Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C.. It became part of the Fiat Group in 1969; the company has a strong rally heritage and is noted for using letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names. Lancia vehicles are no longer sold outside Italy and comprise only the Ypsilon supermini range, as the late Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne foreshadowed in January 2014 until his death in 2018. Lancia & C. Fabbrica Automobili was founded on 29 November 1906 in Turin by Fiat racing drivers, Vincenzo Lancia and his friend, Claudio Fogolin; the first car manufactured by Lancia was the "Tipo 51" or "12 HP", which remained in production from 1907 to 1908. It had a small four-cylinder engine with a power output of 28 PS. In 1910, Lancia components were exported to the United States where they were assembled and sold as SGVs by the SGV Company. In 1915, Lancia manufactured its first truck, the Jota that continued as a dedicated series. In 1937, Vincenzo died of a heart attack and both his wife, Adele Miglietti Lancia, his son, Gianni Lancia, took over control of the company.
They persuaded Vittorio Jano to join as an engineer. Jano had made a name for himself by designing various Alfa Romeo models, including some of its most successful race cars such as the 6C, P2 and P3. Lancia is renowned in the automotive world for introducing cars with numerous innovations; these include the Theta of 1913, the first European production car to feature a complete electrical system as standard equipment. Lancia's first car adopting a monocoque chassis – the Lambda produced from 1922 to 1931 - featured'Sliding Pillar' independent front suspension that incorporated the spring and hydraulic damper into a single unit. 1948 saw the first 5 speed gearbox to be fitted to a production car. Lancia premiered the first full-production V6 engine, in the 1950 Aurelia, after earlier industry-leading experiments with V8 and V12 engine configurations, it was the first manufacturer to produce a V4 engine. Other innovations involved the use of independent suspension in production cars and rear transaxles, which were first fitted to the Aurelia and Flaminia range.
This drive for innovation, constant quest for excellence, fixation of quality, complex construction processes and antiqued production machinery meant that all cars had to be hand-made. With little commonality between the various models, the cost of production continued to increase extensively, while no increase in demand affecting Lancia's viability. Gianni Lancia, a graduate engineer, was president of Lancia from 1947 to 1955. In 1956 the Pesenti family took over control of Lancia with Carlo Pesenti in charge of the company. Fiat launched a take-over bid in October 1969, accepted by Lancia as the company was losing significant sums of money, with losses in 1969 being GB£20m; this was not the end of the distinctive Lancia marque, new models in the 1970s such as the Stratos and Beta served to prove that Fiat wished to preserve the image of the brand it had acquired. During the 1970s and 1980s, Lancia had great success in rallying, winning many World Rally Championships. During the 1980s, the company cooperated with Saab Automobile, with the Lancia Delta being sold as the Saab 600 in Sweden.
The 1985 Lancia Thema shared a platform with the Saab 9000, Fiat Croma and the Alfa Romeo 164. During the 1990s, all models were related to other Fiat models. Starting from 1 February 2007, Fiat's automotive operations were reorganised. Fiat Auto became Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. Fiat S.p. A.'s branch handling mainstream automotive production. The current company, Lancia Automobiles S.p. A. was created from the pre-existing brand, controlled 100% by FGA. In 2011, Lancia moved in a new direction and added new models manufactured by Chrysler and sold under the Lancia badge in many European markets. Conversely, Lancia built models began to be sold in right-hand drive markets under the Chrysler badge. In 2015 Lancia's parent company Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. became FCA Italy S.p. A. reflecting the earlier incorporation of Fiat S.p. A. into Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. 1907From 1907 to 1910 Lancia cars didn't bear a true badge, but rather a brass plaque identifying the manufacturer and chassis code.
