Aga Khan III
Sir Sultan Muhammed Shah, Aga Khan III was the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili religion. He was the first president of the All-India Muslim League, his goal was protection of Muslim rights in India. The League, until the late 1930s, was not a large organisation but represented the landed and commercial Muslim interests of the British-ruled'United Provinces', he shared Sir Syed Ahmad Khan's belief that Muslims should first build up their social capital through advanced education before engaging in politics. Aga Khan called on the British Raj to consider Muslims to be a separate nation within India, the so-called'Two Nation Theory'. After he resigned as president of the AIML in 1912, he still exerted major influence on its policies and agendas, he was nominated to represent India to the League of Nations in 1932 and served as President of the League of Nations from 1937–38. Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah was born in Karachi, the capital of Sindh province in British India, to Aga Khan II and his third wife, Nawab A'lia Shamsul-Muluk, a granddaughter of Fath Ali Shah of Persia.
Under the care of his mother, he was given not only that religious and Oriental education which his position as the religious leader of the Ismailis made indispensable, but sound European training, an opportunity denied to his father and paternal grandfather. He attended Eton and the University of Cambridge. In 1885, at the age of eight, he succeeded his father as Imam of the Shi'a Isma'ili Muslims; the Aga Khan travelled in distant parts of the world to receive the homage of his followers, with the objective either of settling differences or of advancing their welfare by financial help and personal advice and guidance. The distinction of a Knight Commander of the Indian Empire was conferred upon him by Queen Victoria in 1897, he was made a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India by George V, appointed a GCMG in 1923. He received like recognition for his public services from the German Emperor, the Sultan of Turkey, the Shah of Persia and other potentates. In 1906, the Aga Khan was a founding member and first president of the All India Muslim League, a political party which pushed for the creation of an independent Muslim nation in the north west regions of India under British colonial rule, established the country of Pakistan in 1947.
During the three Round Table Conferences in London from 1930–32, he played an important role to bring about Indian constitutional reforms. In 1934, he was made a member of the Privy Council and served as a member of the League of Nations, becoming the President of the League of Nations in 1937. Under the leadership of Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah, Aga Khan III, the first half of the 20th century was a period of significant development for the Ismā'īlī community. Numerous institutions for social and economic development were established in the Indian Subcontinent and in East Africa. Ismailis have marked the Jubilees of their Imāms with public celebrations, which are symbolic affirmations of the ties that link the Ismāʿīlī Imām and his followers. Although the Jubilees have no religious significance, they serve to reaffirm the Imamat's worldwide commitment to the improvement of the quality of human life in the developing countries; the Jubilees of Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah, Aga Khan III, are well remembered.
During his 72 years of Imamat, the community celebrated his Golden and Platinum Jubilees. To show their appreciation and affection, the Ismā'īliyya weighed their Imam in gold, diamonds and, symbolically, in platinum the proceeds of which were used to further develop major social welfare and development institutions in Asia and Africa. In India and in Pakistan, social development institutions were established, in the words of Aga Khan III, "for the relief of humanity", they included institutions such as the Diamond Jubilee Trust and the Platinum Jubilee Investments Limited which in turn assisted the growth of various types of cooperative societies. Diamond Jubilee High School for Girls were established throughout the remote Northern Areas of what is now Pakistan. In addition, scholarship programs, established at the time of the Golden Jubilee to give assistance to needy students, were progressively expanded. In East Africa, major social welfare and economic development institutions were established.
