Alfa Romeo 159
The Alfa Romeo 159 is a compact executive car produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo between 2004 and 2011. It was introduced at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show, as a replacement for the 156; the 159 used the GM/Fiat Premium platform, shared with the Alfa Romeo Brera and Spider production cars, with the Kamal and Visconti concept cars. The 159 placed third in the 2006 European Car of the Year awards. Production of the 159 ended in October 2011, around 240,000 cars were built; the 159 was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro in collaboration with the Centro Stile Alfa Romeo. The nose features a traditional Alfa Romeo V shaped grille and bonnet, cylindrical head light clusters. Similar to its coupé counterpart, the front of the car was influenced by 2002 Brera Concept by Giugiaro. A high waistline broadens. Several exterior design cues were intended to make the car appear larger to appeal to potential buyers in the United States; the interior features styling treatments familiar from earlier cars, including the 156, such as recessed instruments which are angled towards the driver.
Alfa Romeo intended for the 159 to compete more directly with BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Audi by using higher quality interior materials. Several levels of trim are available, depending on market. Four trim levels: Progression, Distinctive and Turismo Internazionale. In the United Kingdom, there were three levels of trim: Turismo and Turismo Internazionale. Among other options, the 159 was available with the Blue&Me infotainment system. A Sportwagon variant was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2006. An automatic gearbox option for the 2.4 JTDM diesel model was launched that year, extended to other versions. In 2007, a four wheel drive diesel model was released, the 2.4 litre diesel engines' power output increased to 210 PS, with a newly reintroduced TI trim level available as an option. For the model year 2008, the mechanics and interiors of the 159 were further developed; the 3.2 litre V6 model is offered in front wheel drive configuration, achieving a top speed of 250 kilometres per hour.
All model variants are equipped with Alfa's electronic "Q2" limited slip differential. As a result of newly introduced aluminium components, a 45 kilograms weight reduction has been achieved. Recent model versions were introduced in Geneva Motor Show in 2008. For the model year 2009, Alfa Romeo introduced a new turbocharged Gasoline engine badged as "TBi", this 1742 cc unit has direct injection and variable valve timing in both inlet and exhaust cams; this new engine has 200 320 N ⋅ m of torque. This unit will replace GM derived 2.2 and 1.9 JTS units. A new 170 PS JTDm diesel became available. In the United Kingdom, Alfa Romeo stopped taking orders for the 159 on 8 July 2011; the 159 was available in configurations. The "Q4" four wheel drive system utilises a Torsen type C twin differential and is available on the 3.2 litre petrol and 2.4 litre diesel engines. The gearbox is a six speed manual on most models, a six speed automatic Q-Tronic gearbox was available for the 1.9 diesel, 2.4 diesel and 3.2 gasoline models.
The Selespeed gearbox is for sale in some countries with the 2.2 gasoline engine. All gasoline engines were direct fuel injection type, named as JTS. JTD diesels are common rail direct fuel injection; the 159 is fitted with seven airbags as standard, with additional knee airbags available as an option. The car performed well in rear end crash protection tests; the 159 passed the Euro NCAP car safety tests with following ratings: Auto Bild Design Award 2006 Design Award in the 2006 Fleet World Honours Die Besten Autos 2007 Import category'L'Automobile piu Bella del Mondo Two black 159s appeared in the opening scenes of the film from James Bond, Quantum of Solace. They featured in the car chase with James Bond's Aston Martin DBS V12 around Lake Garda in Italy. Black 159s appeared in the chase scene in Johnny English Reborn, chasing Johnny English, played by Rowan Atkinson, their use may have been a reference to Quantum of Solace. A car resembling a 159 can be seen in multiple episodes of Psycho Pass.
The 159 contested the Bathurst 12 Hour race for production cars in 2007, 2009 and 2010. Competing with the 2.4 Litre JTDM diesel engine, it won the Alternative Energy Class in each of these three races. "Alfas replacement for the 156 promises to be just as stylish". The Car Enthusiast. Archived from the original on 4 April 2005. Retrieved 8 April 2005. "Italian Alfa Romeo 159 Owners Club". Retrieved 1 January 2006. Alfa Romeo 159 UK Site Alfa Romeo 159 Sportwagon Official Website Alfa Romeo 159 at the Internet Movie Cars Database
A coupé or coupe is a two-door car with a fixed roof. In the 21st century there are four-door cars with a coupé-like roofline sold as "four door coupés" or "quad coupés". Coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats; the coupé name is a French language word, the past participle of the verb couper, translating as cut. There are two common pronunciations in English: koo-PAY, the anglicized version of the French pronunciation of coupé. KOOP in American English, due to people spelling the word without the acute accent, which resulted in them pronouncing it as one syllable; this change occurred and before World War II. This pronunciation is more common in the United States, for example the hot rodders' term Deuce Coupe used to refer to a 1932 Ford; the origin of the coupé body style come from the berline horse-drawn carriage. In the 18th century, the coupé version of the berline was introduced, a shortened version with no rear-facing seat. A coupé had a fixed glass window in the front of the passenger compartment.