1911The original Lancia logo was designed by Count Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia. In 1910 Vincenzo Lancia asked Biscaretti di Ruffia to design a badge for the company. Vincenzo Lancia chose a round one, composed by a blue lance and flag bearing a Lancia script in gold, over a four-spoke steering wheel, with a hand throttle detail on the right spoke; the first car to bear the Lancia logo was the Gamma 20 HP in 1911. 1929In 1929 the logo acquired its final layout: the previous round badge was superimposed on a blue shield in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. Though first applied on the 1929 Dikappa, this badge was only used consintently starting with the 1936 Aprilia. 1957Beginning with the 1957 Flaminia, Lancia cars switched from the traditional vertical split grille to an horizontal, full-width one. The logo was therefore moved inside the grille opening, changed to a more stylized chromed metal open-work design.
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
A sedan — saloon — is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912; the name comes from a 17th century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette; the current definition of a sedan is a car with a closed body with the engine and cargo in separate compartments. This broad definition does not differentiate sedans from various other car body styles, but in practice the typical characteristics of sedans are: a B-pillar that supports the roof two rows of seats a three-box design with the engine at the front and the cargo area at the rear a less steeply sloping roofline than a coupé, which results in increased headroom for rear passenger and a less sporting appearance.
A rear interior volume of at least 33 cu ft It is sometimes suggested that sedans must have four doors. However, several sources state that a sedan can have four doors. In addition, terms such as sedan and coupé have been more loosely interpreted by car manufacturers since 2010; when a manufacturer produces two-door sedan and four-door sedan versions of the same model, the shape and position of the greenhouse on both versions may be identical, with only the B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. A sedan chair, a sophisticated litter, was an enclosed box with windows used to transport one seated person. Porters at the front and rear carried the chair with horizontal poles. Litters date back to long before ancient Egypt and China. Sedan chairs were developed in the 1630s. Reputable etymologists suggest the name of the chair probably came through Italian dialects from the Latin sedere meaning to sit; the same experts report that the first recorded use of sedan for an automobile body occurred in 1912 when a new Studebaker model was described by its manufacturers as a sedan.
The same American dictionary provides this description: "Sedan an enclosed automobile for four or more people, having two or four doors". There were enclosed automobile bodies before 1912. Long before that time the same enclosed but horse-drawn carriages were known as broughams in the United Kingdom, they were berlinas in France and Italy. Both names are still used there for sedans. There is an unsubstantiated claim that the body of a particular 1899 Renault Voiturette Type B was the first motor vehicle, a sedan, it was a two-door two-seater vehicle with an extra external seat for a footman/mechanic. Georgano claims the earliest usage matching a modern definition of a sedan was a 1911 Speedwell sedan manufactured in the United States. In American English and Latin American Spanish, the term sedan is used. In British English, a car of this configuration is called a saloon. Hatchback sedans are known as hatchbacks. Super saloon is used to describe a high performance saloon car where sports saloon would have been used in the past.
Saloon has been used by British car manufacturers in the United States, for example, the Rolls-Royce Park Ward. In Australia and New Zealand sedan is now predominantly used, they were simply cars. In the 21st century saloon is still found in the long-established names of particular motor races. In other languages, sedans are known as berlina though they may include hatchbacks; these names, like sedan, all come from forms of passenger transport used before the advent of automobiles. In German sedans are berlines or limousines and limousines are stretch-limousines. In the United States notchback sedan distinguishes models with a horizontal trunklid; the term is only referred to in the marketing when it is necessary to distinguish between two sedan body styles of the same model range. Several sedans have a fastback profile, but instead of a trunk lid, the entire back of the vehicle lifts up. Examples include the Chevrolet Malibu Maxx, Audi A5 Sportback and Tesla Model S; the names "hatchback" and "sedan" are used to differentiate between body styles of the same model.
