/100 km.
0–62 miles per hour acceleration is achieved in 4.5 seconds and the top speed is 258 km/h, the power-to-weight-ratio being just 0.267 hp/kg. A journalist from Quattroruote car magazine demonstrated how the 4C accelerates from 0–100 kilometres per hour faster than 4.5 seconds. In race mode, with left foot on the brake pedal, if you pull the right shift paddle the engine will rev to 3500 rpm, but if you pull the left paddle the engine will rev to 6000 rpm and 0–100 kilometres per hour time will go down to 4.2 seconds. Italian car magazine Quattroruote published the lap time of 4C around Nurburgring, it lapped the ring in 8:04. The 4C is equipped with a six speed Alfa TCT Dual Dry Clutch Transmission, can be operated via gearshift paddles on the steering wheel, it has an Alfa'DNA' dynamic control selector which controls the behavior of engine, throttle response and gearbox. In addition to the modes seen in Giulietta, the 4C has a new "Race" mode; the 4C Launch Edition was a limited and numbered edition, unveiled at the vehicle's launch at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show.
Alfa Romeo 6C
The Alfa Romeo 6C name was used on road and sports cars produced between 1927 and 1954 by Alfa Romeo. Bodies for these cars were made by coachbuilders such as James Young, Touring and Pininfarina. Starting from 1933 there was a 6C version with a factory Alfa body, built in Portello. In the early 1920s Vittorio Jano received a commission to create a lightweight, high performance vehicle to replace the Giuseppe Merosi designed RL and RM models; the car was introduced in April 1925 at the Salone dell' Automobile di Milano as the 6C 1500. It was based on the P2 racing car, using single overhead cam 1,487 cc in-line six-cylinder motor producing 44 horsepower, in 1928 the 1500 Sport was presented, the first Alfa Romeo road car with double overhead camshafts. In the mid-1920s, Alfa's RL was considered too large and heavy, so a new development began; the 2-liter formula that had led to Alfa Romeo winning the Automobile World Championship in 1925, changed to 1.5-liter for the 1926 season. The 6C 1500 was introduced in 1925 at the Milan Motor Show, production started 1927, with the P2 Grand Prix car as a starting point.
Engine capacity was now 1487 cc, against the P2's 1987 cc. First versions were bodied by Touring. In 1928, a 6C Sport was released, with a dual overhead camshafts engine, its sport version won many races, including the 1928 Mille Miglia. Total production was 3000. Ten copies of a supercharged Super Sport variant were made; the more powerful 6C 1750 was introduced in 1929 in Rome. The car featured a top speed of 95 mph, a chassis designed to flex and undulate over wavy surfaces, as well as sensitive geared-up steering, it was produced in six series between 1929 and 1933. The base model had a single overhead cam. Super Sport and Gran Sport versions had a double overhead cam engine. Again, a supercharger was available. Most of the cars were sold as rolling chassis and bodied by coachbuilders such as Zagato, Touring. Additionally, there were 3 examples built with James Young bodywork, one of, a part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, USA in original, unrestored condition.
In 1929, it won every major racing event it was entered in, including the Grands Prix of Belgium, Spain and Monza, the Mille Miglia was won with Giuseppe Campari and Giulio Ramponi. The Brooklands Double Twelve and the Ulster TT were won, in 1930 it won again at the Mille Miglia and Spa 24 Hours. Total production was 2635; the 1931 6C 1750 with license plate number "3710 SV" and chassis/engine number #10814331, owned by notorious rare car collector Corrado Lopresto, is a unique exemplar, which's story is told in Lopresto's bilingual 2015 Skira book Best in Show – Capolavori dell'auto italiana dalla collezione Lopresto – Italian Cars Masterpieces from the Lopresto Collection. The English-language section about this car tells: Born with a spider body by Zagato, this car is a 6C 1750 Gran Sport with compressor, the sportiest version of the Milanese 6-cylinder, is sold new to Giovanni Battista Aldo Barabini of Genova in 1931. After several changes of ownership the car goes back to Alfa Romeo, to be resold in 1933 to Dino Carabba, who in 1934 enrolls in the Varese-Campo dei Fiori, coming in fourth in class and eleventh overall.
In those years, the 6C runs in minor races, changing hands three times before being sold to the body shop Giuseppe Aprile of Savona, in August 1938. Less than a year after, the car is purchased by Brunello Feltri of Altare, province of Savona, but meanwhile, Aprile has rebuilt the body of the car with a new modern and elegant look; the design, so well executed, indicates the work of the most famous designer of that time: Mario Revelli di Beaumont, father of this and many other beautiful bodies. The car so transformed survives the war unscathed and changes ownership again in 1956, in Liguria, where it remains still today, rediscovery yet in order, although with some modifications; the painstaking restoration work has restored it to its original splendor, as well conceived by Revelli: a unique car that blends the great elegance to the sporty temperament of mechanics. A plush version of the car, manufactured by Vitale Barberis Canonico, was given, together with the book, to some of Lopresto's friends.