The term "berline coupé" was shortened to "coupé". The coupé was considered to be an ideal vehicle for women to use to go shopping or to make social visits; the early coupé automobile's passenger compartment followed in general conception the design of horse-drawn coupés, with the driver in the open at the front and an enclosure behind him for two passengers on one bench seat. The French variant for this word thus denoted a car with a small passenger compartment. By the 1910s, the term had evolved to denote a two-door car with the driver and up to two passengers in an enclosure with a single bench seat; the coupé de ville, or coupé chauffeur, was an exception, retaining the open driver's section at front. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers suggested nomenclature for car bodies that included the following: Coupe: An enclosed car operated from the inside with seats for two or three and sometimes a backward-facing fourth seat. Coupelet: A small car seating two or three with a folding top and full height doors with retractable windows.
Convertible coupe: A roadster with a removable coupé roof. During the 20th century, the term coupé was applied to various close-coupled cars. Since the 1960s the term coupé has referred to a two-door car with a fixed roof. Since 2005, several models with four doors have been marketed as "four-door coupés", however reactions are mixed about whether these models are sedans instead of coupés. According to Edmunds, the American online resource for automotive information, "the four-door coupe category doesn't exist." A coupé is a two-door fixed roof car but some manufacturers manage to fit four doors beneath coupe roofs and now describe these cars as four-door coupes. In 1977, International Standard ISO 3833-1977 defined a coupé as having a closed body with limited rear volume, a fixed roof of which a portion may be openable, at least two seats in at least one row, two side doors and a rear opening, at least two side windows. Coupés have been described as "any two-door other than a two-door sedan, smaller than a related four-door in the same model line", "shorter than a sedan of the same model" and that "all two-door two-seaters with a solid roof are coupes."Today, coupé is sometimes used by manufacturers as a marketing term, rather than a technical description of a body style.
This is because coupés in general are seen as more streamlined and sportier overall lines than those of comparable four-door sedans. Automobile manufacturers have therefore begun to use the term loosely, marketing sporty four-door models that feature sloping rooflines as coupés. Manufacturers have used the term "coupé" with reference to several varieties, including: A Berlinetta is a lightweight sporty two-door car with two-seats but including 2+2 cars. A two-door car with no rear seat or with a removable rear seat intended for travelling salespeople and other vendors carrying their wares with them. American manufacturers developed this style of coupe in the late 1930s. A two-door car with a larger rear-seat passenger area, compared with the smaller rear-seat area in a 2+2 body style. Saab uses the term combi coupé for a car body similar to the liftback. A four-door car with a coupé-like roofline at the rear; the low-roof design reduces headroom. The designation, first applied to a low-roof model of the Rover P5 from 1962 until 1973, was revived with the 1985 Toyota Carina ED, the 1992 Infiniti J30 and most with the first model 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS.
The term originated for marketing reasons. The German press accepted the concept of a four-door coupé and applied it to similar models from other manufacturers such as the 2009 Jaguar XJ. Other manufacturers accepted it, producing recent competing models like Volkswagen Passat CC, BMW F06 and a five-door coupé, the Audi A7; the German automobile club ADAC on its website adopted this concept. In Germany, the definition of the coupé was divided into the classic coupé and 4-door coupé. A two-door designed for driving to the opera with easy access to the rear seats. Features sometimes included a folding front seat next to the driver or a compartment to store top hats, they would have solid rear-quarter panels, with small, circular windows, to enable the occupants to see out without being seen. These opera windows were revived on many U. S. automobiles during the 1970s and early 1980s. A quad coupé is two small rear doors and no B pillar; the three window coupé (commonly jus
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
Alfa Romeo V6 engine
The Alfa Romeo V6 engine was a 60° V6 engine made by Alfa Romeo from 1979 to 2005. It was developed in the early 1970s by Giuseppe Busso, used on the Alfa 6 with a displacement of 2.5 L and a SOHC 12-valve cylinder head. Versions ranged from 1,997 to 3,195 cc and had DOHC 24-valve valvetrains; the original design had short pushrods for the exhaust valves in a design similar to earlier Lancia Fulvia engines. The first DOHC version was in the 1993 Alfa Romeo 164, with an aluminium alloy engine block and head with sodium filled exhaust valves; the Alfa Romeo V6 has been used in kit cars like the Ultima GTR, Hawk HF Series, DAX, as well as the Gillet Vertigo sports car. In August 2011 EVO magazine wrote that "the original Alfa Romeo V6 was the most glorious-sounding six-cylinder road engine ever," while the British Classic & Sports Car magazine described it as "the best sounding engine this side of a Maserati V8." A 2.0 L. Both carburetted 136 PS and fuel-injected 132 PS versions were available from the start.
