SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Alfonso IV of León

Alfonso IV, called the Monk, was King of León from 925 and King of Galicia from 929, until he abdicated in 931. When Ordoño II died in 924 it was not one of his sons who ascended to the throne of León but rather his brother Fruela II of Asturias; the exact circumstances of the succession upon Fruela's death one year are unclear, but the son of Fruela, Alfonso Fróilaz, became king in at least part of the kingdom when his father passed. Sancho Ordóñez, Ramiro, the sons of Ordoño II, claimed to be the rightful heirs and rebelled against their cousin. With the support of king Jimeno Garcés of Pamplona, they drove Alfonso Fróilaz to the eastern marches of Asturias, divided the kingdom among themselves with Alfonso Ordóñez receiving the crown of León and his elder brother Sancho being acclaimed king in Galicia. Alfonso IV went into a religious house. One year he took up arms with Fruela's sons Ordoño and Ramiro against his own brother Ramiro, having repented of his renunciation of the world, he was defeated and sent back to die in the cloister of Sahagún.

Alfonso had married Oneca Sánchez of Pamplona, niece of his ally Jimeno Garcés and daughter of Sancho I of Pamplona by Toda of Navarre. He had two children: Ordoño IV of León, another son, involved in a land dispute during the reign of Ramiro III of León

Psychiatrist

A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders. Psychiatrists are medical doctors, unlike psychologists, must evaluate patients to determine whether their symptoms are the result of a physical illness, a combination of physical and mental ailments, or psychiatric. A psychiatrist works as the clinical leader of the multi-disciplinary team, which may comprise psychologists, social workers, occupational therapists and nursing staff. Psychiatrists have broad training in a bio-psycho-social approach to assessment and management of mental illness; as part of the clinical assessment process, psychiatrists may employ a mental status examination. Psychiatrists prescribe medicine, may use psychotherapy, although they could primarily concentrate on medical management and refer to a psychologist or other specialized therapist for weekly to bi-monthly psychotherapy; the field of psychiatry has many subspecialties that require additional training which are certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and require Maintenance of Certification Program to continue.

These include the following: Clinical neurophysiology Forensic psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Hospice and palliative medicine Pain management Psychosomatic medicine Sleep medicine Brain injury medicineFurther, other specialties that exist include: Cross-cultural psychiatry Emergency psychiatry Learning disability Neurodevelopmental disorder Cognition diseases as in various forms of dementia Biological psychiatry Community psychiatry Global mental health Military psychiatry Social psychiatry Sports psychiatryThe United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties in the United States offers certification and fellowship program accreditation in the subspecialty'Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychiatry' -, open to both neurologists and psychiatrists. Some psychiatrists specialize in helping certain age groups. Pediatric psychiatry is the area of the profession working with children in addressing psychological problems. Psychiatrists specializing in geriatric psychiatry work with the elderly and are called geriatric psychiatrists or geropsychiatrists.

Those who practice psychiatry in the workplace are called occupational psychiatrists in the United States and occupational psychology is the name used for the most similar discipline in the UK. Psychiatrists working in the courtroom and reporting to the judge and jury, in both criminal and civil court cases, are called forensic psychiatrists, who treat mentally disordered offenders and other patients whose condition is such that they have to be treated in secure units. Other psychiatrists and mental health professionals in the field of psychiatry may specialize in psychopharmacology, psychiatric genetics, dementia-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, sleep medicine, pain medicine, palliative medicine, eating disorders, sexual disorders, women's health, global mental health, early psychosis intervention, mood disorders, anxiety disorders such as obsessive–compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatrists work in a wide variety of settings.

Some are full-time medical researchers, many see patients in private medical practices, consult liaison psychiatrists see patients in hospital settings where psychiatric and other medical conditions interact. While requirements to become a psychiatrist differ from country to country, all require a medical degree. In the U. S. and Canada one must first attain the degree of M. D. or D. O. followed by practice as a psychiatric resident for another four years. This extended period involves comprehensive training in psychiatric diagnosis, psychopharmacology, medical care issues, psychotherapies. All accredited psychiatry residencies in the United States require proficiency in cognitive-behavioral, brief and supportive psychotherapies. Psychiatry residents are required to complete at least four post-graduate months of internal medicine or pediatrics, plus a minimum of two months of neurology during their first year of residency, referred to as an "internship". After completing their training, psychiatrists are eligible to take a specialty board examination to become board-certified.