The Alfa Romeo 6C 1900 was the last derivative of the original 6C 1500, produced in 197 examples during 1933, as a transitional model before the new 6C 2300 was introduced the following year. Only made in Gran Turismo guise with a 2,920 mm wheelbase, the 6C 1900 replaced the corresponding 6C 1750 model. Besides the larger displacement, other notable mechanical changes were aluminium cylinder heads, an improved frame and a new transmission; the same upgrades were applied to the 1933 model 6C 1750 Gran Sport, which together with the 6C 1900 forms the sixth series of the 6C. Alfa Romeo offered the 6C 1900 with an in-house 4-door saloon body, while bespoke coachbuilt body styles included 4-seat cabriolets; the double overhead camshaft aspirated straight-six engine was bored out from 66 mm to 68 mm, bringing displacement to 1,917 cc. For the first time on a 6C the cylinder head was aluminium. With 68 bhp at 4,500 rpm the 6C 1900 could achieve a top speed of 130 km/h; the improved frame consisted of boxed rails and crossmembers, instead of the 1750s C-shaped sec
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia is the name of three not directly related models by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. The first is a line of sporty four-door compact executive cars produced from 1962 to 1978, the second is an updated up-engined Spider and Sprint Speciale Giuliettas, the third Giulia is a compact executive car unveiled in 2015. Alfa Romeo was one of the first mainstream manufacturers to put a powerful engine in a light-weight 1 tonne four-door car for mass production; the Type 105 Giulia was equipped with a light alloy twin overhead camshaft four-cylinder engine similar to that of the earlier Giulietta range, available in 1.3-litre and 1.6-litre versions. Various configurations of carburetors and tuning produced power outputs from about 80 to about 110 bhp, coupled in most cases to 5-speed manual transmission. Giulia sedans were noted for lively handling and impressive acceleration among small European four-door sedans of their era considering modest engine sizes offered; the popular Super version with the twin carburettor 1.6 litre engine had a top speed of 170 km/h and accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h in about 12 seconds, better than many sports cars of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
When leaving the factory all variations of the Giulia fitted either Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres or Pirelli Cinturato 155HR15 tyres. The styling of the boxy four-door notchback saloon was somewhat wanting; the engine bay and boot were all square shaped, buffered somewhat by details on the grill, roofline and boot. Use of a wind tunnel during development led to a aerodynamic shape that produced a drag coefficient of Cd=0.34 low for a saloon of the era. The Giulia Spider was succeeded by the Alfa Romeo Spider in 1966. Note: chassis and engine type numbers displayed in italic for each model are sourced from Fusi 1978, pages 841–848. Tipo: 105.14, 105.08, 105.09. Engine: 00514. Unveiled on 27 June 1962 at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI was the first of the Giulia family of cars to be introduced, its 1,570 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was fitted with a single Solex 33 PAIA 7 twin-choke down-draft carburettor, produced 92 DIN-rated PS or 106 SAE-rated PS at 6,200 rpm. The "TI" nomenclature referred to a class of Italian saloon car racing known as "Turismo Internazionale", had been applied to higher-performance versions of the 1900 and Giulietta saloons in the 1950s.
However, for the Giulia saloon, the TI was at first the only version available, with the introduction of the TI Super and Super, the TI became the base version in the 1.6-litre engine class. A distinguishing feature of the original Giulia were drum brakes on all corners, the front ones of the three-shoe type like on late Giuliettas; the car was marketed as a six-seater, thanks to a standard column-mounted shifter and a split bench front seat—though Italian car magazine Quattroruote found it rather a comfortable four-seater. Other notable interior features of the early models were mottled cloth and vinyl upholstery, a grey, trapezoid instrument panel including a strip speedometer, a black steering wheel with two ivory-coloured spokes and a chrome half horn ring. In May 1964 a floor shifter became available, to be ordered in conjunction with the newly introduced separate front seats. Around the same time a right hand drive model variant entered production, with floor shifter only. In February 1966 several changes were made.
The floor shifter became standard. From outside these TIs can be recognized by L-shaped chrome strips around the tail lights which supplanted the previous C-shaped ones. Production of the Giulia TI ceased during 1967. Tipo: 105.16. Engine: 00516; the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI Super was a special road-going sports model produced in limited numbers, fitted with a more powerful engine and a number of weight saving components, intended for racing use. It was introduced to the press at the Monza race track on 24 April 1963. In total only 501 were made, 178 in 1963 and 323 1964. On 2 May 1964 the TI Super received international FIA and Italian CSAI homologation for racing, was extensively campaigned in the European Touring Car Challenge. Today the Giulia TI Super is rare and considered desirable by collectors; the TI Super's 1,570 cc engine was the same installed on the Giulia Sprint Speciale coupé—though bearing a different type code. It was fitted with two twin-choke horizontal Weber 45 DCOE 14 carburettors and, as on the Sprint Speciale, produced 112 DIN-rated PS or 129 SAE-rated PS at 6,500 rpm, pushing top speed to over 185 km/h.
Dry weight was 910 kilograms compared to 1,000 kg of the standard Giulia TI. Parts contributing to the weight reduction were mesh grilles replacing the inner pair of head lamps, bumpers without overriders, fixed front quarter windows, Plexiglas rear windows, magnesium alloy wheels with hubcaps similar in appearance to the standard steel wheels of the TI. Braking was by discs all around. Cars built from August 1964 used the bodyshell of the TI with mounting points for the brake servo, but wer