Those involved in social welfare included the accelerated development of schools and community centres, a modern equipped hospital in Nairobi. Among the economic development institutions established in East Africa were companies such as the Diamond Jubilee Investment Trust and the Jubilee Insurance Company, which are quoted on the Nairobi Stock Exchange and have become major players in national development. Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah introduced organizational forms that gave Ismāʿīlī communities the means to structure and regulate their own affairs; these were built on the Muslim tradition of a communitarian ethic on the one hand, responsible individual conscience with freedom to negotiate one's own moral commitment and destiny on the other. In 1905 he ordained the first Ismā'īlī Constitution for the social governance of the community in East Africa; the new administration for the Community's affairs was organised into a hierarchy of councils at the local and regional levels. The constitution set out rules in such matters as marriage, di
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
Giulio Masetti was an Italian nobleman and racing driver, known as "the lion of Madonie" from his dominating the Targa Florio in the early 1920s. Born in Vinci, he was the older brother of the racing driver conte Carlo Masetti, both living in Castello di Uzzano, a palace in Greve in Chianti owned by the Masetti di Bagnano family since 1644. Masetti acquired his first car, a 4.5-litre Fiat S57 B14 from Antonio Ascari, in which he was fourth at X Targa Florio, won the XII Targa Florio. The next year, he won XIII Targa Florio in his entered ex-Otto Salzer 1914 Mercedes 4.5-litre 115 HP 18/100. Masetti raced an Alfa Romeo RL TF before joining the Sunbeam-Talbot-Darracq team, he was third in a Sunbeam 135 bhp 2-litre at the 1925 French Grand Prix, but failed to finish the San Sebastián Grand Prix and the II Rome Grand Prix. He died at Sclafani Bagni, during the XVII Targa Florio, while driving entry #13, a Delage 2L CV. A stone plaque is erected at the place. Since this incident, the entry #13 is no longer issued at Grand Prix events
Darracq and Company London
A Darracq and Company Limited owned a French manufacturer of motor vehicles and aero engines in Suresnes, near Paris. The French enterprise, known at first as A. Darracq et Cie, was founded in 1896 by Alexandre Darracq after he sold his Gladiator Bicycle business. In 1902, it took effect in 1903, he sold his new business to a held English company named A Darracq and Company Limited, taking a substantial shareholding and a directorship himself. Alexandre Darracq continued to run the business from Paris but was obliged to retire to the Côte d'Azur in 1913 following years of difficulties that brought Darracq & Co into hazardous financial circumstances, he had introduced an unproven unorthodox engine in 1911 which proved a complete failure yet he neglected Suresnes' popular conventional products. France entered the first World War, he died in 1931 but long before that, in 1920, the name of A Darracq & Co 1905 was changed to S T D Motors Limited. In 1922 Darracq's name was dropped from all products, the Suresnes business was renamed Automobiles Talbot and the Suresnes products were branded just Talbot.
His Suresnes business was to continue, still under British control, under the name Talbot until 1935 when it was acquired by investors led by the Suresnes factory's managing director, Antonio Lago. S T D Motors Limited known until 1920 as A Darracq and Company Limited became insolvent and was liquidated during 1935 and 1936. Alexandre Darracq, using part of the substantial profit he had made from selling his Gladiator bicycle factory to Adolpe Clément, set up a plant in 1897 in the Paris suburb of Suresnes; the company to own the business was formed in 1897 and named A Darracq et Cie. Production began with a Millet motorcycle powered by a five-cylinder rotary engine, it was supplemented shortly after by an electric brougham. In 1898 Darracq et Cie made a Léon Bollée-designed voiturette tricar; the voiturette proved a débâcle: the steering was problematic, the five-speed belt drive "a masterpiece of bad design", the hot tube ignition crude, proving the £10,000 Darracq et Cie had paid for the design a mistake.
Darracq et Cie produced its first vehicle with an internal combustion engine in 1900. Designed by Ribeyrolles this was a 6.5 hp voiture legére powered by a single-cylinder engine of 785 cc and it featured shaft drive and three speed column gear change. While not as successful as hoped, one hundred were sold. In 1902 Darracq & Co signed a contract with Adam Opel to jointly produce, under licence, vehicles in the German Empire with the brand name "Opel Darracq". Opel soon moved on to building their own vehicles. A Darracq et Cie was sold as of 30 September 1902 to an English company, A Darracq and Company Limited; the attraction for the British venture capitalists was that French automobile technology and industry experience led the world. It was incorporated in England because French law made the necessary flotation processes more difficult than English law; the perception from across the Atlantic in USA was that French industry was "offloading" on British investors. The English financial group was headed by W B Avery of W & T Avery Limited, a Birmingham scales manufacturer, J S Smith-Winby a London lawyer and a retired army officer, Colonel A Rawlinson.