Therefore the term "hatchback sedan" is not used, to avoid confusion. There have been many sedans with a fastback style. Hardtop sedans were a popular body style in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Hardtops are manufactured without a B-pillar leaving uninterrupted open space or, when closed, glass along the side of the car; the top was intended to look like a convertible's top but it was fixed and made of hard material that did not fold. All manufacturers in the United States from the early 1950s into the 1970s provided at least a 2-door hardtop model in their range and, if their engineers could manage it, a 4-door hardtop as well; the lack of side-bracing demanded a strong and heavy chassis frame to combat unavoidable flexing. The fashion may have delayed the introduction of unibody construction. In 1973 the US government passed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 creating a standard roof strength test to measure the integrity of roof structure in motor vehicles to come into effect some years later.
A station wagon called an estate car, estate or wagon, is a car body style which has a two-box design, a large cargo area and a rear tailgate, hinged to open for access to the cargo area. The body style is similar to a hatchback car, however station wagons are longer and are more to have the roofline extended to the rear of the car to maximize the cargo space; the names "station wagon" and "estate car" are a result due to the initial purpose of the car being to transport people and luggage between a country estate and the nearest train station. The first station wagons, produced in the United States around 1910, were wood-bodied conversions of an existing passenger car. During the 1930s, the car manufacturers in the United States, United Kingdom and France began to produce station wagons models, by the 1950s the wood rear bodywork had been replaced by an all-steel body. Station wagon models sold well from the 1950s to the 1970s, however since sales have declined as minivans and SUVs have increased in popularity.
Reflecting the original purpose of transporting people and luggage between country estates and train stations, the body style is called an "estate car" or "estate" in the United Kingdom, "station wagon" in American, New Zealand and African English. In the United States, early models with exposed wooden bodies became known as woodies. In Germany, the term "Kombi" is used, short for Kombinationskraftwagen. Station wagons have been marketed using the French term "break de chasse", which translates as "hunting break", due to shared ancestry with the shooting-brake body style. Manufacturers may designate station wagons across various model lines with a proprietary nameplate. Examples include "Avant", "Caravan", "Kombi", "Sports Tourer", "Sports Wagon, "Tourer", "Touring" and "Variant". Station wagons and hatchbacks have in common a two-box design configuration, a shared interior volume for passengers and cargo and a rear door, hinged at roof level. Folding rear seats are common on both station wagons and hatchbacks.
Distinguishing features between hatchbacks and station wagons are: D-pillar: Station wagons are more to have a D-pillar. Cargo volume: Station wagons prioritize passenger and cargo volume — with windows aside the cargo volume. Of the two body styles, a station wagon roof more extends to the rearmost of the vehicle, enclosing a full-height cargo volume — a hatchback roof might more rake down steeply behind the C-Pillar, prioritizing style over interior volume, with shorter rear overhang and with smaller windows aside the cargo volume. Other differences are more variable and can include: Cargo floor contour: Favoring cargo capacity, a station wagon may prioritize a fold-flat floor, whereas a hatchback would more allow a cargo floor with pronounced contour. Seating: Station wagons may have two or three rows of seats, while hatchbacks may only have one or two; the rearmost row of seating in a station wagon is located in the cargo area and can be either front-facing or rear-facing. Rear suspension: A station wagon may include reconfigured rear suspension for additional load capacity and to minimize intrusion in the cargo volume.
Rear Door: Hatchbacks feature a top-hinged liftgate for cargo access, with variations ranging from a two-part liftgate/tailgates to a complex tailgate that can function either as a full tailgate or as a trunk lid. Station wagons have enjoyed numerous tailgate configurations. Hatchbacks may be called Liftbacks when the opening area is sloped and the door is lifted up to open. A design director from General Motors has described the difference as "Where you break the roofline, at what angle, defines the spirit of the vehicle", he said. "You could have a 90-degree break in the back and have a station wagon."It has become common for station wagons to use a shared platform with other body styles, resulting in many shared components being used for the wagon and hatchback variants of the model range. Many modern station wagons have an upward-swinging, full-width, full-height rear door supported on gas springs — where the rear window can swing up independently. Wagons have employed numerous designs; the earliest common style was an upward-swinging window combined with a downward swinging tailgate.