Applications: 1983–1986 Alfa Romeo Alfa 6 2.0 V6 1984–1987 Alfa Romeo 90 2.0 V6 A 2.0 L. The engine has a bore and stroke of 80 mm × 66.2 mm. Applications: 1991–1992 Alfa Romeo 164 V6 Turbo 1992–1997 Alfa Romeo 164 Super V6 TB 1994–2000 Alfa Romeo GTV 2.0 V6 TB 1998–2000 Alfa Romeo Spider 2.0 V6 TB 1996–2000 Alfa Romeo 166 Super V6 TB The original engine displaced 2.5 L. It was a 2-valve-per-cylinder design with a single belt-driven camshaft per cylinder bank and six carburettors; the engine has a stroke of 88 mm × 68.3 mm. The Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection was added for the 1983 Alfa 6, which produced the same 158 PS; the 2-valve engine ended its life in the Alfa 155, where there were two series for this engine, the 2.5 L. Differences between them were small and only on torque and power delivery producing the same horsepower. Applications: 1979–1986 Alfa Romeo Alfa 6 1980–1986 Alfa Romeo GTV6 1984–1987 Alfa Romeo 90 1985–1991 Alfa Romeo 75/Milano 1992–1997 Alfa Romeo 155 1985–1996 Fiat Croma 1987–1989 Rayton Fissore Magnum V6 In 1982, the German Alfa Romeo dealer and tuner Gleich offered a 2.8 conversion of the GTV6 2.5 engine.
Dieter Gleich was sure that engine displacement enlargement is still the best and, for the life of the engine, the healthiest way of tuning. The engine capacity was increased to nearly 2.8 liters by using new bushings and custom-built forged Mahle pistons while the compression ratio was raised from 9.5 to 10.5:1. The 2.5 liter was rebored to 93 mm. Total displacement was 2,783.7 cc. Power produced were 191 PS at 6,300 rpm and torque 24.6 kg⋅m at 4200 rpm. The magazine "Sport driver" tested a 2.8 Gleich powered GTV6 in June 1982: "After engaging the first gear and a somewhat careless step on the gas pedal you get a touched feel to the epiphany GTV6 shot, accompanied by the typical Alfa Romeo exhaust sound. It was a pleasure; the fact was the sprint from 0 to 100 km/h is not further under the seven-second limited by a tricky-to-be-shifted five-speed gearbox. The vehement propulsion waned only when the speedometer 230 km/h mark has left behind. Another eye-opening experience awaits when you realize that the lightning speed to 7000 rpm rotating in any gear pinion in fifth gear still from 1500 rpm is smooth."
Applications: 1982 Alfa Romeo Alfetta GTV6 2.8 Gleich The original 2.5 engine as used in the Alfa 6 was bored and stroked by Autodelta, the former Alfa Romeo racing department to match the racing rules for South African and Australian championships. Bore was increased from 88 mm to a new crankshaft stroked to 72 mm; the total displacement was 2,939.5 cc and it's a different engine from the 2,959 cc that powered the 75/Milano models. It was, too, a 2-valve-per-cylinder design with a single belt-driven camshaft per cylinder bank and six carburettors. Special camshafts and carbs were used giving a power figure of 176.4 PS at 5800 rpm. Torque was 222 N⋅m at 4300 rpm, while compression ratio was 9:1. Only 174 complete GTV6 3.0 SA cars were produced in 1984 plus 68 more in 1985. The last ones were fitted with EFI; the 3.0 GTV6 was sold in South Africa in 1983-1985, predating the release of the 3.0 L displacement to the rest of the world. This engine was an Autodelta hand made conversion based on Alfa Sei 2.5 carburated engines enlarged to bore and stroke of 93 mm × 72 mm.