They bought A Darracq et Cie and sold it again to other investors for five times their purchase price. Darracq received less than 50 percent of the shares in the new company. There was no public offering, eight other investors took up the rest of the shares. Further capital was raised and large sums were spent on factory expansion; the Suresnes site was expanded to some four acres in extent, in England extensive premises were bought. The Darracq & Co automobile company prospered, such that, by 1903, four models were offered: a 1.1-litre single, a 1.3 l and 1.9 l twin, a 3.8 l four. The 1904 models abandoned flitch-plated wood chassis for pressed steel, the new Flying Fifteen, powered by a 3-litre four, had its chassis made from a single sheet of steel; this car was Alexandre Darracq's chef d'oeuvre. There was nothing outstanding in its design but "every part was in such perfect balance and harmony" it became an outstanding model, its exceptional quality helped the company capture a ten percent share of the French auto market.
In late 1904 the chairman reported sales were up by 20 per cent though increased costs meant the profit had risen more slowly. But what was more important was they had many more orders than they could fill and the only solution was to enlarge the factory by as much as 50 per cent. 75 per cent of 1904 output was exported. At the following Annual meeting, twelve months the chairman was able to tell shareholders all the six speed records of the automobile world were held by Darracq cars and they had all been held more than twelve months and yet another had been added by K Lee Guinness, he reported that during 1905 a large property had been bought in Lambeth for examining adjusting and stocking new cars ready for the peak sales period. An announcement followed two days of a scheme of reconstitution of the company to raise more capital for further expansion; the reconstituted company was named Company Limited. Paris resident Alexander Darracq remained managing director, Rawlinson was appointed managing director of the London branch.
The "reconstitution" was to circumvent some holders of the company's shares who were unwilling to share the prosperity and blocked proposed new issues. So the company was sold, they were obliged to buy new shares like anyone else. J S Smith-Winby continued as chairman. After this "reconstitution" over 80 per cent of the shares were held in England. Meanwhile th
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Ugo Sivocci was an Italian race car driver. Born in Salerno, Sivocci started his racing career as one of the pioneers of Italian bicycle racing, obtaining a second place in the 600 km long classic Corsa Nazionale. After World War I, he worked as an auto mechanic in Milan. Being a friend of Enzo Ferrari, he was hired by Alfa Romeo in 1920 to drive Alfa in three-man works team: with Antonio Ascari and Enzo Ferrari. With the HP 20-30 ES Sport he finished 2nd in the Parma - Poggio Berceto race. In 1923 he began to drive the Alfa Romeo RL, won numerous races. In the same year, he won the Targa Florio with RL Targa Florio, his major racing achievement; the race was a great success for Alfa Romeo as fourth places were occupied by Alfa. In the same year Sivocci was killed. On the same day of the accident, a press release of the engineer Nicola Romeo announced the withdrawal of other Alfa Romeo cars competing. Sivocci's car was painted with the green cloverleaf on a white background, to become Alfa's good luck token.
His car was carrying number 17, never again assigned to Italian racing cars. Parma - Poggio Berceto race 1921, 2nd Circuit of Mugello 1921, 4th Targa Florio 1922, 9th Targa Florio 1923, 1st Corsa Nazionale 1902, 12th Corsa Nazionale 1904, 2nd Ugo Sivocci biography Tutta la storia di Ugo Sivocci
Fábrica Nacional de Motores
Fábrica Nacional de Motores was a Brazilian manufacturer of engines and motor vehicles based in the Xerém district of Duque de Caxias near Rio de Janeiro that operated between 1942 and 1988. The company was created 1942 by the Brazilian state as part of the Estado Novo agenda of President Getúlio Vargas, it was one of several business launched by the state during this period to kick start an industrial sector in Brazil. The company produced American Curtiss-Wright aircraft engines under license along with ammunition, bicycles and refrigerators. After the Second World War it was decided to diversify production; the government was keen to launch a vehicle manufacturing industry. In 1949 an agreement was reached with the Italian manufacturer, Isotta Fraschini, whereby FNM would produce the Milanese company's heavy trucks under license. Isotta Fraschini commercial vehicles enjoyed an excellent reputation at this time, but the Italian company was economically troubled, although its formal bankruptcy would be put off till the end of 1951.