Both were manually operated. This configuration prevailed from the earliest origins of the wagon body style in the 1920s through the 1940s, it remained in use through 1960 on several models offered by Ford, including the 1957-58 Del Rio two-door wagon. This style was adopted on aftermarket camper shells for pickup trucks, seeing that pickup trucks had a bottom half tailgate as an OEM feature. In the early 1950s, tailgates with hand-cranked roll-down rear windows began to appear. In the decade, electric power was applied to the tailgate window—it could be operated from the driver's seat, as well as by the keyhole in the rear door. By the early 1960s, this arrangement was common on both compact wagons. Side hinge: A side hinged tailgate that opened like a door was offered on three-seat wagons to make it easier for the back row passengers to enter and exit their rear-facing seats; this was supplanted by the dual-hinged tailgate. These have a retractable rear roof section as well as a conventional rear tailgate which folded
The Lancia Flavia is an executive car produced by Lancia in Italy from 1961 to 1971. Production continued as the Lancia 2000 from 1971 to 1975; the Flavia was launched with a 1,500 cc engine at the 1960 Turin Motor Show by Lancia and introduced in major European markets during the next twelve months. Coupé and convertible versions developed by Pininfarina and Vignale followed, together with one or two low volume "specials" including a Zagato coupé. Performance improved over the next ten years as the engine sizes increased, progressively, to 2,000 cc; the car remained in production until 1970 when it was updated and renamed the Lancia 2000. The Flavia was named after Roman road leading from Trieste to Dalmatia. In 2011, Fiat announced that the Chrysler 200 convertible would be sold in Europe by Lancia under the Flavia name from early 2012; the Lancia Flavia was developed by Antonio Fessia in the late 1950s, introduced for sale in the UK in 1961. Available only as a four-door saloon, it featured a 1.5 L aluminium boxer engine, Dunlop disc brakes on all four wheels, front-wheel drive, front suspension by unequal-length wishbones.
This model was soon joined by a two-door coupé, designed by Pininfarina on a shortened platform. Vignale built 1,601 two-door convertibles, while Zagato designed an outlandish-looking light weight two-door "sport" version. Only 626 of the Zagato-bodied models were built, plus three prototypes. Ninety-eight were 1500s and the remaining 512 received the larger 1800 engine; the sport version has twin carburetors for extra power. The single-carburettor engine suffered from the problem of timing chain stretch. Sprockets with Vernier adjusters were fitted to allow for chain wear, the cam timing was supposed to be checked every 6,000 miles. Early cars suffered from corrosion of the cylinder heads caused by using copper gaskets on aluminium heads; when leaving the factory, Flavias fitted either Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres or Pirelli Cinturato 155HR15 tyres. Development of the engine included an enlargement to 1.8 L, a mechanical injection version using the Kugelfischer system, a five-speed manual gearbox.
In May 1967 a rebodied version of the Berlina with a new interior went on sale, with model number 819, it is referred to as the Series II. The engines were the same as earlier, but in 1969 these were changed to a new generation with an 80 mm stroke, narrow-bore versions of the new 2-litre 820-series engine. With the introduction of the 819, the Vignale and Zagato versions were discontinued, while the coupé model was on hiatus; the coupé version returned with new bodywork, first presented in March 1969 at the Geneva Motor Show. The engine increased to 2.0 L in capacity, available with carburetion or injection, four- or five-speed gearbox. The 2.0 L models were only made with revised Pininfarina coupé and revised Lancia sedan bodies. In 1971, after Fiat took control of the company, the "Flavia" badge was discontinued as were the smaller engines, leaving only the 2000 Berlina and coupé; the Flavia was revised and renamed the Lancia 2000 in 1971. The 2000 featured Girling disc brakes, Stainless steel bumpers and, for the fuel-injected models, Bosch D-jetronic Analog-electrovalve fuel injection.