Applications: 1984–1985 Alfa Romeo Alfetta GTV6 3.0 SA Pulled by the racing success of the 3.0 SA engine and looking for more power to boost 75/Milano sales in countries like USA, Alfa Romeo introduced a production version of the 3.0 engine. Bore was 93 mm, as the 3.0 SA. The total displacement was 2,959 cc; as the previous engines, it was a 2-valve-per-cylinder design with a single belt-driven camshaft per cylinder bank. The main difference with the racing 3.0 SA was the use of modern L-Jetronic fuel injection system by Bosch. Power figures vary from 188 PS to 192 PS at 5800 rpm, with compression ratio 9:1; this engine was modified for transverse placement in the 164 and fitted with a high-performance camshaft and low-restrictio
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
Alfa Romeo Sprint
The Alfa Romeo Alfasud Sprint is a boxer-engined coupé produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1976 to 1989, based on the Alfa Romeo Alfasud. 116,552 units of the Alfasud Sprint and Sprint were built in total. The Sprint was sold in Europe, South Africa and New Zealand; the Alfasud Sprint was presented to the press in September 1976 in Baia Domizia, shown at the Turin Motor Show in November. Designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro like the Alfasud, whose mechanicals it was based on, it had a lower, more angular design, featuring a hatchback; the Alfasud Sprint was assembled together with the Alfasud in the Pomigliano d'Arco plant, located in southern Italy—hence the original "Sud" moniker, which means south in Italian. Under the Alfasud Sprint's bonnet there was a new version of the Alfasud's 1186 cc four-cylinder boxer engine, stroked to displace 1,286 cc, fed by a twin-choke carburator and developing 76 PS at 6,000 rpm. Mated to the flat-four was a five-speed, all-synchromesh gearbox; the interior was upholstered in dark brown Texalfa tartan cloth.
Options were limited to a quartz clock and metallic paint. In May 1978 the Alfasud Sprint underwent its first updates, both technical. Engine choice was enlarged to two boxers, shared with the renewed Alfasud ti, a 79 PS 1.3 and a 85 PS 1.5. Outside many exterior details were changed from chrome to matte black stainless steel or plastic, such as the wing mirrors, window surrounds and C-pillar ornaments. In the cabin the seats had more pronounced bolsters and were upholstered in a new camel-coloured fabric. Just one year in June 1979, another engine update arrived and the Alfasud Sprint became the Alfasud Sprint Veloce. Thanks to double twin-choke carburetors and a higher compression ratio engine output increased to 86 PS and 95 PS for the 1.3 and 1.5. In February 1983 Alfa Romeo updated all of its sports cars. Thereafter the Alfasud prefix and Veloce suffix were abandoned, the car was known as Alfa Romeo Sprint; the Sprint kept the platform of the earlier Sprint with inboard brakes, but updated body details described below.
This model was sold from 1983 in its markets & in Australia only until late 1984. It received a platform upgrade, now the same as that of the Alfa Romeo 33. Three models made up the Sprint range: 1.3 and 1.5, with engines and performance unchanged from the Alfasud Sprint Veloce, the new 1.5 Quadrifoglio Verde—1.5 Cloverleaf in the UK. The Australian market received the green striped 105 BHP model at the end of 1984 and the 95 BHP model was dropped. A multitude of changes were involved in the stylistic refresh. Bumpers went from chrome to plastic, large plastic protective strips were added to the body sides. At the rear new trapezoidal tail light assemblies were pieced together with the license plate holder by a black plastic fascia, topped by an Alfa Romeo badge—never present on the Alfasud Sprint. In the cabin there were new seats with cloth seating surfaces and Texalfa backs, a new steering wheel and changes to elements of the dashboard and door panels. Sprint 1.3 and 1.5 came with steel wheels with black hubcaps from the Alfasud ti.
The newly introduced 1.5 Quadrifoglio Verde sport variant was shown at the March 1983 Geneva Motor Show. Its engine was the 1,490 cc carburated boxer, revised to put out 105 PS at 6,000 rpm. In addition to the green bumper piping specific to the Quadrifoglio were a green instead of chrome scudetto in the front grille, a rear spoiler and 8-hole grey painted alloy wheels with metric Michelin TRX 190/55 tyres. Inside a three-spoke leather-covered steering wheel, green carpets and sport seats in black cloth with green embroidery. In November 1987 the Sprint was updated for the last time; the 1,286 cc engine was directly derived from the 33 1.7 Quadrifoglio Verde, could propel the Sprint from 0 to 100 km/h in 9.3 seconds. The coloured piping and side plastic strips were deleted, the Quadrifoglio had alloy wheels of a new design. A fuel injected and 3-way Catalytic converter-equipped 1.7 variant, with an engine again derived from a 33, was added for dale on specific markets. There were a total of 116,552 Sprints produced during its lifespan, which lasted from 1976 to 1989.
15 of these formed the basis of the Australian-built Giocattolo sports car, which used a mid-mounted Holden 5.0 group A V8 engine. The Sprint had successor. In more recent times it found an heir in the Alfa Romeo GT, a coupé derived from the Alfa Romeo 156 and 147 - t