The disappearance of Isotta Fraschini as a vehicle manufacturer left FNM looking for a new technology partner. In 1952 an agreement was signed with another Milanese vehicle manufacturer. Unusually in Europe, Alfa Romeo was a state owned business, following bankruptcy and a government rescue in the 1930s. Under the agreement with Alfa Romeo, FNM would manufacture Alfa Romeo's commercial vehicle range under license. Though little known north of the Alps, Alfa Romeo commercial vehicles were well established in Italy, other south European markets. Between 1956 and 1960 FNM built more than 15,000 heavy trucks of Alfa Romeo design: it manufactured the chassis for buses and coaches. In the Brazilian heavy truck sector which FNM dominated till the early 1970s, FNM was the only manufacturer. Trucks produced by FNM were nicknamed "Fenemê". In the mid-fifties a company called Fabral S. A. a collaboration between Alfa Romeo and Brazilian investor Matarazzo, was set up to build the Alfa Romeo 2000. The car was to be built in the state of São Paulo.
The Matarazzo Group backed out in 1958, following troubled discussions about the suitability of building luxurious cars in poor Brazil. After pressure from then-President Juscelino Kubitschek FNM, in which Alfa Romeo held a minority interest, took over the project. In 1960 FNM's first passenger car was launched, the FNM 2000, a Brazilian version of the series 102 Alfa Romeo 2000 four-door sedan; the factory ended up being built in the Xerém neighborhood, of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro instead. The engine was the same 1,975 cc twin camshaft unit found in the Italian product, but detuned to produce only 95 PS and the car received the FNM logo; this series of cars was named "J. K." in honor of President Kubitschek who had helped make the deal take place. This was by far the most luxurious, most expensive, car built in Brazil in the period. A coupé version was offered from 1966. Known as the FNM Onça, the coupé did not follow the line of any Alfa Romeo design, but featured an elegant locally designed body unmistakably reminiscent of the original Ford Mustang.
The regular FNM 2000, was followed by more powerful versions, culminating with the 130 PS TIMB, now boasting usefully more power than was claimed for its Alfa Romeo cousins of the time. The TIMB featured a flat bonnet with a lower-mounted grille, as suggested by Lincoln Tendler aiming a better aerodynamic penetration, a divided front bumper to accommodate the lower centerpiece; this same front design was used for the succeeding FNM 2150, with some detail differences. In 1968 Alfa Romeo acquired a controlling share in the hitherto state-owned FNM business; the next year the FNM 2000 was replaced by a restyled version, the FNM 2150, the most obvious visual differences affecting the front of the car. For this application the twin camshaft four cylinder engine saw its capacity increased to 2132 cc, performance was further enhanced through the installation of a better set of carburetors; the five-speed gearbox was the same one used in all cars made up to that moment. The FNM 2150 would continue in production from 1969 till 1974.
In 1971, another coupé called. Based on chassis and mechanics of the FNM/JK 2150 cc model, the car was designed by Brazilian designer Toni Bianco. Only a few hand built examples were produced, but the stylish coupé may have helped the public image of the by now aging design of the mainstream FNM 2150. Bianco made some sporting creations carrying his own name. Alfa Romeo had disposed of its commercial vehicle operations in Italy in the 1960s, in 1973 the FNM commercial vehicle business was sold to Fiat's industrial vehicle division, while Alfa Romeo retained responsibility for the FNM automobile business – subsequently FNM's commercial vehicle business ended up being absorbed into Fiat's Brazilian Iveco business. 1974 saw the FNM 2150 replaced with the Alfa Romeo 2300. This was the end for the FNM badged cars: the FNM badge itself inspired by the Alfa Romeo badge, was replaced on this car with an actual Alfa Romeo badge; the general look of the new car was similar to that of the Italian built Alfetta sedan, designed by Giuseppe Scarnati and first offered in Europe in 1972, although the Brazilian car was 41 centimetres longer and 7 centimetres wider than the Alfetta.
Under the skin, the 2300 was based technically on the older