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Alfonso III of Asturias

Alfonso III, called the Great, was the king of León, Galicia and Asturias from 866 until his death. He was the son and successor of Ordoño I. In sources he is the earliest to be called "Emperor of Spain." He was titled "Prince of all Galicia". Alfonso's reign was notable for his comparative success in consolidating the kingdom during the weakness of the Umayyad princes of Córdoba, he gained numerous victories over the Muslims of al-Andalus. During the first year of his reign, he had to contend with Count Fruela of Galicia, he was forced flee to Castile, but after a few months Fruela was assassinated and Alfonso returned to Oviedo. He defeated a Basque rebellion in 867 and, much a Galician one as well, he conquered Coimbra in 868 and 878 respectively. In about 869, he formed an alliance with the Kingdom of Pamplona, solidified this link by marrying Jimena, thought to have been daughter of king García Íñiguez, or less a member of the Jiménez dynasty, married his sister Leodegundia to a prince of Pamplona.

The following year, 867, Alfonso had to attend to an uprising in the eastern part of the kingdom, in Alava, vascones according to the Chronicle of Albeda, Alava according to the Chronicle of Sampiro that had revolt led by Count Eylo. Sampiro describes These events: A messenger arrived from Álava, announcing that their hearts had inflated against the king: hearing that, the monarch decided to march there. Driven by the fear of their arrival, they recognized their obligations and supplicants, lowered their heads before him and promised that they would remain faithful to his kingdom and authority, that they would do what was commanded. In this way he submitted to his power an Alava lying before him, Eylo, who presented himself as his count, brought him to Oviedo loaded with iron. Martínez Díez, p. 220 His father, Ordoño, had begun the repopulation of the border territories and Alfonso continued with it. The first successes were harvested in Portuguese lands, where King Alfonso's troops succeeded in locating the southwestern frontier on the Mondego river.

Count Vimara Perez in 868 repopulated the district. In 878, the army of King Alfonso III, with Count Hermenegildo Gutiérrez in command, faced the Muslim forces led by the emir of Cordoba Mohammad I who they had started an attack against Oporto. After defeating the emir's forces and expelling the Muslim inhabitants of Coimbra and Oporto, from both cities the Christian troops, led by Hermenegildo and repopulated, with men taken from Galicia, other cities such as Braga and Lamego. Coimbra and Viseo were conquered again in 987 by Almanzor and it was not until 1064 when they were reconquered by King Ferdinand I of León. Alfonso III had to face the offensive of the Umayyad prince al-Mundir, son of the Cordovan emir Mohamed I; the fight was constant between 875 and 883. The first Umayyad raids failed; the Christian counteroffensive was settled with the taking of Atienza. Abd al-Rahman Ibn Marwan, the Galician, Lord of Mérida and rebel to the Emir of Córdoba, sent him to ingratiate himself with him to the Minister of this, Hashim ibn Abd al-Aziz.

This caused that in 878 Al-Mundir he directed his hosts back to Leon and Astorga, while Salid ben Ganim reached the Órbigo. The great king, to avoid the union of both armies, went out to meet the second he defeated in the battle of Polvoraria, at the confluence of the Órbigo and Esla rivers. Al-Mundir undertook the withdrawal, but Alfonso III intercepted him in the valley of Valdemora, where he defeated him. Emir Mohamed was forced to sign a three-year truce, it was the first time. Both kings considered the truce as a parenthesis, preparing for the next assault: Mohamed armed a fleet to attack Galicia by sea, but was destroyed by a storm. Alfonso and Ibn Marwan descended through the Tagus Valley and defeated the army Cordovan on Mount Oxifer, next to the Guadiana River; as revenge, Mohamed attacked in the year 882 the kingdom of Zaragoza, where Alfonso had sent his son Ordoño to be educated with the Banu Qasi, sons of Musa, advancing through the ancient Roman road to Leon. There was an exchange of prisoners and the Cordovans withdrew.

They repeated the campaign in 883 with the same result. In 884 Mohamed I and Alfonso III signed the peace, since both began to have serious internal problems; the great king was met with a rising led by his brothers Fruela and Bermudo, who became strong in Astorga, supported by several counts, but were defeated and executed. In 901 the Umayyad rebel Ibn al-Qitt, proclaimed Mahdi, preached holy war and attacked Zamora - "rebuilt and repopulated by Mozarabic Toledo the most important advanced square of the Asturian kingdom" - which he was able to resist; the messianic leader, abandoned by his own, was defeated and killed in battle on what is known as the Day of Zamora. In those years, the emirate of Cordoba suffered civil rebellions, so it stopped disturbing the kingdom of Asturias, faced his former allies of Mérida and the Ebro valley: allied with the Count of Pallars, gave a coup that managed to defeat the Banu Qasi and install a Navarre, Sancho Garcés I, in the throne of Pamplona, he ordered the creation of three chronicles which presented the theory that the kingdom of Asturias was the rightful successor of the old Visigothic kingdom.

He was a patron of the arts, like his grandfather before him. He built the church of Santo Adriano de Tuñón. According to a letter of disputed authenticity dated to 906, the Epistola Adefonsi Hispa

Lynda Gammon

Lynda Gammon is a Canadian artist and educator based in Victoria, British Columbia. Lynda Gammon was born in Port Alberni, British Columbia, grew up in Vancouver, British Columbia, she received her Bachelor of Arts from the University of British Columbia and completed her Master of Fine Arts degree at York University. She is a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and is on the Board of Directors at Open Space. Gammon is an Associate Professor at the University of Victoria in the Visual Arts Department. Gammon established flask in 2004, a project dedicated to distribute and produce book works by artists and writers. Gammon's work involves a variety of forms and processes, including drawing, assemblage and installation, her work explores the differences of represented and presented spaces. She does so through her use of photography as the embodiment of flat, represented space, while sculpture is the physical, presented space. Silent as Glue, Oakville Galleries Recently Constructed Works, Mercer Union Prima Materia, McMaster Museum of Art Dormir à la belle-Camping Sauvage - Camping Sauvage, Galerie Jorge Alyskewycz Lynda Gammon flask

Colorado State Highway 109

State Highway 109 is a 65.327 mi long state highway in southeastern Colorado. SH 109's southern terminus is at U. S. Route 160 north of Kim, the northern terminus a continuation north as Grand Avenue in Cheraw; the road begins in the south at its junction with US 160 two miles north of Kim. From there the road proceeds northward for 55 miles through remote, sparsely populated land, including a section of Comanche National Grassland, before reaching La Junta, the first of only two towns along the route's length. At La Junta, SH 109 intersects US 50 indirectly via SH 109 Spur. After crossing over US 50, the road continues northward, passing the La Junta Municipal Airport, to the small town of Cheraw where the road ends by becoming a city street called Grand Avenue; the route was headed eastward to Genoa. Several new sections including spurs and extensions were added in 1939; the route was paved in several segments by 1946. In 1954, most of the route was deleted; the terminus was corrected by 1983. The entire route was paved by 1965