The total amount of time required to complete educational and training requirements in the field of psychiatry in the United States is twelve years after high school. Subspecialists in child and adolescent psychiatry are required to complete a two-year fellowship program, the first year of which can run concurrently with the fourth year of the general psychiatry residency program; this adds one to two years of training. In the United Kingdom, psychiatrists must hold a medical degree; these degrees are abbreviated MB BChir, MB BCh, MB ChB, BM BS, or MB BS. Following this, the individual will work as a Foundation House Officer for two additional years in the UK, or one year as Intern in the Republic of Ireland to achieve registration as a basic medical practitioner. Training in psychiatry can begin and it is taken in two parts: three years of Basic Specialist Training culminating in the MRCPsych exam followed by three years of Higher Specialist Training, referred to as "ST4-6" in the UK and "Senior Registrar Training" in the Republic of Ireland.

Candidates with MRCPsych degree and complete basic training must reinterview for

Javanese poetry

Javanese poetry is traditionally recited in song form. The standard forms are divided into three types, sekar ageng, sekar madya, sekar macapat common with the ngoko terms: tembang gedhé, tembang tengahan, tembang macapat. All three types follow strict rules of poetic construction; these forms are influential in Javanese gamelan. The most sacred are the sekar ageng; these were traditionally held to be the most ancient of the forms, but Jaap Kunst believed that the indigenous forms represented an older tradition. The ancient forms of these, known as kakawin, use meters from Indian poetry, specifying the number of syllables in each line, their vowel length, the location of caesurae. How this ancient form sounded when sung is hard to know, as the modern form has been influenced by gamelan structures, it may have resembled modern Indian or Balinese chant. The modern form of sekar ageng are always in stanzas of four lines, the number of syllables in each is fixed and divided into parts by caesurae; these indications are ordinarily indicated with the form.

According to Padmasasustra, there are 44 types of sekar ageng used in Surakarta. A sekar ageng is sometimes used as a type of buka known as a bawa, it may be supported by the gendér. Only the first line is used in the introduction, the rest may follow in the actual gendhing. Martopangrawit believes that this began only in the late 19th century, at the time of Paku Buwana IX. Sekar madya are supposed to lie between the other two genres, but there is no agreement about which genres are considered sekar madya and which are tembang macapat. Both of these, in contrast to sekar ageng, use varying number of lines of varying length, but always in a specific form. Furthermore, the vowel sound of the final syllable must match a specific pattern; the pattern of the length of lines is known as guru wilangan, guru pètungan, or guru wichalan, while the pattern of vowels is known as dhongdhing or guru lagu. In the schemes below, the number represents the guru wilangan, while the letter is the guru lagu of the corresponding line.

In addition to these formal structures, each of these forms has a specific mood. The typical use is indicated after the form for many of the structures below. Padmasoesastra listed 11 types of sekar madya forms used in Surakarta. Many of them, are no longer used; the ones in modern use are: Juru demung: 8A, 8U, 8U, 8A, 8U, 8A, 8U Wirangrong: 8I, 8O, 10U, 6I, 7A, 8A Balabak: 12A, 3É, 12A, 3Á, 12A, 3ÁTwo meters were classified as macapat forms in the past, but are now considered sekar madya: Megatruh: 12U, 8I, 8U, 8I, 8O Gambuh: 7U, 10U, 12I, 8U, 8O The common macapat forms are: Dhandhang gula: 10I, 10A, 8É, 7U, 9I, 7A, 6U, 8A, 12I, 7A. The text for these songs is used in works for the gamelan sung by the gerong. Indeed, many modern gendhing share common macapat texts Kinanthi, fit into their individual melodic pattern. Sumarsam believes that the singing of these forms led to the development of the early gendhing gerong, in the mid-19th century. Wayang performances make use of the Mahabharata and Ramayana in macapat form, created in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Kunst, Jaap. Music in Java: Its History, Its Theory and Its Technique; the Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1949. Pages 122-125 discuss the forms, is the source for the article except when noted above. Sumarsam. Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995