These were built until 1973 or 1974 although new models remained in stock until 1975. As with the Flavia 2000, the 2000 was only made with Pininfarina Lancia sedan bodies. Build and ride quality were superb, the durability of these cars are excellent considering the modest performance specifications; the meticulous engineering makes maintenance of these cars simple, although it can be quite expensive due to the scarcity of parts. The British Motor magazine tested a 1,500 cc car in 1961 and found it had a top speed of 92.6 mph and acceleration from 0-60 mph in 18.6 seconds. A "touring" fuel consumption of 30.0 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. On the British market it cost £1,499 including taxes of 688. By 1967 the engine size had grown to 1,800 cc. Testing a four-door Flavia, Autocar magazine recorded a top speed of 103 mph, a 0-60 mph time of 15.0 seconds and an overall fuel consumption of 30.0 miles per imperial gallon. This put it behind the rival BMW 1800 TI for performance, though ahead on fuel consumption.
The testers found it lacked low speed punch. Overall they thought the performance "pleasingly deceptive" because the car was "faster than it feels"; the UK car market was still insulated by tariffs, but with the BMW 1800 TI retailing at £1,498 and the Flavia's recommended retail price now 1,909, sales volumes were not a Lancia priority. From the dominant UK domestic market player, the mechanically less sophisticated Ford Corsair 2000E was retailing at 1,008. Lancisti.net - An Information Exchange and Support Community for Lancia Owners and Enthusiasts Web site about Lancia Flavia Lancia Motor Club
A manual transmission known as a manual gearbox, a standard transmission or colloquially in some countries as a stick shift, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a foot pedal or hand lever, for regulating torque transfer from the engine to the transmission. A conventional 5-speed manual transmission is the standard equipment in a base-model vehicle, while more expensive manual vehicles are equipped with a 6-speed transmission instead; the number of forward gear ratios is expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear stick. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any forward gear ratio at any time, but some, such as those mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear; this type of transmission is sometimes called a sequential manual transmission.
In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engine's crankshaft and spins along with it. The clutch disc is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate; when the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate and hence the transmission. As the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk; this makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, so that the gear can be shifted without damaging the transmission. When the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine. Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio.
Automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic though no distinction between the two terms need be made. Contemporary automobile manual transmissions use four to six forward gear ratios and one reverse gear, although consumer automobile manual transmissions have been built with as few as two and as many as seven gears. Transmissions for heavy trucks and other heavy equipment have 8 to 25 gears so the transmission can offer both a wide range of gears and close gear ratios to keep the engine running in the power band. Operating aforementioned transmissions use the same pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. French inventors Louis-Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor are credited with the development of the first modern manual transmission, they demonstrated their three-speed transmission in 1894 and the basic design is still the starting point for most contemporary manual transmissions.
This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases, reverse. The gears were engaged by sliding them on their shafts, which required careful timing and throttle manipulation when shifting, so the gears would be spinning at the same speed when engaged; these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that accompanied. Newer manual transmissions on 4+-wheeled vehicles have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, with "synchro-mesh" being a further refinement of the constant mesh principle. In both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a higher gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the engine allowed to slow down until the transmission parts for the next gear are at a proper speed to engage; the vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade and other such factors.
To shift to a lower gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the throttle is used to speed up the engine and thus the relevant transmission parts, to match speeds for engaging the next lower gear. For both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released; some drivers use the clutch only for starting from a stop, shifts are done without the clutch. Other drivers will depress the clutch, shift to neutral engage the clutch momentarily to force transmission parts to match the engine speed depress the clutch again to shift to the next gear, a process called double clutching. Double clutching is easier to get smooth, as speeds that are close but not quite matched need to speed up or slow down only transmission parts, whereas with the clutch engaged to the engine, mismatched speeds are fighting the rotational inertia and power of the engine. Though automobile and light truck transmissions are now universally synchronized, transmissions for heavy trucks and machinery, motor